%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 16 0 R ] /Count 3 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140722061938+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140722061938+01'00') /Title (The European Community and the Crises of the 1960s: Negotiating the Gaullist Challenge) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 3867 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(The European Community and the Crises of the 1960s: Negotiating )] TJ ET BT 34.016 593.937 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(the Gaullist Challenge)] TJ ET BT 34.016 237.683 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Piers Ludlow?s book will be of interest to all those who are concerned with the current crisis of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.427 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(European Union. Indeed, by analysing the causes and effects of the first European Community crisis of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 209.171 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1960s it may shed some light on the current debate on the future of the European Union, its capacity to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.915 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(recover from the French and Dutch referendums on the draft constitutional Treaty and cope with future )] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.659 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(challenges. Based on archival research, the book seeks to present a supranational history of the EC, to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.403 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(analyse the integration process in action: focusing on the multiplicity of actors \(member states, EC )] TJ ET BT 34.016 152.147 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(institutions and officials\) and their interactions, and replacing them within a wider international context, it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 137.891 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(avoids the obvious pitfall of placing too much emphasis on influential personalities like Charles de Gaulle or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 123.635 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Walter Hallstein.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 97.379 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Piers Ludlow?s book will be of interest to all those who are concerned with the current crisis of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 83.123 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(European Union. Indeed, by analysing the causes and effects of the first European Community crisis of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 68.867 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1960s it may shed some light on the current debate on the future of the European Union, its capacity to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 54.611 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(recover from the French and Dutch referendums on the draft constitutional Treaty and cope with future )] TJ ET BT 34.016 563.315 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 549.059 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(540)] TJ ET BT 34.016 534.803 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 520.547 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Saturday, 1 July, 2006)] TJ ET BT 34.016 506.291 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 492.035 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Piers Ludlow)] TJ ET BT 34.016 477.779 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 463.523 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(0415375940)] TJ ET BT 34.016 449.267 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 435.011 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2006)] TJ ET BT 34.016 420.755 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.499 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(70.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.243 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.987 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(284pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.731 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.475 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Routledge)] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.219 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher url:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.963 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.routledge.com/books/details/9780415459570/)] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.707 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.451 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(London)] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.195 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.939 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Vronique Dimier)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 6979 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(challenges. Based on archival research, the book seeks to present a supranational history of the EC, to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(analyse the integration process in action: focusing on the multiplicity of actors \(member states, EC )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(institutions and officials\) and their interactions, and replacing them within a wider international context, it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(avoids the obvious pitfall of placing too much emphasis on influential personalities like Charles de Gaulle or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Walter Hallstein.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The book deals with the two main crises that the newborn EC had to cope with in the 1960s: the French veto )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the British bid to join the EC, and the 'empty chair' crisis following de Gaulle?s objection to proposals for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(an extension to majority voting. Then, like now, the issues at stake were the enlargement process, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(institutional balance within the EC institutional framework, the scope of common policies like the common )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(agricultural policy and its compatibility with EC international commitments and, last but not least, the issue )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of sharing the EC financial burden amongst the member states. Through the analysis of those issues, Ludlow )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(highlights the difficult choices facing Europe over its policy agenda, its institutional make up, and its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(membership, in sum, what the EC should do, how it should operate and who should belong to it. His )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(argument is that those questions were left intentionally unanswered during the negotiation of the Treaty of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Rome for the sake of the EC: 'the what, how and whom of early integration were all equally undefined' \(p. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(4\). This degree of ambiguity and idealism on which the EC was built allowed the first years to be a real )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(success, each member state hoping that its preferred areas of activity and its own agenda would be given )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(priority. Later on, as these hopes were disappointed, as they began realising the costs of the integration )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(process, divergent views and expectations re-entered the foreground and led to inevitable clashes. Ludlow )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(describes at length the divergent views and interests of each member state, the interplay between these )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(interests and those of EC institutions, and considers the role ? or rather the failed role ? of the European )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Commission as a political mediator and as the main arbiter in the Community?s agenda. He shows how the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(consensus, compromise and mutual trust of the first years were shaken by what he calls the 'Gaullist )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(challenge', only to be restored after the Hague Summit in 1969. He goes on to analyse the need for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(leadership at a time when the EC lacked a clear sense of direction, and the way in which the leadership gap )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was filled through summits like The Hague.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The book is also very interesting for what it reveals about the long-term transformation of Europe and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(way crises \(including the current one\) may be overcome: institutional pragmatism and underlying )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(commitment to the political nature EC projects helped managing crises while consolidating the 'acquis'. For )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(instance, Piers Ludlow shows that despite de Gaulle?s 'barking' against supranationality, French civil )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(servants worked hard to soften the impact of the empty chair crisis, to ensure that the EC could work )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(properly and that French interests in the EC were safeguarded. He also points out that despite the crisis, this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(period experienced a steady advance as far as the CAP and the customs union were concerned: 'what )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mattered was that the balance of institutions that had emerged over the Community?s first years of operation )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(had been tested by crisis, had survived largely unscathed and had been strengthened as a result' \(p. 213\). The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Commission and Parliament remained important players, the European Court of Justice proceeded with its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(judicial activism, the council, despite non-majority voting, consolidated its position as the main decision )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(maker. The Luxembourg compromise was another example of institutional pragmatism and political )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(commitment amongst the six. According to Ludlow, it underlines first that all member states, France )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(included, recognised the status of the Treaty of Rome as the unquestioned basis for cooperation and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(continuing possibility of using qualified majority voting. But)] TJ ET BT 64.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(once this important legal and political principle had been reaffirmed, all of the six were prepared )] TJ ET BT 64.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to show a strong degree of pragmatism about the way in which majority voting would be used in )] TJ ET BT 64.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(practice. [...] The recognition by all of the member state governments that majority voting was a )] TJ ET BT 64.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(potentially dangerous device that would have to be deployed with caution and only in certain )] TJ ET BT 64.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(circumstances ? a recognition that had arguably been there long before the crisis had begun ? )] TJ ET BT 64.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was made that much more explicit. Again, the outcome made it likely that the Community )] TJ ET BT 64.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(would carry on as before rather than changing radically \(pp. 121?122\).)] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 18 0 R ] /Contents 17 0 R >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Length 2007 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The Luxembourg compromise was in line with the basic national interests of these states which continued to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dominate the integration process and continued to held divergent views about how the Community should )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(work. Eventually, it led to the idea of a hybrid kind of community, neither wholly federal, nor wholly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(intergovernmental.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 715.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(To conclude, )] TJ ET BT 99.668 715.445 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The European Community and the Crises of the 1960s)] TJ ET BT 360.332 715.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( highlights once more the benefits of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 701.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(analysing the past in order to understand the present. The argument is rich in detail and well conducted, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 686.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(considering all the possible aspects of the crises \(institutional, political and international\). It will be of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 672.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(interest not only to historians but also to political scientists who will find within its pages many comparisons )] TJ ET BT 34.016 658.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to draw with the current EU crisis.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 632.165 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 617.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 613.183 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 595.403 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 595.403 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/540)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 594.009 m 322.316 594.009 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 569.032 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 554.632 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/2961)] TJ ET BT 34.016 540.232 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET endstream endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 19 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 594.3235 322.3157 606.2035 ] >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/540) >> endobj xref 0 20 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000335 00000 n 0000000372 00000 n 0000000582 00000 n 0000000664 00000 n 0000004583 00000 n 0000004692 00000 n 0000004802 00000 n 0000004911 00000 n 0000008472 00000 n 0000008600 00000 n 0000008684 00000 n 0000008749 00000 n 0000015781 00000 n 0000015865 00000 n 0000017925 00000 n 0000018053 00000 n trailer << /Size 20 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 18148 %%EOF