%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 16 0 R 18 0 R 20 0 R ] /Count 5 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20141001190118+01'00') /ModDate (D:20141001190118+01'00') /Title (Eleanor of Provence: Queenship in Thirteenth-Century England) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 5025 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Eleanor of Provence: Queenship in Thirteenth-Century England)] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.091 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Recent years have seen a blossoming of secondary literature on medieval queens and queenship, a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 313.835 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(development which owes much to the impetus provided by Pauline Stafford?s path-breaking study, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 299.579 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Queens, Concubines and Dowagers: The King?s Wife in the Early Middle Ages)] TJ ET BT 415.988 299.579 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(1983\). Several essay )] TJ ET BT 34.016 285.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(collections, including J. C. Parsons ed., )] TJ ET BT 225.680 285.323 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Medieval Queenship)] TJ ET BT 324.656 285.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(1993\) and A. J. Duggan ed., )] TJ ET BT 469.628 285.323 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Queens and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 271.067 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Queenship in Medieval Europe)] TJ ET BT 183.656 271.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(1997\), have shed light on the changing religious and secular imagery, rituals )] TJ ET BT 34.016 256.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and experiences that touched and shaped the lives of queens in Western Europe and beyond in the early, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 242.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(central and later Middle Ages. These have been accompanied by a number of biographical works, with the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 228.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(careers of several medieval English queens undergoing valuable reassessments \(see J. C. Parsons, )] TJ ET BT 505.916 228.299 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Eleanor of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 214.043 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Castile: Queen and Society in Thirteenth-Century England)] TJ ET BT 316.664 214.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(1995\) and P. Stafford, )] TJ ET BT 432.980 214.043 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Queen Emma and Queen )] TJ ET BT 34.016 199.787 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Edith: Queenship and Women?s Power in Eleventh-Century England)] TJ ET BT 366.980 199.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(1997\)\). In the light of all this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 185.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(scholarly activity, Margaret Howell?s thought-provoking study of King Henry III?s queen, )] TJ ET BT 472.940 185.531 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Eleanor of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 171.275 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Provence: Queenship in Thirteenth-Century England)] TJ ET BT 289.316 171.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, has come as a welcome, timely and much-needed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 157.019 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(addition. Until now this most remarkable queen consort has not only lacked a biography but she has also )] TJ ET BT 34.016 142.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(received far less than her fair share of attention from thirteenth-century specialists. This is a curious )] TJ ET BT 34.016 128.507 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(oversight when one considers the political upheavals of Henry III?s reign and the important contribution )] TJ ET BT 34.016 114.251 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(made by Eleanor and her Savoyard relations to the factional rivalries that divided his court.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 87.995 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Howell?s highly accessible work, divided into twelve chapters, guides the reader through Eleanor?s life, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 73.739 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from her first experiences as a young bride in a foreign land \(Eleanor was twelve at the time of her marriage )] TJ ET BT 34.016 59.483 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to a man sixteen years her senior\), to her development into a physically and politically mature king?s wife )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.699 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(54)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.187 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.931 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Wednesday, 1 July, 1998)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.675 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.419 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Margaret Howell)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.163 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.907 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1998)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.651 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.395 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(373pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.139 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.883 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Wiley-Blackwell)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.627 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher url:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.371 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://eu.wiley.com/WileyCDA/)] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.115 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.859 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Oxford)] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.603 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.347 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Louise Wilkinson)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 7559 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and queen mother. What becomes immediately apparent to the reader is that this study is the result of a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(tremendous amount of research. As well as taking on board the latest developments in thirteenth-century )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(political and social history, the author utilises a vast quantity of unpublished source material, most notably )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Eleanor?s letters \(of which 160 survive\) and her wardrobe accounts, thereby allowing the reader to come )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(closer to Eleanor of Provence than to any earlier queen of England. Chapter 1 begins by placing Eleanor )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(firmly within the context of her natal family \(her father was Count Raymond-Berengar V of Provence and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(her mother Beatrice of Savoy\), considering the social setting and cultural influences of her childhood. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Howell then moves on swiftly to examine the European political background to Henry III and Eleanor?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(marriage, which followed two failed proposals by Henry to daughters of Leopold of Austria and Peter of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Dreux, count of Brittany, and another set of abortive negotiations for the hand of Joan, heiress-apparent of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ponthieu. Howell deals subtly with the swings and roundabouts of thirteenth-century European alliances and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(carefully measures the disadvantages and advantages of the match. Henry III and Eleanor were married at )] TJ ET BT 34.016 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Canterbury on 14 January 1236.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Undoubtedly the strongest theme throughout this book is family. Both Eleanor and her husband possessed a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(strong sense of personal loyalty to their respective blood-relatives. More often than not this bound them )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(together but it could also be divisive. Eleanor of Provence?s arrival in England was accompanied by an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(influx of her Savoyard relations, most notably her maternal uncles, for whom Eleanor was to emerge as a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(figurehead and who were to provide her with valuable political and emotional support. Howell is careful to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(acknowledge that Eleanor and her kinfolk?s participation in court affairs was dependent on Eleanor?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(standing in Henry?s favour. Her status as queen was, after all, dependent on her husband?s office and as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(queen consort she did not possess any independent, constitutionally-defined duties of her own.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Personal relationships and personalities mattered in determining Eleanor?s access to and exercise of power. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(There is something far more sophisticated about Howell?s politically-active Eleanor of Provence, securing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for her Savoyard kinfolk advantageous English marriages, than the sometimes meddlesome mother-in-law )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(portrayed in Parsons? )] TJ ET BT 140.996 430.325 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Eleanor of Castile)] TJ ET BT 229.004 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. This is clearly something that Henry III?s Poitevin half-brothers )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(appreciated: when they came into competition with the Savoyards over royal patronage, they directed their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(enmity against the queen \(p. 55\). Yet when this competition for resources erupted into violence in November )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1252, Henry III vented his anger at his wife, who temporarily lost control of the queen?s gold and was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(packed off to Winchester \(pp. 66-67\). Howell?s treatment of this incident is sympathetic and conveys the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dependence of Eleanor?s position on the king?s goodwill. Nevertheless, one feels that slightly more should )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(have been made of the potential restriction placed on the scope of thirteenth-century queenship by the king?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ultimate control of both his wife?s wealth and her level of contact with his officials. Even a queen, who as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(his legitimate bedfellow shared unique moments of intimacy with her husband, was vulnerable to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(vagaries of the king?s temper. Indeed the relationship between husband and wife emerges as the most )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(influential force in determining the course of Eleanor?s life.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Eleanor?s chief responsibility as queen was essentially private and domestic. As a wife she was expected to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(bear children, especially male children, thereby continuing the royal lineage. This was certainly an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(expectation that Eleanor fulfilled: the future Edward I, the first of her two sons and three daughters, was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(born in 1239. Motherhood offered a queen, as a consort, an enhanced sense of security, a means of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(buttressing her position in her husband?s affections. Howell demonstrates a canny understanding of its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(importance for Eleanor?s position and does not go too far in describing it as Eleanor?s ?ultimate strength? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(p. 109\). Eleanor?s appointment as regent \(aided by Richard of Cornwall?s counsel\) in 1253-1254, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(arrangements for Edward?s Castilian marriage, the transfer to him of his appanage, and the generous )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(provisions in Henry?s will \(which stipulated that Eleanor would receive custody of all their children, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(including the heir to the throne, together with Wales, Ireland, Gascony and England on his death\) all )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(underlined the significance and potential of her maternity. Howell is right to see Henry?s choice of Eleanor )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as regent as evidence that he appreciated her talents and, above all, regarded her with trust. Henry?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(judgement was clearly not misplaced; Eleanor was regent for ten months and appears as an effective and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(energetic figure, who ?kept her finger on government? \(p. 117\) in spite of a pregnancy and lying-in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(although a daughter, Katherine, was born on 25 November 1253, writs were again being issued )] TJ ET BT 497.924 61.925 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(per reginam)] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 17 0 R >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Length 7635 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(by 5 December, pp. 117-118\). Even so, a discussion of contemporaries? reactions to Eleanor?s appointment )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as regent, and the information this reveals about their perceptions regarding the boundaries of queenship, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(would also have been useful here.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Howell shows that Eleanor of Provence was active in the interests of her children. Most pronounced of all )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was her involvement in the highly expensive and deeply unpopular scheme to secure the crown of Sicily for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(her second son, Edmund. Her pursuit of a policy for peace with France is represented as a necessary )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(precondition both for this and Edward?s security in Gascony. There were other, personal reasons as well; )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(although her sister Sanchia had married Henry III?s brother, Richard earl of Cornwall, her sister Margaret )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was wife to the French king Louis IX and another sister, Beatrice, had married Charles count of Anjou. All )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(four women and their mother, the dowager countess of Provence, were present at the meeting at Paris in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1254 between Henry III and Louis IX \(pp. 136-138\). Yet Howell finds it only ?incidentally interesting that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the family structure which underlay the 1254 meeting depended on a group of five women? \(p. 138\). Surely )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(it is something much more than this. The full significance of this event lies in the insight which it provides )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(into the role of royal and aristocratic women as both symbols and agents for reconciliation, as peaceweavers )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(who crossed cultural and political divides. Unlike queens Emma and Edith who told their stories through )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fathers, husbands and sons in )] TJ ET BT 177.332 570.629 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Encomium of Queen Emma )] TJ ET BT 332.972 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and )] TJ ET BT 353.300 570.629 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Life of King Edward who Rests at )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Westminster)] TJ ET BT 93.344 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Stafford, )] TJ ET BT 145.664 556.373 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Queen Emma)] TJ ET BT 210.644 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, p. 51\), Eleanor of Provence?s story would clearly have incorporated )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mothers, sisters and daughters as well.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Howell carefully admits that Eleanor?s relationship with her eldest son was not always plain sailing. As )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Edward matured and began to choose his own friends in the late 1250s, he moved into the rival Lusignan )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(orbit and towards Henry III?s brother-in-law, the reformer Simon de Montfort. Howell also traces the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(hardening of Eleanor?s attitude against the reform movement itself in the autumn of 1259, highlighting how )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Provisions of Westminster?s clause on queen?s gold touched directly on Eleanor?s financial interests. It )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is interesting to observe this alien queen playing an instrumental role in helping Henry III to recruit a force )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of foreign knights in the spring of 1260. Howell has uncovered evidence that Eleanor had been nurturing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(useful Flemish contacts: the manner in which Isabella de Fiennes, the wife of an Anglo-Flemish knight, was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(given a number of rings to pass onto Flemish lords and ladies by the queen when she left England in 1259 )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(p. 168\), is particularly striking. More might have been made of this as well. Throughout the book one )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(continually catches other similar glimpses of this private, behind-the-scenes, female networking but this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(informal feminine avenue to power is never rendered fully explicit nor examined for its own sake. This is a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(strange and serious shortcoming. Notwithstanding, the author is perceptive in her observation that Eleanor?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(close association with foreign military men probably harmed the queen?s reputation and helped to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(concentrate xenophobic reactions on her person \(p. 168\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(It is Eleanor?s involvement in the political turmoil of the 1260s that really marks her out, in Howell?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(account, as a player at the centre of the political stage. The argument that the revolution of 1263 was very )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(much ?a rebellion focused on the queen and her policies? \(p. 194\) is certainly persuasive. Yet this did not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(prevent Eleanor from playing a key diplomatic role in working towards a royal recovery, accompanying )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Henry III to France in September 1263 so that Louis IX might mediate between themselves and the baronial )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dissidents. Once more one gains an impression of female networking which is not developed, this time )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(between two queens, Eleanor and her sister Margaret, who actively tried to enlist the support of third parties, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(including Louis? brother Alphonse of Poitiers, for the English king \(p. 200\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(By remaining in France when Henry III and Edward returned to England in October 1263, Eleanor remained )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(free to promote her husband?s and son?s interests, and later played an influential role in determining Louis? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(judgement at Amiens. After the battle of Lewes \(14 May 1264\) left Henry and Edward little more than )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(captives in Montfort?s hands, Eleanor exercised authority in Gascony, employed diplomatic pressure on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(England?s new government and, above all, planned, financed and gathered an invasion force. Howell offers )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a thought-provoking explanation as to why it was that this force, which sufficiently worried the baronial )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(government for them to respond by mustering an army on Barham Down, never invaded: the papal legate, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(whose involvement had been sought by King Louis, Queen Margaret and Queen Eleanor, opposed this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(course of action \(p. 219\). This is an important consideration. Howell argues that Eleanor was anxious to )] TJ ET endstream endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 19 0 R >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Length 7482 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(avoid a ?bloody slaughter? and cites a letter written by the queen?s uncle, Peter of Savoy, which suggests )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that he believed that peace was a real possibility \(p. 219\). By October 1264, when the negotiations had )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(broken down, Eleanor had also run out of money to pay for her soldiers. This is highly convincing stuff. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Howell is also anxious to stress that Eleanor?s political importance was in no way diminished on her return )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to England on 29 October 1265, three months after the royalist victory at Evesham. Eleanor entertained )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(foreign dignitaries, secured financial assistance for the Crown from the papacy, guarded former rebels at )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Windsor Castle and helped her second son to purchase the marriage of Aveline, heiress to the Aumale and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Devon earldoms, from Aveline?s two female guardians \(networking with women again and in a typically )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(gendered context!\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Perhaps the biggest turning point in Eleanor?s life, second only to her marriage to Henry III, was her )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(transformation into a queen dowager on Henry?s death on 16 November 1272. Eleanor survived her husband )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(by almost twenty years, after fourteen of which she became "a humble nun of the order of Fontevrault of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(convent of Amesbury" \(p. 287\). Sadly her subsequent life is allotted only twenty-five pages of Howell?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(study. This is rather disappointing, especially as most of Eleanor?s correspondence survives from this time. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Moreover, what Howell does reveal, about Eleanor?s preoccupation with her resources and her entrance to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Amesbury, leaves one thirsting for more.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Margaret Howell?s study of Eleanor of Provence provides more than an insight into Eleanor?s family )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(relationships, and her political concerns and preoccupations, vital though these are to an understanding of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Eleanor?s role as a queen consort. Chapter 4 offers a detailed examination of the queen?s lifestyle, recreating )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(an impression of the physical and cultural settings in which she lived and moved. Eleanor?s piety followed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(her husband?s lead and joined husband and wife together: she readily identified with Henry III?s feelings for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the cult of Edward the Confessor and, like her husband, was a great patron of the friars, turning to three )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Franciscans, Adam Marsh, Thomas of Hales and William Batale, for personal spiritual advice. Eleanor?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(accounts for 1252-1253 support Howell?s assertion that her children were ?her constant preoccupation? \(p. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(99\); she spent two-thirds of that year in residence at Windsor, near her children, enjoying unrestricted access )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to them. Indeed a real \(and heartening\) affection seems to have developed between mother and offspring, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which endured into their adulthood; in 1260, her daughter Margaret, queen of Scotland, gave birth to her )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(first child in England at Windsor \(pp. 102-103\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Perhaps the most puzzling feature of Howell?s book is the absence of any discussion of gender and its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(influence on queenship, unlike both Stafford?s and Parsons? recent works. The concept of gender is central )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to an understanding of what it was that distinguished women from men and queenship from kingship. It )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(throws a useful and valid perspective onto male attitudes and reactions towards women, especially powerful, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(aristocratic and royal women, thereby imbuing male and female interaction at all social levels with an added )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(significance. Stafford?s study of queens Emma and Edith, for example, is careful to draw attention to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(manner in which becoming a queen consort did not, in the same way as did becoming a king, transform a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(person?s status forever. The roles of queen consort and queen dowager were intricately intertwined with and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(indeed governed by the female lifecycle; they were extensions of the gendered roles of wife, mother and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(widow. The adoption of such an approach by Howell would have allowed her to consider more fully what it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is that Eleanor of Provence?s life and career reveals about the experience of being female in thirteenth-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(century England.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(One should not be too judgmental, for Howell does, after all, devote an entire chapter \(Chapter 11\) to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(subject of queenship, its image, practice and resources, and places Henry III?s wife firmly within this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(context. She examines the relevance of Marian, biblical and literary symbolism for Eleanor of Provence?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(style of queenship and considers the influence of another popular queenly image, one shaped ?by the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(personalities and achievements of real queens? \(p. 260\), that of the highly capable and competent woman )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(whom chroniclers described as a )] TJ ET BT 193.640 106.949 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(virago)] TJ ET BT 224.972 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. Howell is at her most impressive when she dismisses the view that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(by the thirteenth century, English queenship was undergoing irreversible decline. In Howell?s words, ?it was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the form and style which changed? \(p. 261\), a view shared by L. L. Huneycutt in her article on the ?Images )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of Queenship in the High Middle Ages? \()] TJ ET BT 232.988 64.181 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Haskins Society Journal)] TJ ET BT 370.640 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 1989, pp. 61-71\). Howell?s challenge )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to Facinger?s thesis, based on the French evidence, that the queen?s removal to a household separate from )] TJ ET endstream endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 22 0 R ] /Contents 21 0 R >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Length 2031 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the king?s in the twelfth century distanced the queen from power in government, is particularly convincing. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Eleanor of Provence?s household certainly provided her with a unique form of power base in the factional )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rivalries between the Lusignans and Savoyards. Moreover, Eleanor was still close to the centre of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(government, close to the king, and enjoyed personal contacts with the chancery, exchequer and judiciary.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(At the end of the day, one is firmly compelled to agree with the conclusion that ?English queenship in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(thirteenth century had great potential, but not for the passive or the incompetent? \(p. 286\). Margaret )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Howell?s carefully researched volume has finally allowed Eleanor of Provence to emerge as one of the most )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(important and dominating figures in English political life during her husband?s reign. Thirteenth-century )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(specialists take note, for a good deal of revision is now urgently required.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 644.165 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 629.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 625.183 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 607.403 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 607.403 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/54)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 606.009 m 316.316 606.009 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 581.032 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 566.632 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/434)] TJ ET BT 34.016 552.232 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET endstream endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 23 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 606.3235 316.3157 618.2035 ] >> endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/54) >> endobj xref 0 24 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000349 00000 n 0000000386 00000 n 0000000570 00000 n 0000000652 00000 n 0000005729 00000 n 0000005838 00000 n 0000005948 00000 n 0000006057 00000 n 0000009618 00000 n 0000009746 00000 n 0000009830 00000 n 0000009895 00000 n 0000017507 00000 n 0000017572 00000 n 0000025260 00000 n 0000025325 00000 n 0000032860 00000 n 0000032944 00000 n 0000035028 00000 n 0000035156 00000 n trailer << /Size 24 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 35250 %%EOF