%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 18 0 R 20 0 R 22 0 R ] /Count 4 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140818200115+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140818200115+01'00') /Title (The Playful Crowd. Pleasure Places in the Twentieth Century) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R 14 0 R 16 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 5062 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(The Playful Crowd. Pleasure Places in the Twentieth Century)] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.603 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The crowd as a historical social phenomenon has of late been a much-neglected subject. Modern analyses of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.347 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the crowd will be for ever be associated with the 'history from below' era of the 1960s, in which historians )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.091 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(refuted the long-held position that the crowd could foster a primeval and psychological changing influence )] TJ ET BT 34.016 301.835 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(on its participants. \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 129.344 301.835 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 129.344 300.441 m 135.344 300.441 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 135.344 301.835 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\) This challenge to what was essentially the Le Bon theory of crowd psychology )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.579 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(stressed how crowd behaviour was grounded in cultural traditions and was often restrained, targeting )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(specific institutions or individuals that had transgressed local customs. \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 379.328 273.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 379.328 271.929 m 385.328 271.929 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 385.328 273.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\) Since the 1980s, however, greater )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(emphasis on cultural diversity, via the analysis of events through the principal categories of class, gender )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and generation, has led historians away from the crowd and its actions. Seen in these terms, the crowd )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(becomes an unwieldy concept that is insensitive to the gendered and generational nuances that exist within )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and between social classes. The neglect of the crowd, then, has been the unfortunate by-product of recent )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(trends in social history. Yet crowds did exist, particularly in the field of mass commercial leisure and in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(bucking recent historical trends Gary Cross and John Walton's ambitious study of 'playful crowds' in Britain )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and the United States should be wholeheartedly welcomed.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In )] TJ ET BT 47.012 147.275 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Playful Crowd)] TJ ET BT 138.356 147.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, Cross and Walton have produced a fascinating account of the changing nature of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.019 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(pleasure-seeking crowd in the US and Britain during the twentieth century. The book's central tenet is that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(broad patterns of behaviour and the contextual meanings of 'playful' crowds changed considerably during the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.507 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(twentieth century in both the US and Britain. To demonstrate the nature of these changes, Cross and Walton )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.251 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(present four case studies of pleasure sites that provide an insight into the different schemes adopted by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 75.995 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(entertainment providers and the changing demands of pleasure-seekers across the twentieth century. Thus )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.739 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for the early twentieth century, Coney Island and Blackpool are identified as the pleasure sites that were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.699 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(536)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.187 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.931 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Saturday, 1 July, 2006)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.675 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.419 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(0231127243)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.163 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.907 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2005)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.651 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.395 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(21.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.139 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.883 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Columbia University Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.627 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.371 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(New York, NY)] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.115 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.859 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Brad Beaven)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 15 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 129.3437 300.7555 135.3437 312.6355 ] >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 17 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 379.3277 272.2435 385.3277 284.1235 ] >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 19 0 R >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Length 7457 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reaching their zenith during this period only to experience a nadir after the Second World War. The pleasure )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(crowds of the second half of the twentieth century are explored through Disneyland in Southern California )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and the less obvious choice of Beamish, a living museum in County Durham.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The book is broadly structured in two sections; the first focuses on the early twentieth-century crowd, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contrasting Blackpool and Coney Island, while the second investigates the modern affluent crowd at )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Disneyland and Beamish. In structuring the book the authors could easily have taken the less scholarly route )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of devoting a chapter to each pleasure site, providing a grand conclusion at the end of the study. Instead, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cross and Walton synthesise the material under key themes that identify the origins of the pleasure centres, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(crowd behaviour and its critics, and the decline and/or development of the resorts or theme parks. This )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(makes for a truly comparative study and in turn advances debates on how British and North American )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(crowds behaved and were viewed by contemporaries in the twentieth century. In selecting four pleasure )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sites, the authors also recognise that they are analysing a particular type of crowd that visited resorts or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(theme parks for experiences that would contrast, relieve and yet often confirm their ordinary work lives. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thus, as Cross and Walton state, 'this liberation from and yet reconciliation with the everyday is what made )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(their visitors into playful crowds' \(p. 5\). They also note that human culture has produced numerous versions )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the playful crowd such as the Roman Saturnalia, the early modern feasts and modern sporting and leisure )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(events. While these crowds differed, all these events reveal an insight into a particular age, society and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(culture. For Cross and Walton the aim 'is to explore the distinctive version of the playful crowd that came to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(culminate in the early twentieth century ? what we call the industrial saturnalia ? and how it was transformed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(across the course of that century' \(p. 5\). In introducing the concept of the industrial saturnalia, the authors )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(certainly capture the characteristics and behaviour of the playful crowd of the early twentieth century on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(both sides of the Atlantic. The book offers a persuasive argument that the industrial saturnalia occurred )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(during a unique period in which maturing industrial societies offered more mechanised and mass )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(commercial entertainment at specified resorts.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The sections on Blackpool and Coney Island are the most interesting and convincing arguments in the book. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Here we learn that both pleasure sites symbolised the era combining popular modernity, mass entertainment, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and mass consumption with a new collective experience. However, older strands of entertainment such as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(music halls, freak shows and risqu amusement still found outlets in these modern leisure resorts. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Significantly, these modern crowds also behaved in a hybrid fashion, continuing to enjoy the collective )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(participation and excitement of the throng, but replacing aggressive sports and the mocking of authority with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the thrill of mechanised rides. Both resorts also reflected class and cultural divisions in British and US )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(society. Working-class visitors on both sides of the Atlantic were attracted to the resorts both for thrill-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(seeking and escapism from everyday life. Indeed, the excitement and simulated danger of the resort was an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(antidote to modern experiences of industrial work, with its monotonous work schedules and its emphasis on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(strict labour discipline. Conversely, another attraction of these resorts was their physical resemblance to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(working-class life. The crowded streets, the industrial-like mechanised rides and, in the case of Blackpool, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(row upon row of lodging houses resembled the industrial urban centres they had originated from.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(For the middle class, leisure took another form, accentuating the family and the desire to leave the bustling )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(city crowds and instead enjoy the solitude of the countryside. The authors, however, are careful to nuance )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(their findings as it is clear that the Blackpool and Coney crowds were not homogenous working-class )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(entities but an 'expression of jumbled tastes and interests that crossed class and gender lines'. However, to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(assert that this was 'unusual' in a modern industrial society is questionable \(p. 63\). One could argue that the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(popular culture associated with music hall was just as jumbled in content and audience. For example, in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(music hall industry, middle-class writers produced the music and sketches, often based on working-class )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(life, that were performed by newly created national 'stars'. Indeed, like the Blackpool and Coney resorts, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(while there was a strong working-class attraction to the music hall, performers were watched by a mixture of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(classes, genders and generations.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Although the British and North American crowds shared a number of similarities, Cross and Walton also )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(identify some important contrasts in popular tastes, demography and political contexts. In terms of popular )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(tastes, American entertainment was often themed and illusionary, with rides that would promise to take the )] TJ ET endstream endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 21 0 R >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Length 7413 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(pleasure-goer to witness at first hand the terror of a tenement fire or even take their visitors to death and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(afterlife with a tour of hell. The Pleasure Beach at Blackpool shied away from such controversies. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(resort, in many respects, resembled the industrial Lancashire landscape, so reminders of disasters and death )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(would hardly have been appropriate for the pleasure-seeking proletariat familiar with tragedies in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(workplace. Along with popular tastes, demographic differences also helped foster a divergence between the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(two resorts. Coney's close proximity to New York, nine miles east of Manhattan, ensured that the resort )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(enjoyed a varied social and ethnic mix. This was in contrast to Blackpool, where the industrial population of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Lancashire was less diverse. Whole communities would take advantage of the local wake weeks to make )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(extended visits to Blackpool, giving the resort a sense of community and loyalty that perhaps did not exist in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Coney. Indeed, Cross and Walton suggest that one of the principal reasons for Coney's decline and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Blackpool's continuing success during the interwar period and beyond was a stable population in the region. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(While the American crowd in Coney was in a continuous state of change and migration, Blackpool visitors )] TJ ET BT 34.016 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were largely drawn from a relatively homogenous northern working class, allowing holidaying traditions to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 611.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(filter down the generations.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Finally, an important divergence that Cross and Walton uncover is the very different critical reception the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(resorts received from their respective intellectual elites. Coney Island generated sustained criticism from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(middle-class intellectuals and reformers during the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. Middle-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(class observers saw the resort as a centre of hedonism, in which workers were released from society's normal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(codes of conduct. At the same time, critics were concerned that the amusements would engender a passivity )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and apathy that did not bode well for active citizenship \(p. 100\). By the early twentieth century, however, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(British, bourgeois intellectuals were more relaxed about the pleasure-seeking crowd. The most vocal critics )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(came from working-class organisations and left-wing commentators who saw Blackpool as a culture of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(consolation where workers could 'go on the loose' and escape from the everyday problems that blighted their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(lives. Drawing from similar sentiments expressed across the Atlantic, socialists feared that a passive leisure )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(culture would divert working-people from the political solutions that they were offering.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(While Coney and Blackpool shared many similarities, then, some of these key differences played an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(important role in Coney's decline and Blackpool's longevity during the first half of the twentieth century. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The authors argue that in America middle-class sensibilities became more accepted and, while the crowd did )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(not disappear, its unpredictability, dirt and hedonist quality was gradually phased out. A greater emphasis )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was placed on family clusters and child-centred entertainment. This proved the death knell for Coney and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(opened up opportunities for Disney. In Britain, Blackpool continued to hold on to its adult appeal, though )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(alternative popular venues emerged such as stately homes and living museums that emphasised the family )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and educational experience.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The second half of the book shifts attention to what effectively replaced the industrial saturnalia of Coney )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Island and, to a lesser extent, Blackpool. Disneyland, which opened in 1955 in Southern California, has long )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(been the centre of a debate between 'defenders of a populist commercialism and the jeremiads against )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(consumerist modernity' \(p. 168\). Cross and Walton offer a more complex position arguing that while Disney )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rejected the seediness and chaotic crowds of Coney in favour of orderly family entertainment, he did borrow )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(explicitly from strands of the industrial saturnalia which emphasised cultural inversion. Thus 'Disney's )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(saturnalia was expressed not in the childlike play of young adults breaking from work and family constraints )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(but in the child-centred play of families seeking temporary escape from a world of suburban consumerism )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(while encountering it again in a different form' \(p. 169\). Disney appealed overtly to middle-class )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sensibilities. Instead of the risqu and exotic, he offered the cute and cartoonish; the shady staff of Coney )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contrasted with the 'clean cut and normal' appearance of Disney staff; in place of the seedy competition stalls )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Disney presented integrated, themed and meticulously planned attractions. Of course the pricing policy, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which is perhaps a little underplayed in the book, also helped Disney filter out the undesirable elements of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the crowd. By eliminating the 'free-loading' poor, Disney not only maximised their profits but also reassured )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(middle-class families of their personal safety in the crowd.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(While Cross and Walton argue that Disney represented a 'triumph of the genteel over the plebeian crowd', a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(different story emerges in Britain where Blackpool continued to attract the crowds during the second half of )] TJ ET endstream endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 24 0 R 26 0 R 28 0 R 30 0 R 32 0 R 34 0 R 36 0 R 38 0 R 40 0 R ] /Contents 23 0 R >> endobj 23 0 obj << /Length 7956 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the twentieth century. However, the Beamish living museum, along with a number of other heritage sites, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sought to challenge the pleasure-seeking ethic of traditional industrial saturnalia. Beamish, it is argued, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(represented the antithesis of both the hedonism of the industrial saturnalia and the fantasy world of Disney. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Instead, the Beamish crowds were invited to experience reconstructions of ordinary working life in the early )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1900s in order to appreciate and value their own heritage. This form of entertainment was not new and had )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(its roots in the nineteenth century-rational recreation movement that sought to educate and elevate the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(working class through wholesome leisure pursuits. However, as Cross and Walton rightly argue, Beamish )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was far from isolated from the Disney phenomenon and became embroiled in debates about the relationship )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(between commercialism and education and the type of 'romanticised' history it was portraying. Thus 'it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(became the focal point of tensions between history and nostalgia, between the museum and theme park' \(p. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(206\). Interestingly, in 2004 \(perhaps too late to include in the book\) initiatives to boost visitors enraged )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Beamish founder Frank Atkinson who condemned plans to build a 300 room hotel at the site. Atkinson )] TJ ET BT 34.016 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(complained that 'these proposals will dilute and distort the purpose of Beamish' and 'are practically )] TJ ET BT 34.016 611.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(proposing to turn it into a Disney-type theme park'. \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 286.820 611.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(3)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 286.820 609.747 m 292.820 609.747 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 292.820 611.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(There can be little doubt that Cross and Walton provide a convincing account of the aims and values that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(underpinned Beamish. However, one is left wondering whether a case study of a modern theme park that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(seriously rivalled the Blackpool phenomenon might have made their argument even more compelling. After )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(all, Beamish and its like are fairly minor players in the leisure industries with approximately 350,000 yearly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(visitors compared to 6.2 million who annually visit Blackpool. \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 341.684 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(4)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 341.684 526.467 m 347.684 526.467 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 347.684 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\) Alton Towers, on the other hand, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(transformed its site into a theme park with the latest thrill rides during the 1970s and 1980s and now attracts )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(over 2.5 million visitors every year. \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 212.660 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(5)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 212.660 497.955 m 218.660 497.955 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 218.660 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\) It would have perhaps been interesting to discover whether this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(relatively new leisure attraction continued to draw from an older industrial saturnalia or whether the Disney )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(factor had a bearing on the park's ethos. To be fair, Cross and Walton justify the Beamish investigation as a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(study of a very different 'British' crowd that was a far cry from the football or Blackpool crowd but a 'viable, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(if less popular path from the world of both industrial saturnalia and the gentility of 1900' \(p. 236\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(There can be no doubt that Cross and Walton have produced a study that will stand the test of time providing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(an excellent example of how the history of leisure should be written. The book is a truly comparative work, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(expertly contextualised and draws from an impressive range of primary and secondary sources. )] TJ ET BT 493.904 387.557 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Playful )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Crowd)] TJ ET BT 66.692 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( is an invaluable contribution to the fields of leisure, popular culture and consumerism in Britain and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the US in the twentieth century. Over the years, Cross and Walton have independently produced important )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and thought provoking studies of leisure and society; )] TJ ET BT 291.332 344.789 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Playful Crowd)] TJ ET BT 382.676 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( is no exception.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 309.891 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 279.274 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 279.269 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(G. Rude. )] TJ ET BT 110.012 279.269 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Crowd in History: a Study of Popular Disturbances in France and England, 1730?1848)] TJ ET BT 64.016 265.013 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1964\). )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 102.008 265.013 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 102.008 263.619 m 155.996 263.619 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 250.762 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 250.757 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(P. Bailey, )] TJ ET BT 114.020 250.757 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Popular Culture and Performance in the Victorian City)] TJ ET BT 381.020 250.757 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Cambridge, 1998\). )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 481.340 250.757 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 481.340 249.363 m 535.328 249.363 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 236.506 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(3.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 236.501 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Newcastle Journal)] TJ ET BT 174.680 236.501 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 3 August 2004. )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 257.348 236.501 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 257.348 235.107 m 311.336 235.107 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 222.250 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(4.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 222.245 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(See )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 84.344 222.245 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 84.344 220.851 m 138.332 220.851 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 207.994 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(5.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 207.989 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Guardian)] TJ ET BT 131.684 207.989 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 30 April 2005. )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 211.016 207.989 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(5\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 211.016 206.595 m 265.004 206.595 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 181.733 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 167.477 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 162.751 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 144.971 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 144.971 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/536)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 143.577 m 322.316 143.577 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 118.600 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.200 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/2953)] TJ ET BT 34.016 89.800 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET endstream endobj 24 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 25 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 286.8197 610.0615 292.8197 621.9415 ] >> endobj 25 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 26 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 27 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 341.6837 526.7815 347.6837 538.6615 ] >> endobj 27 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 28 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 29 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 212.6597 498.2695 218.6597 510.1495 ] >> endobj 29 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 30 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 31 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 102.0077 263.9335 155.9957 275.8135 ] >> endobj 31 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 32 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 33 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 481.3397 249.6775 535.3277 261.5575 ] >> endobj 33 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 34 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 35 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 257.3477 235.4215 311.3357 247.3015 ] >> endobj 35 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 36 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 37 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 84.3437 221.1655 138.3317 233.0455 ] >> endobj 37 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 38 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 39 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 211.0157 206.9095 265.0037 218.7895 ] >> endobj 39 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 40 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 41 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 143.8915 322.3157 155.7715 ] >> endobj 41 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/536) >> endobj xref 0 42 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000342 00000 n 0000000379 00000 n 0000000562 00000 n 0000000658 00000 n 0000005772 00000 n 0000005881 00000 n 0000005991 00000 n 0000006100 00000 n 0000009661 00000 n 0000009789 00000 n 0000009873 00000 n 0000010001 00000 n 0000010037 00000 n 0000010165 00000 n 0000010201 00000 n 0000010266 00000 n 0000017776 00000 n 0000017841 00000 n 0000025307 00000 n 0000025447 00000 n 0000033456 00000 n 0000033584 00000 n 0000033620 00000 n 0000033748 00000 n 0000033784 00000 n 0000033912 00000 n 0000033948 00000 n 0000034076 00000 n 0000034112 00000 n 0000034240 00000 n 0000034276 00000 n 0000034404 00000 n 0000034440 00000 n 0000034567 00000 n 0000034603 00000 n 0000034731 00000 n 0000034767 00000 n 0000034895 00000 n trailer << /Size 42 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 34990 %%EOF