%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 16 0 R 18 0 R 20 0 R ] /Count 5 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20141021190207+01'00') /ModDate (D:20141021190207+01'00') /Title (The Global Cold War: Third World Interventions and the Making of our Times) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4639 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(The Global Cold War: Third World Interventions and the Making )] TJ ET BT 34.016 593.937 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(of our Times)] TJ ET BT 34.016 294.707 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Orne Westad, Professor of International History and Director of the Cold War Studies Centre at the London )] TJ ET BT 34.016 280.451 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(School of Economics, has hitherto been best known for his works on China and the Cold War, including )] TJ ET BT 34.016 266.195 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Cold War and Revolution: Soviet-American Rivalry and the Origins of the Chinese Civil War, 1944?6)] TJ ET BT 524.324 266.195 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(New )] TJ ET BT 34.016 251.939 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(York, 1993\) and )] TJ ET BT 116.000 251.939 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Decisive Encounters: the Chinese Civil War, 1946?50)] TJ ET BT 376.304 251.939 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Stanford, 2003\). But he has taught )] TJ ET BT 34.016 237.683 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the module on Third World interventions at LSE for some years as he has built up material for the current )] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.427 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(book, and some of his research in this area has already appeared in shorter works, such 'Moscow and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 209.171 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Angolan Crisis, 1974?76' in the )] TJ ET BT 188.840 209.171 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Cold War International History Project Bulletin)] TJ ET BT 420.512 209.171 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 8?9 \(Winter 1996?7\) or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.915 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('Prelude to Intervention: the Soviet Union and the Afghan Communists, 1978?9', in the )] TJ ET BT 454.652 194.915 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(International History )] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.659 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Review)] TJ ET BT 68.672 180.659 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 16.1 \(1994\). Those two article titles reflect one of the author's great strengths: his ability to analyse )] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.403 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(specific historical events in detail, using the latest document releases from the former Eastern bloc, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 152.147 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(challenging received opinion in the process. In this book-length work he is able to expand upon those )] TJ ET BT 34.016 137.891 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(detailed case studies but also to look beyond them and draw much wider conclusions about the nature of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 123.635 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cold War in the so-called 'Third World'. It is a term Westad is happier to use than some other authors )] TJ ET BT 34.016 109.379 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(because it suggests, like the term 'third estate' in pre-revolutionary France, a group determined to assert itself )] TJ ET BT 34.016 95.123 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and find justice. He defines the Third World as 'the former colonial or semi-colonial countries in Africa, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 80.867 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Asia and Latin America that were subject to European ? economic or political domination' \(p. 3\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 54.611 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(What impresses most about his latest work is the way that it exploits not only a broad array of published )] TJ ET BT 34.016 563.315 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 549.059 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(534)] TJ ET BT 34.016 534.803 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 520.547 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Saturday, 1 July, 2006)] TJ ET BT 34.016 506.291 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 492.035 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Odd Arne Westad)] TJ ET BT 34.016 477.779 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 463.523 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(100521853648)] TJ ET BT 34.016 449.267 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 435.011 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2006)] TJ ET BT 34.016 420.755 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.499 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(25.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.243 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.987 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cambridge University Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.731 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.475 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cambridge)] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.219 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.963 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(John Young)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 7607 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(documents, memoirs, doctoral theses and other secondary sources, but also a range of archives, from the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Russian Federation, China, Serbia and Montenegro, Germany, Italy, the United States and South Africa, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(often with several archives visited in each. The mix of sources in the endnotes is rich and eclectic. This is a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(genuinely 'international' history that demonstrates a mastery of foreign languages and a willingness to work )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(on all the continents of the world \(bar, it seems, South America\) that puts many of the rest of us to shame. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Few genuine research monographs are so wide ranging chronologically and geographically, while also trying )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to absorb insights from sociology and social anthropology. Westad draws on the whole history of the US and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Soviet Union to lay the foundations of their ideological differences and their approach to external )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(intervention, and he traces the impact of such interventions down to the twenty-first century. While the main )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(title of the book may seem misleading in its breadth, the episodes that Westad discusses in detail in the book )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(range from Indochina and Afghanistan, through Angola and Ethiopia, to Cuba and Nicaragua. Inevitably, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(some of the work reflects previous findings. Piero Gleijeses, for example, has already discussed Fidel )] TJ ET BT 34.016 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Castro's involvement in Angola in )] TJ ET BT 201.176 625.397 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Conflicting Missions: Havana, Washington and Africa, 1959?76)] TJ ET BT 511.184 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Chapel )] TJ ET BT 34.016 611.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Hill, 2002\). But taken as a whole no historian has dealt with the links between the Cold World so fully, so )] TJ ET BT 34.016 596.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(broadly and so thoughtfully as Westad in this new account.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The first three chapters of the book are of an introductory nature, setting out the historical evolution of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(attitudes of US, Soviet and Third World leaders to the Cold War world. Tracing US ideology back to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(early Republic, Westad argues that the country's beliefs in individual liberty, free market economics and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('progress', led to policies of intervention in East Asia, the Americas and Africa that long predated the Cold )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(War but which became more easy to justify once Communism could be portrayed as a threat. The evolution )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of American attitudes was far from smooth, taking in as it did the existence of slavery until the Civil War, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the virtual destruction of the Native Americans and the creation of US colonies, notably the Philippines. But )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(paternalistic notions of emancipating and 'guiding coloured races' merely served to reinforce post-war )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(agendas of 'nation building' and 'development' in the Third World. As to the USSR, despite Joseph Stalin's )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(apparent scepticism, it developed its own ideologically-driven belief in an agenda of progress and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(modernisation. While its collectivist, anti-religious and anti-capitalist belief system was very different to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(American, Soviet Communism too was a product of the Enlightenment shaped by a sense of exceptionalism, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as well as its post-1917 historical experience, into a mission to shape the outside world in its own image.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(After 1945 the superpowers found themselves with a sense of destiny, enormous power, an intense mutual )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rivalry and an agenda that might appeal to Third World leaders, not least because the US and Soviet )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('empires' were \(supposedly\) to be very different in aim to the retreating European empires: 'Moscow's and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Washington's objectives were not exploitation or subjection, but control and improvement' \(p. 5\). As to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Third World leaders, they had emerged from decades or more of European exploitation hoping to throw off )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the remaining shackles of colonialism, create stable new states of their own and build a global agenda based )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(on racial equality, a just international economic system and an end to external interventions. In 1961 )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(building on the earlier Bandung Conference\) Nasser of Egypt, Nehru of India and others created the 'non-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(aligned movement' to assert their independence of both East and West. But by 1970 all the movement's )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(founders had either died or been overthrown and it had become fractured; many post-colonial governments )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(had been overthrown by the military, the West continued to exert economic domination and some Third )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(World leaders were turning to Marxism as the most promising way forward.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In chapter 4, Westad argues that it was the US that, by then, 'had done much to create the Third World as an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(entity ...' \(p. 157\). Its interventions against radicalism in Iran and Guatemala, its support for Israel, its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(interference in the Congo in the early 1960s and its support for a laissez-faire economic system that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(effectively kept much of the Third World in poverty, all served to alienate those who had supported the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(agenda of the non-aligned movement. True, the US was critical of European colonial empires and tried, for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(example, to extinguish the Dutch presence in Indonesia and the French presence in Vietnam, as well as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(opposing the British and French over the 1956 Suez expedition. But in some cases, such as Britain's anti-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(communist campaign in Malaya, the US was ready to prop up colonialism and in all areas the European )] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(departure was designed to pave the way for American sponsorship of particular types of regime. Where local )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(leaders were not prepared to follow Washington's agenda \(as with Nasser or Indonesia's Ahmed Sukarno\) )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 17 0 R >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Length 7410 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(this led to a rapid souring of relations and a tendency of those leaders to turn to Moscow for assistance, at a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(time when Nikita Khrushchev was more willing than Stalin had been to court support in the Third World. As )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(highlighted in chapter 5 this did not mean a willingness, even from self-confessed Marxist regimes, to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(behave as Soviet puppets. Far from it: in the 1960s, 'Cuba and Vietnam challenged not only Washington in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(defence of their revolutions, they also challenged the course set by the USSR for the development of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(socialism?' \(p. 158\). Mao Zedong's China had already paved the way for such independent brands of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Communism, criticising Moscow for lacking revolutionary fervour, and while Fidel Castro and Ho Chi Minh )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were happy to accept Soviet aid against the US, they were also ready to embarrass the Kremlin in the lengths )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to which they would go to challenge the West. This was at a time when, in the wake of Khrushchev's )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(overthrow, Soviet leaders had again become more doubtful about backing what were now called 'wars of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(national liberation'. For a while it seemed that the US still had the upper hand in the Third World, with the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mid-1960s seeing the downfall of Sukarno, the consolidation of power in the Congo \(Zaire\) of General )] TJ ET BT 34.016 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Mobutu and the death in Bolivia of one of the greatest of the new breed of revolutionaries, Che Guevara. But )] TJ ET BT 34.016 611.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Vietnam, of course, turned the tables, putting Washington on the defensive and encouraging Moscow to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 596.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(revive its engagement with the Third World even as it also tried to develop a policy of dtente with its arch-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 582.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rival.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(By the early 1970s events in the Third World were becoming central to the Cold War and Westad's account )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(now enters its most detailed phase. He devotes over a hundred pages to looking at the various encounters )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that helped bring an end to dtente: the Angolan civil war of 1974?6, in which Castro played a major role )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and where success led Soviet officials to believe 'the world was turning in our direction' \(p. 241\); the Horn of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Africa in the late 1970s, when war between two supposed Marxist-Leninist regimes \(Ethiopia and Somalia\) )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(alongside growing US suspicion, showed the Kremlin that intervention in the Third World was far from an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(easy business; and two dramatic events in the Islamic world that spelled difficulties in turn for both the US )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and USSR ? the collapse of the Shah's regime in Iran and the fracturing of the Marxist regime in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Afghanistan, culminating in an ill-fated military intervention by the Red Army. In both Iran and Afghanistan )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the superpowers were challenged from an unexpected and underestimated quarter: the upsurge of a militant )] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(form of Islam that rejected both liberal-capitalism and Marxism. But in the 1980s, the focus of Westad's )] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(final two chapters, the superpowers remained preoccupied in their competition with each other, the invasion )] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of Afghanistan having destroyed the vestiges of dtente. Under Ronald Reagan the US, guided by a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 371.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('neoconservative' belief in an aggressive foreign policy yet unable to use its own military forces very easily )] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in the wake of Vietnam, proved ready to work with anyone who opposed Soviet adventurism in the Third )] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(World, including the Mujaheddin in Afghanistan, the Sandinistas in Nicaragua and Pol Pot in Cambodia. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(After 1985 Mikhail Gorbachev first tried to provide 'right leadership' for Moscow's allies worldwide before )] TJ ET BT 34.016 314.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(withdrawing from the Third World to concentrate on the challenge at home. Helped by an improved )] TJ ET BT 34.016 299.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(relationship with Reagan, the Soviet leader felt confident enough around 1987 to quit Afghanistan and back )] TJ ET BT 34.016 285.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(peace deals in Southern Africa and Southeast Asia, helping bring the Cold War to an end.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(A basic element in Westad's argument is that previous historians have tended to focus too much on European )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(issues, seeing US and Soviet interventions in the Third World as some kind of 'afterthought' once Cold War )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rivalries took off. His case is that, as well as the Cold War having a profound impact on developments in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Third World, 'the most important aspects of the Cold War were neither military nor strategic, nor Europe-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(centered, but connected to political and social development in the Third World' \(p. 396, a statement that, at )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(this point, he does not limit to the period after 1974\). Some will see this as an exaggeration. While historians )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(may have failed to trace US interests in Africa back early enough, attention has been paid to long-term )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ideological factors in shaping US policy, and events in Korea, Cuba and Vietnam have long been central to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(accounts of the Cold War in the 1950s and 1960s. One good reason why historians have not yet written )] TJ ET BT 34.016 130.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(much on the Third World in the period on which Westad provides most detail, the 1970s and 1980s, is that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 116.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(these decades are only just opening to archival research.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(To prove his point Westad perhaps needed say more, not just about why he thinks the Third World was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(important to the Cold War, but also why Europe and strategic factors were less vital than many believe. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(relationship between Third World interventions and the nuclear balance would certainly have been worth )] TJ ET endstream endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 19 0 R >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Length 7339 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(exploring. In particular, how far was the Kremlin's willingness to pursue a more forthright policy in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1970s influenced not only by the Vietnam experience but by the reduced dangers of an American nuclear )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(response after a situation of 'Mutual Assured Destruction' was achieved? Was it not the case that the Nixon )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(administration pursued Strategic Arms Limitation Talks \(SALT\) as part of a process of 'linkage', whereby )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Soviets were to be rewarded with nuclear arms control in return for behaving themselves in the Third )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(World \(rather than exploiting America's embarrassment in Vietnam\)? As it is, while Westad makes it clear )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that Moscow never intended the dtente process to compromise its support for Third World regimes, nuclear )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(weapons and the SALT process are only mentioned a few times.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Westad's definition of 'intervention' is sufficient for his purposes: 'any concerted and state-led effort by one )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(country to determine the political direction of another country'. But, as he concedes at the outset \(pp. 3?4\), it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is also general enough to cover many more cases of US and Soviet activity in the Third World than those )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(covered in the book. Using a lack of space to excuse this is understandable, yet issues surrounding the notion )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of 'intervention' need to be explored further in future. There is a particular danger in choosing episodes to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(suit a particular thesis. Interventions that are covered rather briskly include the US interventions in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Dominican Republic in 1965 and Grenada in 1983, and the US-supported overthrow of Salvador Allende in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Chile. But to take one example of an episode that is not covered at all: the Nigerian civil war of 1967?70, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(only a few years after the Congo crisis, saw the post-Khrushchev Politburo making large-scale arms supplies )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to the government side against the secession of 'Biafra'. Yet the US took a neutral role here, if anything )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(leaning towards the government side, while America's British ally also provided the government with arms. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Oddly, the only major power to aid the Biafrans was France. This hardly suggests a simple pattern of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(intervention in Third World. More could also be said on instances where the superpowers chose not to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(intervene. Westad himself notes that the USSR was limited in its interest in the colonial world before )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Khrushchev and rather reluctant to intervene in the Third World in the decade following his downfall. But it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is also clear that US Presidents chose not to intervene at times, even when there were good reasons to do so: )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Truman did not try to save Nationalist China in 1946?9; Eisenhower would not act to prevent the creation of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(North Vietnam in 1954; Kennedy resisted pressures to intervene in Laos in 1961?2. It would be valuable to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(know more about why ideological considerations and mutual rivalry did not drive the superpowers into a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(more forthright policy all the time.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(As one would expect from Cambridge University Press, the book is very well presented, including ten maps, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ten photographs and five reproductions of posters or propaganda pictures, but the absence of a bibliography )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is difficult to understand. A list of the major archive collections that Professor Westad has exploited would )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(have been especially useful as a ready reference for what some of the abbreviations in the endnotes stand )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for: as it is, one has to look back to the first time the Foreign Policy Archives of the Russian Federation are )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mentioned to discover that this is where the documents listed as AVPRF are located. Typographical errors )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(are very few. Greeks might be offended to find themselves included as living in a 'third world' state )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(according to the map on page 116, which also refers to a US intervention in Panama in 1958 that is not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(otherwise mentioned in the book. Among some inconsistencies, one especially should be drawn out: there )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(are hints \(p. 405\) that, for all his criticism of the destructiveness of most American interventions, Westad is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(not opposed to an active policy where this suits a particular agenda: Clinton, its seems, should have done )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(more to tackle poverty, reduce debt and resolve the Palestinian issue. But if so-many ill-fated interventions )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were driven by the best of motives, why should any US attempt to shape the world along any lines be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(acceptable? Coverage of the 1990s is also rather cursory, as with the interpretation that the end of the Cold )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(War led to a slackening of the pace of intervention \(pp. 404?5\). Surely, in Panama, the Kuwait War and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Somalia, George Bush Senior had his fair share of interventions and it was the disaster in Somalia, as much )] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as a focus on the domestic agenda, that led to greater caution under Clinton, who nonetheless ultimately )] TJ ET BT 34.016 130.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(became involved in Haiti, Bosnia and Kosovo as well as preaching against 'rogue states'. In the last analysis, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 116.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(however, the few flaws cannot detract from the fact that this is a truly seminal work, whose findings will )] TJ ET BT 34.016 102.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(exercise those researching the Cold War for many years.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.181 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 57.199 526.499 1.500 re S endstream endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 22 0 R ] /Contents 21 0 R >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Length 551 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/534)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 795.075 m 322.316 795.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 770.098 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.698 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/2949)] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.298 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET endstream endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 23 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 795.3895 322.3157 807.2695 ] >> endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/534) >> endobj xref 0 24 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000349 00000 n 0000000386 00000 n 0000000584 00000 n 0000000666 00000 n 0000005357 00000 n 0000005466 00000 n 0000005576 00000 n 0000005685 00000 n 0000009246 00000 n 0000009374 00000 n 0000009458 00000 n 0000009523 00000 n 0000017183 00000 n 0000017248 00000 n 0000024711 00000 n 0000024776 00000 n 0000032168 00000 n 0000032252 00000 n 0000032855 00000 n 0000032983 00000 n trailer << /Size 24 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 33078 %%EOF