%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 20 0 R 24 0 R 26 0 R 30 0 R 44 0 R ] /Count 6 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140819092039+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140819092039+01'00') /Title (Historic parishes of England and Wales: an electronic map of boundaries before 1850 with a gazetteer and metadata) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R 14 0 R 16 0 R 18 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 5417 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Historic parishes of England and Wales: an electronic map of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 593.937 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(boundaries before 1850 with a gazetteer and metadata)] TJ ET BT 34.016 337.475 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(I reviewed R. J. P. Kain and R. R. Oliver, )] TJ ET BT 236.660 337.475 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Historic parishes of England and Wales: an electronic map of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 323.219 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(boundaries before 1850 with a gazetteer and metadata)] TJ ET BT 297.008 323.219 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( in the )] TJ ET BT 330.008 323.219 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Agricultural History Review)] TJ ET BT 466.004 323.219 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( in 2002.\()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 512.336 323.219 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 512.336 321.825 m 518.336 321.825 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 518.336 323.219 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\) It was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 308.963 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(published by the History Data Service \(HDS\) of the UK Data Archive based at the University of Essex in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 294.707 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2001. This originally had a website at )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 218.000 294.707 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://hds.essex.ac.uk/)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 218.000 293.313 m 324.332 293.313 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 327.332 294.707 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET BT 341.324 294.707 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, but it has been renamed and expanded as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 280.451 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(one of the five centres of the Arts and Humanities Data Service for the collection, preservation and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 266.195 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(promotion of digital sources, this one supporting historical research, learning and teaching at )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 251.939 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://ahds.ac.uk/history/)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 250.545 m 153.356 250.545 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 156.356 251.939 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([3])] TJ ET BT 170.348 251.939 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. The 2001 product was a book explaining the project that led to its publication, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 237.683 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a gazetteer of place names, which was one of the main outputs from the original project, and also an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.427 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(indication of where the electronic source mentioned in the title could be obtained. That source was originally )] TJ ET BT 34.016 209.171 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(held at the HDS. I was only given the book to review.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 182.915 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(I suggested that historians among others were great users of maps, both in their own right but also when they )] TJ ET BT 34.016 168.659 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(construct their own maps of location, density, and distribution of the features that happened to be the subject )] TJ ET BT 34.016 154.403 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(matter of their work. I continued by suggesting that very often the historians? unit of study was the parish, or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 140.147 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(more likely collections of parishes, whether for county, regional, sub-county or sub-regional analyses. I )] TJ ET BT 34.016 125.891 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contextualised this in my own early work as a historian of Buckinghamshire parliamentary enclosure, but )] TJ ET BT 34.016 111.635 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(bemoaned the fact that in the 1960s and 1970s when I began my academic career the electronic revolution )] TJ ET BT 34.016 97.379 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(had not yet arrived and map construction for most of us was mainly a process of traditional )] TJ ET BT 34.016 83.123 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(draughtsmanship. In my case it had involved using a base map which was an off-the-shelf version of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 68.867 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Buckinghamshire parishes issued by the local authority which then had to be tweaked to replicate what the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 54.611 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(parish boundaries looked like in the era of parliamentary enclosure. For Buckinghamshire this mainly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 563.315 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 549.059 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(542)] TJ ET BT 34.016 534.803 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 520.547 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Saturday, 1 July, 2006)] TJ ET BT 34.016 506.291 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 492.035 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Roger Kain)] TJ ET BT 34.016 477.779 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Richard Oliver)] TJ ET BT 34.016 463.523 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 449.267 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2006)] TJ ET BT 34.016 435.011 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 420.755 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Arts and Humanities Data Service)] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.499 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.243 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Colchester)] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.987 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.731 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Michael Turner)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 15 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 512.3357 322.1395 518.3357 334.0195 ] >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 17 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 217.9997 293.6275 324.3317 305.5075 ] >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://hds.essex.ac.uk/) >> endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 19 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 250.8595 153.3557 262.7395 ] >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://ahds.ac.uk/history/) >> endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 22 0 R ] /Contents 21 0 R >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Length 7637 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(involved deconstructing modern-day Slough to reveal the rural parishes and parts of parishes that eventually )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(went under concrete \(Stoke Poges, Wexham, Upton cum Chalvey\). In the review I commented: ?If only )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(electronic means had been available, if only digitisation had been invented, if only I was thirty years younger )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and starting all again?. I then suggested that the future had now arrived, that a historic base map of more or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(less mid-nineteenth-century parish boundaries was available courtesy of Kain and Oliver. I noted that the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(boundaries now published roughly equated to the 1851 census parishes and gave the list of sources from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which they had been derived. I admired the feat and suggested that technically the task was enormous, not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(least in resolving scaling and planimetric surveying differences between different sources, but it was a task )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(now complete?Kain and Oliver ?had produced an electronic version of pre-1850 parish boundaries set within )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(their geographic as distinct from registration counties, but including also townships and a variety of other )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(local administrative areas?. My enthusiasm continued to the end of the review, but I baled out on a negative )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(point, that the compact discs containing the business end were only available separately through )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://hds.essex.ac.uk)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 624.003 m 137.012 624.003 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 140.012 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET BT 154.004 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. I am happy to report that the book has now been reunited with the electronic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 611.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(resource, and it is the latter only that I will review here.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(I will start this review as if I believe and understand all of the literature now available to me, but without )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(having engaged it. This engagement becomes a voyage of discovery in its own right which should become )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(clear as I approach the last paragraphs below. There is a pleasant sting in the tail in what has been otherwise )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a frustrating journey.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In the 2001 publication we were told that the electronic version came in two forms. There was a three CD )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(package that has limited usage and appeal and all of which is replicated in a separate nine CD package that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(has much greater appeal, can be broken down into parts, and can be manipulated or at least tweaked to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(combine with other software. Though I have now fully engaged the three CD version I will concentrate on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the second version. The first CD in the nine CD set contains the basic introduction and instructions which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(lead to the remaining CDs containing the electronic business end of the package. The first item on this CD is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a one-screen contents page for the collection, through which the other screens are engaged. There are five )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(other screens. The first is an Instructions page to the whole collection \(two screens\). This is followed by an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Instruction screen that sets out how to use the Gazetteer. The Gazetteer then follows in two versions: the first )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is in PDF format; the second in Microsoft Excel. The PDF version runs to one page of glossary and 4,605 )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(other pages which list the many thousands of places that have been digitized in the collection, and the Excel )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(version runs to one row of headers plus 18,355 rows containing up to 13 columns of information, a matrix )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(containing nearly 240,000 cells. Finally there is a screen entitled Instructions for using the Historic Maps of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(England and Wales \(two pages\). This two-page Instructions screen includes, among other things, an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(indication of the contents of the remaining eight CDs on which are located the core of this collection, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(digitized electronic versions of the parish boundaries that have been imposed on the base OS maps. It would )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(be tedious to list every detail of this background information. Let it simply be said that trial and error, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(practice, will familiarize even the most apprehensive computer users to the detail and the methods of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(working these CDs, and guide them to the CD that contains the parishes or groups of parishes that most )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(interest the readers.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(When we jump into the collection itself we see that the most important function for the page Instructions for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(using the Gazetteer is to indicate the thirteen shorthand codes used in organizing the 18,598 places \(also )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(called areas\) in the England and Wales Gazetteer. Readers will notice from the previous paragraph that there )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(are 18,355 rows of information, yet over 200 more places. This indicates that some places contain more than )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(one settlement. The shorthand codes which relate both to the Excel columns and the line by line entries in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Acrobat format are: the unique identifier for each record or line entry \(REC\), which combines a numerical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(identifier indicating the position each place is listed in its unique county and a unique number for each )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(county \(arranged in alphabetical order for England followed by Wales\); a simplified version of the same )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(identifier \(NUM\); the name of the area associated with that unique identifier \(PLA\); a term to indicate the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(category of place \(CAT\), whether borough, chapelry, division, hamlet, parish or township; the mother parish )] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in which the ?place? was located \(PAR\); and any alternative names for the ?place? \(APL\). Further codes )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(indicate the National Grid centroid of the area \(NGR\); the county in which it was placed in the mid-)] TJ ET endstream endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 23 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 624.3175 137.0117 636.1975 ] >> endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://hds.essex.ac.uk/) >> endobj 24 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 25 0 R >> endobj 25 0 obj << /Length 7442 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(nineteenth century \(CTY\), which itself is based on sources across the years 1844?88; and the Ordnance )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Survey Sheet on which the place can be found \(ONP\). Another number comes next which is the unique )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(number allocated to the place in the 1851 census \(CEN\), followed by the sources from which the boundary )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(information was taken \(SCE\). These sources include the 1851 Census, drainage maps, enclosure maps, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ordnance Survey first edition 1:10,560 series, rating maps, sanitary maps, and Tithe Maps of the mid-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(nineteenth century, followed by precise references for those sources \(REF\) when they were other than the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(OS and the 1851 Census. Finally there is a column \(Excel version\) or line entry \(Acrobat version\) of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(additional remarks \(COM\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(At this stage the most important items are the two versions of the Gazetteer. The Excel version is the best )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(because it can be edited and re-sorted in a number of ways. But for the record, the Adobe Acrobat version is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a list of the places in the Gazetteer at more or less four to a page, arranged alphabetically according to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historic counties, first for England and then for Wales. It takes up over 4,606 pages, thus indicating the scale )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of this work. For both versions, places within their respective counties do not look as though they are )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(arranged in a recognizable order. They are not alphabetical, for example, and in the absence of a clear )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(indication I have to guess that they are determined by the order in which the boundaries were originally )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(entered. Thus, the first entries are for places in Bedfordshire, the first five of which are Tilbrook, Dean, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Shelton, Yelden and Melchbourne. There are a number of differences between what is described and what is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(actually presented, and while it might be tedious to list these differences, on occasions it matters. For )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(example, column four of the Excel version indicates the category of place \(B for borough, C for chapelry, T )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for township, etc\). But what are EP, X and Y? The first might indicate a place as extra-parochial or an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ecclesiastical parish, but since the Oxbridge Colleges enjoy this designation it is presumably the former if it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is anything at all. The second is a mystery, as is the third. A one-off journey to the University Library and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the 1851 Census reveals that these are not standard diminutives.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(But having located the Gazetteer and understood how it is arranged, the Excel version comes into its own )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(because it is capable of sorting and manipulation. At this point my enthusiasm for this source, which was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(already gathering initial pace, immediately picked up further. Once in Microsoft Excel it can, of course, be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(imported and indeed saved in other ways. This is a case of horses for courses, but as a long-time Excel fan )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(my Acrobat version will remain ?unwrapped?. My recommendation to new users is to experiment with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sorting and resorting, if only as a means to understand how the Gazetteer works. It allows sorting on place )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(name, type of place \(parish, borough, hamlet, the mysterious EP, X and Y, and so on\). As an indication of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(scale we have 8,545 parishes, 5,353 townships, 810 hamlets, 116 of the mysterious X \(which look like )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mostly fells and commons of some description\), 292 Y and 539 EPs, which includes the Oxbridge colleges, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(halls, abbeys, cathedral yards, some fens, and some less precisely designated ?places?. If there is a pattern to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(this it is not obvious. There are also sixteen undesignated places of which two look as though they have )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(simply been left off \(a portion of Wareham in Dorset which lies outside the borough boundary, and a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(division of Easington township in Easington parish in county Durham\). The other fourteen undesignated )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(places are scattered through six English and one Welsh county and are simply described as ?Record not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(used?. Sorting can also take place within counties. To recap, this is a spreadsheet of over 18,000 places with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(up to thirteen types of descriptor, of which only one is used relatively sparingly \(column 13, the comments )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(column, for which there are 3,852 comments out of the 18,355 line entries\). Therefore this is a spreadsheet )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(containing well over 200,000 pieces of information. In my enthusiasm I experimented by sorting and re-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sorting these data on different columns, for example on alphabetical order of place, on their descriptions as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(parishes, tithings, townships, chapelries and so on.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The unique numbering system of column 1 needs explaining. It starts not at 1, but at 01001, the entry for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Tilbrook in Bedfordshire. The numbers are sequential thereafter, but do not involve all numbers down to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(last, which is 56063, the entry for a place within a parish in Radnorshire. These unique identifiers are )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(replicated in the second column with a small tweak. Thus, Tilbrook, number 01001, becomes 01/1 indicating )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the first record in the first county \(where the counties are in alphabetical order, of first the English counties )] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(followed by the Welsh counties\). Thus, 28253 which is Beeston in Nottinghamshire is also 28/253.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(There are some inconsistencies in the spreadsheet, but it would be tedious and too picky to list them. We )] TJ ET endstream endobj 26 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 28 0 R ] /Contents 27 0 R >> endobj 27 0 obj << /Length 7717 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conclude that given the size of the whole project, by any fair measure of consistency and proofing this is a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(tremendously accurate document according to the parameters that the compilers have created for it.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The Ordnance Survey sheets which are the basis of this work contain the county boundaries and these )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(boundaries are located on the electronic maps, as are the parish or place boundaries. A system of colour )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(coding is employed to delineate them. In turn, the boundaries themselves are the ones that existed in the mid-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(nineteenth century \(which is a moveable definition of the mid century from 1844 to 1888\). Each ?place? has )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a second unique identifier, and this is the number that was assigned to it in the 1851 Census. But other )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sources apart from that census were also used in the identification process. These included drainage maps, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(enclosure maps, the ordnance survey 1:10,560 series, principally the first edition, and also different editions )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the 1:63,360 series, rating maps, sanitary maps and tithe maps. Repository reference numbers for such )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sources are also given in detail where they are not either the 1851 Census or the OS, and typically these are )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(repositories located in local or county archives, or The National Archives \(TNA\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(We have lingered long on the Gazetteer because it is an important data source in its own right, but it is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(twinned with the electronic boundaries, to which we now turn. The first CD is the master CD and contains )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(everything described so far. The maps themselves are contained on the remaining eight CDs. To engage or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(view a map one has to call up the instruction on CD1 which contains the ?Index map?. This is literally a map )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of England and Wales divided up into rectangles conforming with the OS 1:63,360 or one inch to one mile, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(New Popular Edition Maps \(1945?8\) which have been scanned as bitmap images. This reference map )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contains 115 numbered rectangles where the numbers in turn relate to the remaining eight CDs in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(collection. It contains three electronic layers: the OS maps stored as grey tone sheet images, making the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(physical, cultural and place name contents of those maps visible in the background; a second layer )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(consisting of the boundaries; and a third layer containing the reference numbers linking the places on the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(maps to the gazetteer. The boundaries themselves are shown on the screen in colour codes, the red lines )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(relate to the parishes, townships or other administrative areas, and yellow indicates county boundaries. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reference numbers on the maps relate to counties \(in orange\) and places \(in green\). From the master map I )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(see that Hull must be on map 99 or 98, but which one? The Gazetteer will tell me. But here we encounter a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(small problem. The names on the Gazetteer are determined by the mid-nineteenth-century census and only )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(through a process of search and elimination do I discover that Hull is really St Mary \(the parish church\) )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Kingston-upon-Hull. This is perfectly accurate according to the parameters in force but generally or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(colloquially speaking we in Hull rarely recognize the place by that name. This is not to suggest that there )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(should be a separate column in the spreadsheet related to modern usage, but users be warned. When we do )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(locate Hull by its proper mid-nineteenth-century name, sure enough it is on sheet 99 which is on CD3.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(That describes what the document contains. What is less easy to assess is the use to which we can put it. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This is not least because computer technology has advanced so much so quickly that techniques of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(engagement are redundant almost as soon as they hit the market. I exaggerate, of course, but in this case )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(there have been important developments. For a start, we are enjoined to link these data with Adobe )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Illustrator v. 6, which no doubt was the state of the art link in 2001. I invite readers of this review to have a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(look at the appropriate Adobe website at )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 231.644 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.adobe.com/products/illustrator/)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 231.644 231.603 m 439.640 231.603 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 442.640 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([4])] TJ ET BT 456.632 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( where we learn that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the main product they now provide is Illustrator CS2 at a further cost of US$499 but with an upgrade price )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of US$169 which, of course, implies that you have previous versions already installed. But surely my )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(University Computer Centre has a library of versions or, at worst, the latest version. Perhaps Hull is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(impoverished or perhaps such licences are not so popular. Indeed, on further inquiry I learnt that as a whole )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the University does not support this software ? or not on a campus-wide basis ? because the licence attaches )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to the individual user, with no doubt some kind of multiple user discount available. I did not explore this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(further but instead learnt that I could obtain an individual site licence with an educational discount through )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Computer Centre, and this would provide a multi-product Adobe Creative Suite comprising seven Adobe )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(products for just 295 plus VAT.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(To highlight this series of cul-de-sacs is unfair on Kain and Oliver but it does indicate how rapidly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(computing and computing services change. I did take up a web offer from Adobe to install the latest )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Illustrator package on a 30 day trial offer, which after much download time I installed on my machine, and I )] TJ ET endstream endobj 28 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 29 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 231.6437 231.9175 439.6397 243.7975 ] >> endobj 29 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.adobe.com/products/illustrator/) >> endobj 30 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 32 0 R 34 0 R 36 0 R 38 0 R 40 0 R 42 0 R ] /Contents 31 0 R >> endobj 31 0 obj << /Length 7186 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(did manage to engage the individual maps from the Kain/Oliver collection. But each time I engaged a map I )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(did have to accept some adjustments in what were, I presume, the original font arrangements of Historic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Maps. But from then it was not a simple task to do anything with these maps except to appreciate the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(enormity of the task achieved. To be fair, Kain and Oliver foresee user questions \(I will not call them )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(problems\) because they tell us in their briefing document that the maps can be edited and the layers we have )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(identified can be selected, but the user can only guess at the nature of selection, or work through the updated )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Illustrator guidance with some care.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(At this stage I was left with a question: have we moved on in the last five years? The answer is yes. After )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(this laborious travelogue through the Kain and Oliver CD-ROM collection, and with frustration mounting )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and indifference beginning to set in, we discover by other means that there is an easier way. The AHDS has )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(extended the availability of this material to the wider academic community through JISC and the census data )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(archive at )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 83.996 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://census.data-archive.ac.uk/)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 83.996 626.259 m 238.964 626.259 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 241.964 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([5])] TJ ET BT 255.956 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. This in turn requires you to have an Athens username and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(password \(not a problem for the UK university community\), which then opens the door to )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://edina.ac.uk/ukborders/)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 597.747 m 172.004 597.747 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 175.004 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([6])] TJ ET BT 188.996 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(; and that is where the user can follow instructions to download the Kain and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Oliver boundaries by parish, by county, by ? well I have yet to experiment further than this. Even then, after )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(following the instructions on those websites the user will still have to engage other software to fill in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(desired data. In my case this is likely to be choropleth maps of English crop yields by county, or by density )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of enclosure by parish, or average rent per acre by county, or whatever is appropriate to the English and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Welsh counties, parishes and townships of my choice and for which I have data.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(So, what have we learnt apart from the speed with which technology has changed? Two messages emerge )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which will make some of my future work more manageable. I now have an easy to use, easy to sort place )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(name index \(where place is defined according to those units I listed earlier\). For this I am truly thankful. I )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(also have a three CD-ROM set which requires no further software for me at least to get the basic parish, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(township, etc., county base maps on the screen. To this end, for this user, I see no great advantage in having )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the extended nine CD set since I will have to buy further software. Instead, my frustrations have made me )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(discover the extended data archive resources involved in the UK Borders website. I will still need some GIS )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(software and further instruction, but my short glimpse into my own future suggests that this should not be a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(problem)] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Finally, readers might like to see how a colleague in an adjacent discipline, archaeology, has reviewed the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(nine CD version of this source in )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 195.668 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://intarch.ac.uk/journal/issue13/reviews/pickles.html)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 195.668 345.651 m 465.992 345.651 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 468.992 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([7])] TJ ET BT 482.984 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, and how the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(source is described on History Data Service website at )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 298.292 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://hds.essex.ac.uk/hpew/hpew.asp)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 298.292 331.395 m 478.940 331.395 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 481.940 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([8])] TJ ET BT 495.932 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 297.891 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 267.274 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 267.269 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(M. Turner, Review of R. J. P. Kain and R. R. Oliver, )] TJ ET BT 320.660 267.269 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Historic parishes of England and Wales: an )] TJ ET BT 64.016 253.013 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(electronic map of boundaries before 1850 with a gazetteer and metadata)] TJ ET BT 413.996 253.013 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, )] TJ ET BT 419.996 253.013 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Agricultural History Review)] TJ ET BT 64.016 238.757 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 50.2 \(2002\), 134?5. )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 167.336 238.757 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 167.336 237.363 m 221.324 237.363 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 212.501 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 198.245 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([9])] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 193.519 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 175.739 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 175.739 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/542)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 174.345 m 322.316 174.345 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 149.368 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 134.968 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/2965)] TJ ET BT 34.016 120.568 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://hds.essex.ac.uk/)] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.168 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([3] http://ahds.ac.uk/history/)] TJ ET BT 34.016 91.768 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([4] http://www.adobe.com/products/illustrator/)] TJ ET BT 34.016 77.368 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([5] http://census.data-archive.ac.uk/)] TJ ET BT 34.016 62.968 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([6] http://edina.ac.uk/ukborders/)] TJ ET endstream endobj 32 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 33 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 83.9957 626.5735 238.9637 638.4535 ] >> endobj 33 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://census.data-archive.ac.uk/) >> endobj 34 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 35 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 598.0615 172.0037 609.9415 ] >> endobj 35 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://edina.ac.uk/ukborders/) >> endobj 36 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 37 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 195.6677 345.9655 465.9917 357.8455 ] >> endobj 37 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://intarch.ac.uk/journal/issue13/reviews/pickles.html) >> endobj 38 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 39 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 298.2917 331.7095 478.9397 343.5895 ] >> endobj 39 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://hds.essex.ac.uk/hpew/hpew.asp) >> endobj 40 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 41 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 167.3357 237.6775 221.3237 249.5575 ] >> endobj 41 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 42 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 43 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 174.6595 322.3157 186.5395 ] >> endobj 43 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/542) >> endobj 44 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 45 0 R >> endobj 45 0 obj << /Length 334 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.354 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([7] http://intarch.ac.uk/journal/issue13/reviews/pickles.html)] TJ ET BT 34.016 781.954 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([8] http://hds.essex.ac.uk/hpew/hpew.asp)] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.554 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([9] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET endstream endobj xref 0 46 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000356 00000 n 0000000393 00000 n 0000000630 00000 n 0000000733 00000 n 0000006202 00000 n 0000006311 00000 n 0000006421 00000 n 0000006530 00000 n 0000010091 00000 n 0000010219 00000 n 0000010303 00000 n 0000010431 00000 n 0000010467 00000 n 0000010595 00000 n 0000010670 00000 n 0000010797 00000 n 0000010875 00000 n 0000010959 00000 n 0000018649 00000 n 0000018776 00000 n 0000018851 00000 n 0000018916 00000 n 0000026411 00000 n 0000026495 00000 n 0000034265 00000 n 0000034393 00000 n 0000034487 00000 n 0000034606 00000 n 0000041845 00000 n 0000041972 00000 n 0000042057 00000 n 0000042184 00000 n 0000042265 00000 n 0000042393 00000 n 0000042502 00000 n 0000042630 00000 n 0000042718 00000 n 0000042846 00000 n 0000042882 00000 n 0000043010 00000 n 0000043105 00000 n 0000043170 00000 n trailer << /Size 46 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 43556 %%EOF