%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 18 0 R 24 0 R 36 0 R ] /Count 5 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140728090700+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140728090700+01'00') /Title (Jamaican Volunteers in the First World War: Race, Masculinity and the Development of a National Consciousness) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4220 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Jamaican Volunteers in the First World War: Race, Masculinity )] TJ ET BT 34.016 593.937 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(and the Development of a National Consciousness)] TJ ET BT 34.016 294.707 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(One of the strengths of the recent historiography of the First World War has been the shift in focus away )] TJ ET BT 34.016 280.451 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from the Western Front towards a broader understanding of the conflict as a world war. From Hew )] TJ ET BT 34.016 266.195 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Strachan's majestic analysis of the war as a whole, including discussions of campaigns in Africa, the Eastern )] TJ ET BT 34.016 251.939 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Front and the Middle East, to the increasing interest in the wartime experiences of nations such as Serbia and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 237.683 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Romania, this trend has served to broaden as well as deepen our understanding of this far-reaching conflict. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.427 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(One strand in this trend has been fuller explorations of the role of British imperial forces in the war, focusing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 209.171 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(less on the white dominions and more on the role and experiences of troops from India, Africa and, in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.915 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(case of Richard Smith's )] TJ ET BT 150.164 194.915 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Jamaican Volunteers in the First World War)] TJ ET BT 364.820 194.915 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, the Caribbean.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 168.659 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Smith's book falls firmly into the category of a cultural history of the First World War. Although two )] TJ ET BT 34.016 154.403 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(chapters discuss the training and deployment of the two primary Caribbean regiments, the British West )] TJ ET BT 34.016 140.147 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Indies Regiment \(BWIR\) and the older, more established West Indian Regiment \(WIR\), Smith analyses )] TJ ET BT 34.016 125.891 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(material relating to the experiences of men who enlisted, or attempted to enlist, to explore the ways in which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 111.635 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the war shaped attitudes in Britain and Jamaica towards the three themes of his subtitle: race, masculinity )] TJ ET BT 34.016 97.379 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and national identity. His sources include personal accounts, newspaper articles and editorials as well as War )] TJ ET BT 34.016 83.123 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Office and Commonwealth Office documents.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 56.867 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(While neither of the two regiments discussed was exclusively Jamaican, Smith uses Jamaican experiences as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 563.315 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 549.059 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(533)] TJ ET BT 34.016 534.803 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 520.547 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Saturday, 1 July, 2006)] TJ ET BT 34.016 506.291 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 492.035 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Richard Smith)] TJ ET BT 34.016 477.779 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 463.523 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(0719069858)] TJ ET BT 34.016 449.267 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 435.011 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2004)] TJ ET BT 34.016 420.755 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.499 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(45.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.243 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.987 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Manchester University Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.731 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.475 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Manchester)] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.219 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.963 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Jessica Meyer)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 16 0 R ] /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 7663 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a case study to argue that Caribbean soldiers experienced extensive racism arising out of imperial fears about )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the strength of black men in relation to the weakness and emasculation of shell-shocked white men. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Experiences of racism both during the war and in its immediate aftermath led in turn to the strengthening of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(black Jamaican national consciousness, culminating in the 1938 riots led in part by the 'the illustriously )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(named and flamboyantly attired, St William Wellington Wellwood Grant, a veteran of the First World War )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(who had served in the eleventh battalion of the British West Indies Regiment' \(p. 1\). Smith's book is thus as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(much a history of Caribbean nationalism as it is a history of the First World War.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The issue of racism experienced by Jamaican soldiers is central to Smith's argument and forms the focus of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(much of his discussion, serving as a unifying theme for a roughly chronological discussion that covers )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Jamaica and the outbreak of war, the recruitment of volunteers, deployment in Europe and the Middle East, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the place of the black soldier in the white imagination and mutiny. The examples of such racism range from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the rejection of early Jamaican volunteers by the armed forces and official refusal to allow black West )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Indians to hold commissions, through the on-going reluctance to deploy the Jamaican regiments in front-line )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(positions and the objectification of the black soldier as a over-sexualised and childlike, to the harsh )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(treatment of mutineers striking over pay and conditions in Taranto in 1918. Smith presents some compelling )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(evidence of discriminatory attitudes on the part of the British government and military towards the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(enlistment and service of black men, including the unequal pay that led to the Taranto mutiny and social )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(exclusion from facilities such as estaminets. Such behaviour on the part of the authorities undoubtedly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(served to undermine the identities of the Caribbean regiments as equal elements of the British imperial army )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that volunteers had been led to believe themselves to be upon enlistment. Smith's analysis of Caribbean )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(attitudes towards Field Punishment No. 1 as an experience reminiscent of slavery and therefore provoking )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('particularly strong feelings among black soldiers, who had enlisted in a war regularly portrayed in the West )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Indies as a struggle against slavery' \(p. 128\) clearly shows how racial identity inflected on experiences of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(war service.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The problem with the emphasis that Smith places on the issue of race in this context is the lack of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(comparison that he provides with the experiences of other British servicemen, raising questions as to how )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(exceptional the experiences of Jamaican servicemen actually were. Gary Sheffield has shown, for instance, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that Field Punishment No. 1 was disliked by many volunteers, being seen as a humiliating indignity. \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 522.344 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 522.344 386.163 m 528.344 386.163 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 528.344 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\) )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Many other indignities faced by Jamaican servicemen were experienced also by their white counterparts. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The experiences of labouring rather than fighting \(p. 81\), of being reduced to an impersonal element of a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(machine, lacking individual autonomy \(p. 93\) and the failure to diagnose psychological disorders in favour )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of discourses of weakness and childishness \(p. 85\) were experiences common throughout the British army )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and Smith provides little evidence that West Indian servicemen suffered more than any other group. There is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(little direct mention of race in many of the examples that he provides, with the exception of some of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(material relating to the objectification of the black body. Indeed, in one example of a man hospitalised after )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(attempting to murder a white Company Sergeant Major, Smith notes that 'There are not explicit references to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(race and colour in Shaw's medical reports.' \(p. 85\). Except for his repatriation on a ship which provided only )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(segregated accommodation, Shaw's case reads remarkably like the experiences of many British )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(psychological casualties throughout the war who were deemed by the medical establishment to be suffering )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from irrationality and lack of self-control, a point made by Smith in his first chapter.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Perhaps Smith's most extensive and successful example of discrimination toward Jamaican servicemen was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the British military hierarchy's reluctance to use either West Indian regiment in front line service in Europe. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The WIR served briefly in Cameroon before being returned to Jamaica for the duration to guard against civil )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(unrest. While the BWIR did serve in Africa and the Middle East, men from the regiment stationed in France, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Belgium and Italy were designated as labour battalions. Smith argues convincingly that these deployments )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were based on racial stereotypes of the lack of martial ability, and consequently masculinity, of the soldiers )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(involved. 'Incorporation into the brotherhood-in-arms of the Empire was,' he notes, 'conditional on the place )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(each man occupied in the hierarchies of race and class' \(p. 96\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This interpretation of men's service allows Smith to read Jamaican experiences of war as a discourse of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(gender as well as race. 'Being disarmed, or denied the opportunity to bear arms in the first place, signalled a )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 17 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 522.3437 386.4775 528.3437 398.3575 ] >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 20 0 R 22 0 R ] /Contents 19 0 R >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Length 7847 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(man had failed to meet his ultimate public duty and symbolically removed the status and rights linked to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(discourses of armsbearing.' \(p. 87\) Smith is able to demonstrate how armed service was clearly linked to a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(discourse of mature masculinity in the recruitment of Jamaican volunteers, while lack of front line service )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reduced men to a lesser status of unreliability that segued into the racist imperialist discourse of black men )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as immature and uncontrolled. Smith pushes the reading of a gendered imperial discourse further, however. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(He argues that the juxtaposition of the healthy black male recruit with the unhealthy white troops who were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(increasingly being emasculated by shell shock was an image that undermined imperial control. 'As white )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(men returned from the war mentally and physically emasculated, the black body served as "a reminder of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(what the body can do, its vitality, its strength, its sensuousness".' \(p. 102\) Only through the imagining of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(black men as over-sexualised could order be restored by emphasising their immaturity and lack of self-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(control. In addition, black masculinity was degraded through black soldiers' status as a source of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(entertainment, 'portrayed as playthings or at play to reflect their childlike status within discourses of race and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Empire' \(p. 109\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This reading of gender discourse, while convincing in terms of race, has, however, a tendency to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(oversimplify the question of the war's impact on understandings of masculinity. In focusing on men's bodies )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as the source of male identity, it ignores the extent to which understandings of martial masculinity were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(readjusted during the course of the war to reflect the challenges posed by experiences of war. While )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(physique undoubtedly remained important to British middle-class conceptions of the masculine ideal, less )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(physical manifestations of masculinity, such as the ability to endure, became increasingly important. By the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(end of the war, the ability to suffer had become a key mark of masculinity. This can be seen a section from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Alfred Horner's diaries that Smith quotes which can be read not simply as a depiction of the 'wretched state )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of white manhood', but rather as a celebration of 'the heroism of the poor wounded lads ... [whose] matted )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(hair, clotted blood, pale blue and here and there the silence of the Great Sacrifice' become symbols of their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Christ-like suffering \(p. 102\). Sight of this suffering could, according to Horner, still edify, despite the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(evidence of physical failure that it provided. Given Horner's background of muscular Christianity, this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(evocation of a masculinity ennobled by suffering presents a rather more complex picture than Smith's simple )] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(juxtaposition of black health and white weakness suggests.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Smith also relies on a discussion of the number of British servicemen suffering from psychological disorders )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to illustrate the extent of the damage to the ideal of a healthy self-controlled masculinity inflicted by the war. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(It was the existence and extent of these casualties, Smith argues in his first chapter on the wartime crisis of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(masculinity, that supported contemporary concerns of male emasculation by the experiences of war. Again, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(this is something of an oversimplification. Psychological disorders were equated with a loss of self-control )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(but that did not necessarily equate with emasculation in contemporary discourses. Indeed, a number of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(doctors expressed concerns about the hyper-sexuality and potential for violence of shell-shocked men in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(language that might bear fruitful comparisons to the imaginings of black men as uncontrolled sexual beings. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Similarly, the language of regression and childishness used by some doctors in relation to their white )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(patients would be worth comparing to the status of black men as childlike that Smith notes.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(While these comparisons might serve to reinforce some of the official concerns that Smith identifies about )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the impact of war in undermining the imperial order, the raising of gender as a discourse does add an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(element of complexity that Smith never fully addresses. By relying on the gendered interpretation of shell )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(shock presented by Elaine Showalter and Sandra Gilbert, he fails to engage with recent re-evaluations of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(these arguments, such as the critiques made by Laurinda Stryker, who argues that Showalter's reading of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(shell shock as a gendered condition is 'only at the price of some misrepresentation' \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 436.940 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 436.940 160.323 m 442.940 160.323 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 442.940 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\) and Gail Braybon, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(who notes the limited and literary nature of the sources used to support interpretations of gender relations in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(wartime. \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 83.336 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(3)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 83.336 131.811 m 89.336 131.811 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 89.336 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\) Smith exhibits something of the latter problem himself in his reliance on the works of Vera )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Brittain and Robert Graves to support his reading of white emasculation. The extent to which the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(juxtaposition of black and white masculinities affected understandings of gender within the broader context )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the war as a whole is somewhat less central than Smith presents it as being, given the complexity of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(social understandings of martial masculinities that are increasingly being exposed.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Where Smith's racial and gender analyses are far more successful, however, is in relation to his discussion of )] TJ ET endstream endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 21 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 436.9397 160.6375 442.9397 172.5175 ] >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 23 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 83.3357 132.1255 89.3357 144.0055 ] >> endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 24 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 26 0 R 28 0 R 30 0 R 32 0 R 34 0 R ] /Contents 25 0 R >> endobj 25 0 obj << /Length 7824 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the uses of martial masculinities as a tool of mobilisation both for the army and for nationalist causes. In his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(chapters on 'The recruitment of Jamaican volunteers' and 'Nationalism and pan-Africanism', Smith marshals )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and impressive array of primary material, much of it from Jamaican newspapers, to demonstrate how the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(associations between soldiering, masculinity and citizenship were deployed to encourage men to fight first )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for the Empire and then for national independence. By tracing the links between patriotism, wartime )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(experiences of discrimination and post-war experiences of economic hardship, Smith makes important links )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(between racial and national identities, arguing that it was not only the fact that hopes of equality through )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(service proved false in practice which radicalised ex-servicemen, but also the failure of the colonial )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(authorities to appropriately reintegrated them into post-war society. The treatment of veterans in the post-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(war political and economic climate, discussed in the final chapter, is particularly interesting, showing how )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('veterans' struggles to gain recognition for their wartime sacrifices took place against a backdrop of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(increasing nationalists activity and a heightened consciousness of Jamaican identity' \(pp. 157?8\). Veterans' )] TJ ET BT 34.016 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(demands for political recognition sought to define the their role as a symbol of national manhood within the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 611.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(framework of imperial allegiance that had led to veteran status in the first place, a process that, as Smith )] TJ ET BT 34.016 596.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(shows, influenced movements ranging from the Jamaica League to the Universal Negro Improvement )] TJ ET BT 34.016 582.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Association.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(As in his discussion of race, placing the Jamaican nationalist experiences within a broader context would )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(enhance Smith's argument. The politicisation of veterans and their relation to nationalist movements in a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(colonial context raises questions in relation to both the politicisation of European veterans, as discussed by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Deborah Cohen for example, \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 180.308 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(4)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 180.308 512.211 m 186.308 512.211 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 186.308 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\) and the development of national consciousness in other parts of the British )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Empire. Such comparisons might usefully draw out the effects of the particularity of the Jamaican economy )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that Smith notes \(p. 153\), while at the same time indicating some of the broader issues raised by the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(numerous problems of re-integrating ex-servicemen into civil society that were experienced by many of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(nations involved in the First World War.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Despite these reservations, this book does the field of First World War studies a service in presenting the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(history of Jamaican First World War servicemen by opening up a previously under-examined geographical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(area. The manner in which it does so is ambitious and not always successful in making its case. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Oversimplification undermines some of the assertions about gender while lack of a comparative element left )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(this reader with questions about the particularity of the Jamaican case in terms of racism and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(development of a national consciousness. It is to be hoped that, in the future, historians of the Caribbean will )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(investigate further the important relationship between wartime experiences of racism and post-war )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(developments in national identity that this book identifies, placing the history of the region more fully in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(context of the comparative history of the war.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(However, in examining Jamaican experiences of the war, this book does make its own contribution to First )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(World War historiography. It not only provides an important reminder that the British army of the First )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(World War was a colonial army, influenced by the assumptions of its imperial traditions, a fact which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(inflected the experiences of a significant portion of the men who fought in the name of King and Empire. It )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(also demonstrates the important cultural links between military service and national identity in a context )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(where issues of race place a central role. In doing so, it makes an interesting addition to the growing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(literature on the war as both a cultural and global conflict.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 169.587 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 138.970 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 138.965 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(G. Sheffield, )] TJ ET BT 128.672 138.965 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Leadership in the Trenches: Officer-Man Relations, Morale and Discipline in the British )] TJ ET BT 64.016 124.709 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Army in the Era of the First World War)] TJ ET BT 254.012 124.709 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Basingstoke, 2000\), p. 64. )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 389.672 124.709 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 389.672 123.315 m 443.660 123.315 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 110.458 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 110.453 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(L. Stryker, 'Mental cases: British shellshock ? politics of interpretation' in )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 420.644 110.453 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 420.644 109.059 m 474.632 109.059 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 96.202 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(3.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 96.197 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(G. Braybon, 'Winners or losers: women's symbolic role in the war story' in )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 425.456 96.197 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 425.456 94.803 m 479.444 94.803 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 81.946 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(4.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 81.941 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(D. Cohen, )] TJ ET BT 116.012 81.941 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The War Come Home: Disabled Veterans in Britain and Germany, 1914?1939)] TJ ET BT 494.312 81.941 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Berkeley, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 67.685 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Calif., 2001\). )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 131.012 67.685 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 131.012 66.291 m 185.000 66.291 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 41.429 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET endstream endobj 26 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 27 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 180.3077 512.5255 186.3077 524.4055 ] >> endobj 27 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 28 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 29 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 389.6717 123.6295 443.6597 135.5095 ] >> endobj 29 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 30 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 31 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 420.6437 109.3735 474.6317 121.2535 ] >> endobj 31 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 32 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 33 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 425.4557 95.1175 479.4437 106.9975 ] >> endobj 33 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 34 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 35 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 131.0117 66.6055 184.9997 78.4855 ] >> endobj 35 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 36 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 38 0 R ] /Contents 37 0 R >> endobj 37 0 obj << /Length 674 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 791.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 773.963 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 773.963 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/533)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 772.569 m 322.316 772.569 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 747.592 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 733.192 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/2947)] TJ ET BT 34.016 718.792 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET endstream endobj 38 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 39 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 772.8835 322.3157 784.7635 ] >> endobj 39 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/533) >> endobj xref 0 40 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000349 00000 n 0000000386 00000 n 0000000619 00000 n 0000000701 00000 n 0000004973 00000 n 0000005082 00000 n 0000005192 00000 n 0000005301 00000 n 0000008862 00000 n 0000008990 00000 n 0000009074 00000 n 0000009158 00000 n 0000016874 00000 n 0000017002 00000 n 0000017038 00000 n 0000017129 00000 n 0000025029 00000 n 0000025157 00000 n 0000025193 00000 n 0000025319 00000 n 0000025355 00000 n 0000025467 00000 n 0000033344 00000 n 0000033472 00000 n 0000033508 00000 n 0000033636 00000 n 0000033672 00000 n 0000033800 00000 n 0000033836 00000 n 0000033963 00000 n 0000033999 00000 n 0000034125 00000 n 0000034161 00000 n 0000034245 00000 n 0000034971 00000 n 0000035099 00000 n trailer << /Size 40 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 35194 %%EOF