%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 22 0 R 24 0 R 26 0 R 32 0 R ] /Count 5 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140930180823+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140930180823+01'00') /Title (Making English Morals: Voluntary Association And Moral Reform In England, 1787-1886) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R 14 0 R 16 0 R 18 0 R 20 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 5160 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Making English Morals: Voluntary Association And Moral Reform )] TJ ET BT 34.016 593.937 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(In England, 1787-1886)] TJ ET BT 34.016 294.707 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Middle-class reform initiatives have long fascinated historians of Georgian and Victorian Britain. Some took )] TJ ET BT 34.016 280.451 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(their cue from the radical critique embodied in William Cobbett's contemporary attack on the 'Subscription )] TJ ET BT 34.016 266.195 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Tribe', who gave charity soup kitchens but denied political rights.\()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 352.472 266.195 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 352.472 264.801 m 358.472 264.801 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 358.472 266.195 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\) Thus the Hammonds inveighed in 1917 )] TJ ET BT 34.016 251.939 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(against evangelical benevolence as the 'conscience of the rich' which legitimated the 'toleration of abuses and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 237.683 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cruelties'.\()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 83.828 237.683 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 83.828 236.289 m 89.828 236.289 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 89.828 237.683 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\) Similar suspicions ran through the literature of the 1970s, with its emphasis on the exertion of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.427 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(social control through the medium of educational charity and the reform of popular leisure. Others viewed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 209.171 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(such enterprises not through the spectacles of class conflict but rather as representative of an emerging social )] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.915 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(consensus, manifested, for example, in the temperance movement or the churches' social mission: voluntary )] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.659 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(associations were therefore a formative element of the mid-Victorian 'peacable kingdom'.\()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 467.228 180.659 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(3)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 467.228 179.265 m 473.228 179.265 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 473.228 180.659 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\) In the last )] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.403 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(twenty years various trends have converged to sustain and further this interest. Welfare historians have )] TJ ET BT 34.016 152.147 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(increasingly turned away from linear narratives of state advance to reinstate the 'moving frontier' between )] TJ ET BT 34.016 137.891 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(state and voluntary sector as an ongoing and integral element of social reform.\()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 414.272 137.891 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(4)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 414.272 136.497 m 420.272 136.497 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 420.272 137.891 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\) Urban historians have )] TJ ET BT 34.016 123.635 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conducted studies of provincial towns which show how institutions of civil society could both enact social )] TJ ET BT 34.016 109.379 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cleavage and ensure stability by creating economic and social networks. Meanwhile those concerned with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 95.123 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the making of middle-class identity have shown how the new subscription associations were key to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 80.867 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(forging of social and gender norms.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 54.611 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(M. J. D. Roberts's )] TJ ET BT 123.176 54.611 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Making English Morals)] TJ ET BT 237.176 54.611 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( is an important new contribution to this literature, aiming as it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 563.315 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 549.059 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(538)] TJ ET BT 34.016 534.803 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 520.547 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Saturday, 1 July, 2006)] TJ ET BT 34.016 506.291 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 492.035 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(M. J. D. Roberts)] TJ ET BT 34.016 477.779 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 463.523 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(0521833892)] TJ ET BT 34.016 449.267 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 435.011 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2004)] TJ ET BT 34.016 420.755 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.499 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(48.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.243 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.987 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cambridge University Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.731 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.475 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cambridge)] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.219 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.963 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Martin Gorsky)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 15 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 352.4717 265.1155 358.4717 276.9955 ] >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 17 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 83.8277 236.6035 89.8277 248.4835 ] >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 19 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 467.2277 179.5795 473.2277 191.4595 ] >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 21 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 414.2717 136.8115 420.2717 148.6915 ] >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 23 0 R >> endobj 23 0 obj << /Length 7610 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(does for the type of synthesis achieved in the work of scholars such as Peter Clarke on early modern clubs )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and societies, Frank Prochaska on philanthropy and R. J. Morris on voluntary association. Its distinctive )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(feature is a close focus on a particular field of activity - moral reform. Roberts defines his subject using the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(self-delineation of the temperance movement: that is, as something distinct from educational, medical and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(eleemosynary charity, as well as from religious evangelising and from partisan political association. In )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(practice this means not just opposition to drink, but also societies for the prosecution of vice, the promotion )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of sabbatarianism and social purity, the prevention of cruelty to children and animals and the organisation, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rather than the transmission, of charity. Of course, this choice of themes cannot hope to catch all the ways in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which moral reform voluntarism sought to mould values and behaviour. Such motives surely inspired other )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(kinds of philanthropists and proselytisers, from the sponsors of the most modest Dorcas society or day )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(school to the patrons of the grandest voluntary hospital. Nor, as Roberts hints in his discussions of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Sunday and National School movements, can the persons who supported 'moral reform', narrowly defined, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(be easily distinguished from the subscribing publics which sustained other local charities and cultural )] TJ ET BT 34.016 611.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(institutions, given the networks of church, chapel and party which undergirded so much social action.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This however would make for a potentially limitless field, and the virtue of Roberts' selection strategy is that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(it allows him to provide a coherent narrative over a long period. It also permits a detailed analysis of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(leadership of the movement, on which he builds a fine-grained account of the context in which different )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(initiatives arose. As the title indicates, the study is organised as a chronological survey with two bookends )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(looking backwards and forwards. It begins in 1787, with the work of William Wilberforce and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(inauguration of the Proclamation Society, though this prompts a retrospective glance at the 1680s in search )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of its precursors, the Societies for the Reformation of Manners. It concludes in 1886, a year of political )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(change in which the broadened franchise and the Liberal defeat spelt the end of hopes that moral reformers )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(might influence mainstream politics. The narrative closes with some reflections on a future in which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(institutions of civil society were less able to shape public discourse.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(There are several interrelated elements to the book's conceptual framework. Perhaps most importantly, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Roberts achieves a synthesis of past and present approaches to the use of class as an explanatory factor. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(First, he rejects a reductionist view of moral reform as the cultural superstructure of economic identity, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(treating the practices of association rather as 'independent variables capable of shaping moral discourses' \(p. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(14\). Second, however, he stresses throughout that a key impulse for reformers was the tension generated by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the market society which was coming into being. At particular junctures and for particular individuals this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was manifested in different ways: sometimes as the 'psychic strain' of the 'precarious social rank' of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(nouveaux riches \(pp. 40-1\); sometimes as anxiety about the effects of consumer capitalism on patterns of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(leisure \(for example the deleterious temptations of the brewing industry \(p. 98\), or the undermining of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Sabbath observance by the railways \(p. 116\)\); sometimes as capitalist guilt prompting a compensatory )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rhetoric of 'stewardship' \(p. 128\), and so on. There are two further organising themes. Roberts uses the long )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(history of moral reform initiatives as a case study with which to explore Jurgen Habermas's account of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rise and structural transformation of the public sphere. He sees in the discourses and public representation of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(these voluntary societies the empirical substance of Habermas's ideal of 'rational-critical debate'. Moreover, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the process by which voluntary initiative was superseded by state agency and the professionalisation of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(social work illustrates the disintegration of the bourgeois public sphere in the later nineteenth century. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Roberts is also alert to the concerns of theorists of civil society. The key influence is the North American )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(political scientist, Robert Putnam, who has postulated, based on the experience of the US and Italy, that a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(vigorous culture of societies and associations is vital to a healthy democracy, since such activities cultivate )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the habits of participation, embed procedures of collective organisation, and instil support for transparent )] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(public debate. Moral reform voluntarism offers a prism through which to view all these issues.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(With respect to methodology, Roberts identifies for analysis a number of associations which illustrate the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(principal themes of the period he has under review. He draws on their published reports to establish how )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(their aims and assumptions were articulated, and pays close attention to the personal circumstances of their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(leaders, whose economic position and social networks yield insight into the wellsprings of reform. Personal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(papers, autobiographies and published writings are used to dissect their emotional lives, beliefs and )] TJ ET endstream endobj 24 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 25 0 R >> endobj 25 0 obj << /Length 7712 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(motivation. Among these individuals are some familiar names, such as William Wilberforce, Lord )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Shaftesbury, Josephine Butler and Elizabeth Fry. However many lesser known individuals also feature: )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Henry Budd, founder member of the Vice Society and chaplain of Bridewell Hospital, driven both by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(religious duty and his ambition to network with the influential; or Peter Bedford, the Quaker silk merchant in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Spitalfields whose post-1815 work with delinquent youths provided him with 'a surrogate family of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dependants over which to preside' \(p. 125\); or Joseph Livesey, the self-made newspaper man whose activism )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in the mid-century temperance movement was inspired by a desire to spread the gospel of improvement to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(his peers. Careers such as these can most tellingly illuminate the impulses of social action. That said, it must )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(be stressed that this pursuit of 'representative' and articulate individuals is preferred to an analysis of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ordinary supporters. While there is a certain amount of prosopographical work on leaders \(e.g. pp. 38-40\) )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(there is little reference to the characteristics of lesser activists and supporters, and the milieux from which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(they sprang; instead the accent is very much on the thoughts and deeds of the elite.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Opening his account in the 1780s, Roberts consciously aligns his narrative with a familiar chronology of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(modernisation, emphasising the destabilising effects of rapid population growth, urbanisation and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(coming of a national market society. This was the context in which fears of a 'moral crisis' emerged well )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(before the spectre of revolutionary France was in sight. Licentious behaviour, criminality and subversive )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(publications were the targets of the Proclamation Society which lobbied for the more active prosecution of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(transgressors, while the Philanthropic Society favoured the removal and institutionalisation of the children of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the 'vicious'. Analysing the make-up of the leadership Roberts finds an alliance of aspiring members of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(commercial and professional middle class and gentlemen of conscience. The next chapter turns to the war )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(years, 1795-1815, which are marked by a distinct change of trend. Military mobilisation destabilised society )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and undermined ties of deference, while economic disruption exacerbated problems of disorder and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(allure of Jacobin ideas raised fears of godlessness. This was the spur to a revival of efforts of metropolitan )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and provincial elites, manifested for example in the Society for the Suppression of Vice, to support tougher )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(application of the law as a bulwark against indiscipline. Another innovation was the range of relief schemes )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(promoted in years of economic crisis, which combined soup kitchens with a more discriminating use of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(charity, entailing enquiry and domestic visiting. The hitherto ecumenical nature of moral reform also gave )] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(way in this period to a clearer delineation between establishment and dissenting projects, as patriotism was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(aligned with religious orthodoxy. Increasingly it was London's business and professional classes rather than )] TJ ET BT 34.016 371.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the gentry which furnished the personnel of associations. Though some were driven by the 'spiritual anguish )] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and emotional discomfort' \(p. 83\) arising from labour market position, and others by a sense of duty, all were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(inspired by a sense of their moral superiority to those both above and below them on the social scale: a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('sense of middle-class consciousness and self-assertion' \(p. 85\) fostered by the war years.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Chapter 3 is tellingly entitled 'Taming the masses', and identifies the period between the end of the war and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the passage of the Poor Law Amendment Act as a distinct phase in which moral reform voluntarism )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(flowered. There were various reasons for this: the example of evangelical missions dissolved the barriers to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(co-operation between church and chapel, while concern with reform of public administration prompted )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(experimentation in the areas of policing and management of the poor. Moreover, as 'the free market came )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(into its own,' \(p. 96\) so fears of moral decay manifested in drink, religious apathy and commercial leisure, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were heightened. Roberts argues that the ensuing proliferation of voluntary associations represented the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('triumphant completion of the middle-class mission' \(p. 141\), as the reform agenda mapped out in the 1780s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was 'unpacked' into specialist groupings. Characteristic ventures of the time were societies for the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(suppression of begging and brothel-keeping, the reclamation of prostitutes, prison reform, prevention of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cruelty to animals, and of course, the abolition of slavery. The political and economic crises of the late 1820s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and early 1830s were particularly important, prompting the foundation of the British and Foreign )] TJ ET BT 34.016 130.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Temperance Society and the Lord's Day Observance Society. This was the period in which an 'identifiably )] TJ ET BT 34.016 116.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(continuous moral reform tradition may be said to have emerged' \(p. 142\), yet the bases of its support and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 102.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(legitimacy of its self-appointed leaders remained uncertain. These issues are brought to the fore in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 88.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(following section, which discusses the years 1834 to 1857. With matters such as policing, slavery and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 73.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(poor law resolved by the reform settlement of the Whig governments a new era began in which moral )] TJ ET BT 34.016 59.669 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reformers concentrated on the temperance campaign, the ragged school movement and the prevention of )] TJ ET endstream endobj 26 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 28 0 R 30 0 R ] /Contents 27 0 R >> endobj 27 0 obj << /Length 7834 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(prostitution. However, fissures within the class project were becoming apparent, in the denominational )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(divisions in educational and visiting charities and in the proselytising missions, and in the more explicitly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(political campaigns which drained support. More seriously, by the 1850s the evangelical activists were on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the receiving end of criticism from more secular and commercial interests. The context for this was the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(impending conflict between the campaigning and petitioning activities of voluntarists and the nascent )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(processes of parliamentary democracy: how representative were the self-appointed moral champions? Hotly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contested issues such as Sunday trading and the suppression of the drink trade were focal points for debates )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(on the limits of the state's right to curb individual liberty in the name of moral improvement.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In the mid-Victorian phase \(1857-1880\) many of the anxieties about disorder were fading, as economic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(growth and a more controlled urban environment allayed fears. Now the key problem for reformers was to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(foster the autonomous moral individual within a market society, and this guided the activities of temperance )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(supporters, rescuers of fallen women, visitors to workhouses and the 'moral disciplinarians' \(p. 209\) of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Charity Organisation Society \(COS\). It was also the period in which mass democratic politics emerged, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with it the continuing expansion of state power in the social realm. This brought new opportunities such as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the COS's attempt to co-ordinate its volunteer casework with poor law policy. But there were also )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(challenges, and here Roberts aligns his account with the Habermasian paradigm, as he shows how moral )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reformers came into conflict with the state-approved professionals who increasingly guided policy, for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(example in the rows over the Contagious Diseases Acts and vivisection. The final substantive chapter argues )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that by the 1880s the transformation of the public sphere of reform voluntarism was complete. Activists now )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sought to achieve their goals through lobbying government, but even where successful \(such as the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(outlawing of child prostitution in the 1885 Criminal Law Amendment Act\), doubts remained as to whether )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reliance on the state undermined individual moral responsibility. And tying their fortunes closely to a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(political party, as temperance campaigners did with the Liberals, could leave reformers exposed if politicians )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(decided such single-issue causes had become electorally disadvantageous. More importantly, as the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(imperative of guarding national economic efficiency directed the interests of the state towards social welfare, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(so moral reformers, with their localist approach and their commitment to individual and family reclamation, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were marginalised. With professional elites now oriented towards social rather than moral causes of poverty )] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and deviancy, the late-Victorian voluntarists failed to transmit their tradition to a new generation.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The major achievement of this book is to provide a nuanced and extraordinarily erudite account of the forces )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which brought into being this form of voluntary action. Though presented under the banner of cultural )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(history, Roberts has deftly explicated the formative role of political events on the arena in which reformers )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(functioned, and shown the decisive importance of economic forces in impelling their engagement. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(chronology he presents is compelling and deserves to become a benchmark account for future researchers. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(One qualification has already been mentioned though, and that is the potential pitfall of discussing moral )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reform in isolation from the broader currents of philanthropic and cultural association, which were arguably )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(all facets of the same middle-class project. For example, the moralising agenda which Mary Fissell noticed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in the Georgian voluntary hospitals or the civilising mission which Helen Meller observed in the efforts of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Victorian urban elites to provide facilities for leisure and recreation, cannot be easily severed from this story.\()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(5)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 229.347 m 40.016 229.347 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 40.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\) The book also makes an important contribution to the historical literature on the public sphere, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Roberts' analysis should be read alongside Geoff Eley's critical discussion of Habermas's ideal-typical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(account.\()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 78.332 202.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(6)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 78.332 200.835 m 84.332 200.835 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 84.332 202.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\) Of particular interest is the argument here that moral reform provided the opportunity for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(articulate women to retain a public platform at a time when formal democratic procedures conspired to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(exclude them.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Where the summation is rather less convincing, however, is on the evaluation of the reformers' impact on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(their unwitting subjects. The assumption that moral reform 'at the very least eased the transition' \(p. 294\) to a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(more polite and respectable society is not supported by the book's original research, which has little to say )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(on the practical achievement \(or lack of it\) of the associations under consideration. True, there is some )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(discussion of the limited success of the Proclamation and Vice Societies \(pp. 66, 77\) and of the transitory )] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(nature of anti-slavery sentiment \(pp. 132-3\) but in the main Roberts relies on secondary sources for his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(evaluation of outcomes. And, as Robert Humphries showed in his exploration of the gulf between the )] TJ ET endstream endobj 28 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 29 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 229.6615 40.0157 241.5415 ] >> endobj 29 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 30 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 31 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 78.3317 201.1495 84.3317 213.0295 ] >> endobj 31 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 32 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 34 0 R 36 0 R 38 0 R 40 0 R 42 0 R 44 0 R 46 0 R 48 0 R 50 0 R 52 0 R ] /Contents 33 0 R >> endobj 33 0 obj << /Length 6218 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rhetoric and practice of the COS, the administrative and financial realities lurking in provincial minute books )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(may have been far removed from the high-flown ambitions of the metropolitan elites who people this book. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Similarly, it is plausible enough to claim that 'moral reform movements made a significant contribution to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the emergence of a society capable of debating issues in a way which led neither to violent confrontation nor )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to coercion' \(p. 295\). But how exactly can the degree of this contribution be calibrated when set against other )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(forms of associational activity? Consider for example John Garrard's recent reflections on the role of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(working-class friendly society in nurturing an appetite for democratic procedures.\()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 430.592 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(7)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 430.592 709.539 m 436.592 709.539 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 436.592 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\) That said, Roberts has )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(no intention of marshalling these arguments behind the cause of 'reinventing' civil society in the present day. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ultimately the story he tells is of an 'historically specific phase in cultural adjustment' \(p. 298\), and is not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(meant as a timeless exemplar of the potential of the third sector. This is a salutary conclusion for those who )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(would invoke greater voluntary engagement as a panacea for the contemporary welfare state.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 619.011 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 588.394 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 588.389 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Political Register)] TJ ET BT 148.352 588.389 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 3 Nov. 1816. )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 220.016 588.389 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 220.016 586.995 m 274.004 586.995 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 574.138 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 574.133 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(J. L.Hammond and Barbara Hammond, )] TJ ET BT 256.652 574.133 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Town Labourer)] TJ ET BT 352.664 574.133 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(1917; 1978 edn\), p.154. )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 477.320 574.133 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 477.320 572.739 m 531.308 572.739 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 559.882 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(3.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 559.877 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(For example, Brian Harrison, )] TJ ET BT 207.992 559.877 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Peacable Kingdom: Stability and Change in Modern Britain)] TJ ET BT 498.320 559.877 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Oxford, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 545.621 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1983\), pp. 217-59. )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 156.008 545.621 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 156.008 544.227 m 209.996 544.227 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 531.370 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(4.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 531.365 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Geoffrey Finlayson, )] TJ ET BT 163.664 531.365 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Citizen, State and Social Welfare in Britain 1830-1990)] TJ ET BT 427.004 531.365 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Oxford, 1994\). )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 508.652 531.365 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to )] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 508.652 529.971 m 548.648 529.971 l S BT 64.016 517.109 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 64.016 515.715 m 78.008 515.715 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 502.858 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(5.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 502.853 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Mary E. Fissell, )] TJ ET BT 143.684 502.853 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Patients, Power, and the Poor in Eighteenth Century Bristol)] TJ ET BT 433.688 502.853 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Cambridge, 1991\); H. )] TJ ET BT 64.016 488.597 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(E. Meller, )] TJ ET BT 115.340 488.597 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Leisure and the Changing City, 1870-1914)] TJ ET BT 321.344 488.597 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(1976\). )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 362.336 488.597 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(5\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 362.336 487.203 m 416.324 487.203 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 474.346 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(6.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 474.341 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(G. Eley, 'Nations, publics and public cultures: placing Habermas in the nineteenth century', in )] TJ ET BT 64.016 460.085 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Culture, Power, History: a Reader in Contemporary Social Theory)] TJ ET BT 386.000 460.085 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, ed. N. Dirks, G. Eley and S. )] TJ ET BT 64.016 445.829 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ortner \(Princeton, NJ, 1994\), pp. 297-335. )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 271.652 445.829 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(6\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 271.652 444.435 m 325.640 444.435 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 431.578 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(7.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 431.573 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(John Garrard, )] TJ ET BT 132.992 431.573 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Democratisation in Britain: Elites, Civil Society and Reform since 1800)] TJ ET BT 478.316 431.573 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Basingstoke, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 417.317 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2001\). )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 98.012 417.317 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(7\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 98.012 415.923 m 152.000 415.923 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 391.061 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 376.805 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 372.079 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 354.299 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 354.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/538)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 352.905 m 322.316 352.905 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 327.928 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 313.528 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/2958)] TJ ET BT 34.016 299.128 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET endstream endobj 34 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 35 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 430.5917 709.8535 436.5917 721.7335 ] >> endobj 35 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 36 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 37 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 220.0157 587.3095 274.0037 599.1895 ] >> endobj 37 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 38 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 39 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 477.3197 573.0535 531.3077 584.9335 ] >> endobj 39 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 40 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 41 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 156.0077 544.5415 209.9957 556.4215 ] >> endobj 41 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 42 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 43 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 508.6517 530.2855 548.6477 542.1655 ] >> endobj 43 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 44 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 45 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 64.0157 516.0295 78.0077 527.9095 ] >> endobj 45 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 46 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 47 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 362.3357 487.5175 416.3237 499.3975 ] >> endobj 47 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 48 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 49 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 271.6517 444.7495 325.6397 456.6295 ] >> endobj 49 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 50 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 51 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 98.0117 416.2375 151.9997 428.1175 ] >> endobj 51 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 52 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 53 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 353.2195 322.3157 365.0995 ] >> endobj 53 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/538) >> endobj xref 0 54 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000349 00000 n 0000000386 00000 n 0000000593 00000 n 0000000703 00000 n 0000005915 00000 n 0000006024 00000 n 0000006134 00000 n 0000006243 00000 n 0000009804 00000 n 0000009932 00000 n 0000010016 00000 n 0000010144 00000 n 0000010180 00000 n 0000010306 00000 n 0000010342 00000 n 0000010470 00000 n 0000010506 00000 n 0000010634 00000 n 0000010670 00000 n 0000010735 00000 n 0000018398 00000 n 0000018463 00000 n 0000026228 00000 n 0000026319 00000 n 0000034206 00000 n 0000034332 00000 n 0000034368 00000 n 0000034494 00000 n 0000034530 00000 n 0000034677 00000 n 0000040948 00000 n 0000041076 00000 n 0000041112 00000 n 0000041240 00000 n 0000041276 00000 n 0000041404 00000 n 0000041440 00000 n 0000041568 00000 n 0000041604 00000 n 0000041732 00000 n 0000041768 00000 n 0000041894 00000 n 0000041930 00000 n 0000042058 00000 n 0000042094 00000 n 0000042222 00000 n 0000042258 00000 n 0000042385 00000 n 0000042421 00000 n 0000042549 00000 n trailer << /Size 54 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 42644 %%EOF