%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 18 0 R 20 0 R 26 0 R ] /Count 4 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140818230338+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140818230338+01'00') /Title (CartoonHub: The Website of the Centre for the Study of Cartoons and Caricature) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R 14 0 R 16 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 5592 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(CartoonHub: The Website of the Centre for the Study of Cartoons )] TJ ET BT 34.016 593.937 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(and Caricature)] TJ ET BT 34.016 380.243 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(However much cartoon specialists might deplore the fact, the principal academic use of cartoons originally )] TJ ET BT 34.016 365.987 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(published in newspapers and magazines is as supporting illustrative material for primarily text-based )] TJ ET BT 34.016 351.731 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(enterprises. Think only of the many books on modern British history which lack entirely a visual component )] TJ ET BT 34.016 337.475 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(except for the )] TJ ET BT 102.992 337.475 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Punch)] TJ ET BT 133.652 337.475 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( cartoon adorning the cover \(mea culpa: I published just such a book myself this year\). )] TJ ET BT 34.016 323.219 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cartoons lend themselves to such uses because they touch on so many aspects of human life, including some )] TJ ET BT 34.016 308.963 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that are not otherwise much illustrated \(foreign policy, for example\), and with a humour and visual flair that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 294.707 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(are attractive and, sometimes, revealing of psychological layers to a subject that textual evidence yields only )] TJ ET BT 34.016 280.451 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with difficulty. On the other hand, cartoons are difficult to use. They are damnably allusive, relying even )] TJ ET BT 34.016 266.195 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(more than other matter from the daily press on subtle contemporary nuance that is hard to decipher. Their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 251.939 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(artists are still relatively under-studied ? the )] TJ ET BT 247.652 251.939 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Oxford Dictionary of National Biography)] TJ ET BT 447.656 251.939 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 454.652 251.939 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 454.652 250.545 m 460.652 250.545 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 460.652 251.939 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\) does not include, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 237.683 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for example, one of the best-loved cartoonists of the 20th century, the )] TJ ET BT 371.288 237.683 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Daily Express)] TJ ET BT 438.944 237.683 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?s Sidney Strube - and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.427 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(their relationship to the editorial policy of the publications in which they appear is not easy to pin down. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 209.171 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Above all cartoons are tricky to locate, requiring laborious paging through fragile newsprint or scrolling )] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.915 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(through dimly-lit microfilm. To the rising generation of digital searchers, they might become invisible )] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.659 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(altogether ? optical character recognition \(OCR\) can track any text string, but many cartoons lack captions, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.403 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(where captions exist they are often handwritten and thus opaque to present-day OCR, and of course visual )] TJ ET BT 34.016 152.147 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cues are completely unsearchable.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 125.891 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(To the rescue rides the )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 145.652 125.891 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cartoon Database)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 145.652 124.497 m 231.296 124.497 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 234.296 125.891 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET BT 248.288 125.891 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( of the Centre for Cartoon and Caricature at the University of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 111.635 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Kent. I say ?Cartoon Database? but it is not at all clear that this is what it is, or what it is called. The Centre )] TJ ET BT 34.016 97.379 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(itself has existed since 1973, and holds in the University library a collection of newspaper cuttings, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 83.123 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(illustrated magazines and original cartoon artwork. It began to catalogue them in earnest in 1996. Shortly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 68.867 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(thereafter it gained a grant from the Research Libraries Support Programme \(RSLP\) to digitize 43,000 )] TJ ET BT 34.016 54.611 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(images from its own and other major cartoon collections and make them available on the web. This project )] TJ ET BT 34.016 563.315 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 549.059 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(543)] TJ ET BT 34.016 534.803 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 520.547 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Saturday, 1 July, 2006)] TJ ET BT 34.016 506.291 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 492.035 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2006)] TJ ET BT 34.016 477.779 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 463.523 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(University of Kent)] TJ ET BT 34.016 449.267 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 435.011 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Canterbury)] TJ ET BT 34.016 420.755 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.499 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Peter Mandler)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 15 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 454.6517 250.8595 460.6517 262.7395 ] >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 17 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 145.6517 124.8115 231.2957 136.6915 ] >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.cartoons.ac.uk/) >> endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 19 0 R >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Length 7282 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was known as CartoonHub, and has been live since at least 2002. Subsequently the Centre has extended the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(database from its own collection. At different places on its website, it refers to the online resource as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?CartoonHub?, ?the database?, and ?the on-line catalogue?; at different places, it attributes to it 35,000, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(85,000, 90,000 and 120,000 images. Such are the vagaries, no doubt, of a chequered funding \(and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(administrative\) history ? but they do leave the user in some uncertainty.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Whatever we call it, and however large it is, the database is a wonderful resource, and the search facility )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(resolves many of the minor and all of the greater irritations traditionally involved in using cartoons. Each )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cartoon is presented in the form of a low-resolution or watermarked scan that is usually perfectly legible and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(indeed satisfactory for any conceivable private use, and the Centre can assist with copyright clearance and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(provide high-resolution images suitable for publication. One can of course search for particular artists or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(publications, and specify spans of dates; one can search captions and all ?embedded text? \(handwritten text )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(has been transcribed\), including the most casual labels. But the truly miraculous element, one that has the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(potential to unlock hitherto hidden visual content, is the tagging of each cartoon with a range of subject )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(terms: characters \(real people but also symbolic figures such as John Bull and Uncle Sam\) and subject )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(keywords \(arranged in a hierarchical thesaurus so that one can relatively easily identify appropriate terms )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that the database will recognize\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Clearly the tagging can be no better than the tagger, and not every reference or context will have been )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(accurately identified. Neither is all the embedded text perfectly transcribed. Nevertheless quite significant )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(results have been achieved. For example, a search for ?Livingstone, David? produces 13 hits, including a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(few for which ?Livingstone? appears nowhere, but which have been associated with Livingstone because the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(words ?I presume? or even ?Stanley? appear, and an ?implied text? thus alludes to Livingstone. \(More than )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(one puns between the two Livingstones, David and Ken.\) In each case the \(sometimes quite obscure\) )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(political figures being portrayed in jungle meetings are also identified. The same cartoons could be found by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(searching for terms such as ?big cats? or ?elephants?, ?Zimbabwe? or ?Rhodesia?, ?weapons, spears?, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?expeditions?, ?proverbs and sayings?, even ?flies? or ?gnats?. A search for ?tapestry? yields 18 hits, all but )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(two of which are parodies of the Bayeux Tapestry; the other two refer to Graham Sutherland?s tapestry for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Coventry Cathedral. Again, all of the trade unionists, European politicians and Soviet apparatchiks portrayed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in the 16 Bayeux tapestries have been identified and indexed. One could also have found the 16 Bayeux )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(tapestries on their own by following the hierarchical thesaurus from ?needlework? or ?tapestry? down to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?Bayeux tapestry? and entering the more precise term in the first place.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Since May 2006 the database and its search engine have been overhauled and more complex searches are )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(now possible. The menus are somewhat over-complicated and some search windows do not close after they )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(have completed their task, leaving the search results hidden beneath until the user closes them manually. It is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(not easy \(in some cases, it is impossible\) to browse search terms; some buttons inviting you to ?browse? are )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(really only designed to help you search, though a search for a term high up the hierarchical thesaurus will at )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(least reveal narrower terms. It is not easy \(again, sometimes impossible\) to get back to the Centre home )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(pages from the database. A regular user can quickly master these and other wrinkles, but first-time users may )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(be perplexed, especially given the confusing variety of information about the database in the home pages.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(One risky but potentially brilliant innovation is that the database has been ?wikified?, that is, it can be edited )] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(by registered users. There is, of course, a great deal of controversy about the accuracy of wikified resources, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(but given the vast array of discrete knowledge necessary properly to contextualize cartoons, this database is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(probably as good a candidate for wikification as any. No doubt the Centre will be monitoring closely the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(work of its volunteer editors. It has already mounted an online forum on which researchers can post queries )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and discuss their editing; at present the forum has attracted only a small handful of users, but it is early days )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(yet.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 94.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Like many such resources ? and again, typically of a resource that expands in irregular phases - the Cartoon )] TJ ET BT 34.016 80.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Database is better at telling you what it is than what it is not. It represents only a portion even of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 66.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Centre?s own holdings, but it is not in the Centre?s interest to say much about the holdings that are not yet )] TJ ET BT 34.016 52.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(digitized, still less about cartoons it does not hold. One page, evidently an outdated one, tells us slyly, ?A )] TJ ET endstream endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 22 0 R 24 0 R ] /Contents 21 0 R >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Length 6903 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(complete list of cartoonists whose work is held is available from the Centre?. There is in fact an online index )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of all cartoonists whose work is held by the Centre, but the main link to it was broken when I tried it in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(August 2006. When revealed by another route, this index proves to contain very helpful thumbnail )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(biographies and also some indication of the Centre?s holdings, but it is not easy to tell from this index which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(portions of the holdings are in the database and which not.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Last year, the Centre acquired the enormous collection of Carl Giles ? ?Giles? of the )] TJ ET BT 442.592 713.189 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Daily Express)] TJ ET BT 510.248 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. It will )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(take some time to catalogue; it is unclear from the website whether the Centre has the right to digitize it. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Copyright of course poses unfathomable problems for online providers of content like this. From that point )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of view it is curious that so much of the database content dates from the 20th century. Only about 500 )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cartoons date from before 1900, most of them by ?HB? \(John Doyle\), from the Tabley Collection at the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(University of Manchester, included as part of the original RSLP programme. There are no Punch cartoons )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dating from before 1923. Naturally the Centre started its digitization programme with its own collections, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(many of which have been donated by living or recently deceased cartoonists; but one would have thought )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that RSLP \(or AHRC or JISC\) funds might have been sought and applied to the bulk digitization of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Victorian cartoons which are mostly out of copyright.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In short, the Centre?s holdings represent only an uncertain fraction of the British cartoon universe, and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Centre?s digitized holdings represent only an uncertain fraction of that uncertain fraction, augmented by the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(anomalous ?orphaned? images from other collections that formed a part \(how big a part?\) of the RSLP )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(programme. Some of this uncertainty arises from the variety of forms in which cartoons can be held now ? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as original artwork, as artwork embedded in pages of newsprint, as cuttings, as scans ? as well as from the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(chequerboard of copyright restrictions, so that it is not always easy to say either what the Centre ?holds? or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(what it can provide to users from its holdings. Yet something called ?CartoonHub? ? or even ?the Cartoon )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Database? ? which is the centre for the study of cartoons in this country has a responsibility to its users to be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as comprehensive and as candid as possible in its presentation both of what it can itself offer and of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(larger universe of resources within which it sits. When the resource is updated, traces of the earlier versions )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(need to be erased as thoroughly as possible \(preferably with a historical record lodged on a dedicated page\). )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The extent of the updated resource needs to be specified as clearly as possible ? with reference to what has )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(been added \(for the convenience of returning users\) and to what still remains outside its remit \(for the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(education of novice users\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(It is, of course, ungrateful to complain about the limitations of an enterprise such as this which represents )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(such an enormous step forward in making accessible a hitherto hidden resource ? )] TJ ET BT 426.260 332.789 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(especially)] TJ ET BT 474.248 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( when that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(frequently misused clich, ?hidden resource?, has rarely been so aptly applied as it is here. Some of these )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(limitations derive understandably from stop-and-go funding, from the limited administrative capacity )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dedicated to web resources \(especially those intended to be permanent ? which all too often means )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(neglected\), from narrow institutional interests of universities and copyright-holders, and from the ever-rising )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(expectations of users. Nevertheless, a reminder of these limitations might be a useful prod to finding new )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ways to cope with them. Above all, if we can establish scholarly norms for electronic resources as rigorous )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and conventional as the norms we have for print resources, then we might have some hope that funding, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(administrative and institutional considerations get accommodated to our norms rather than vice-versa.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 183.843 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 153.226 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 153.221 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Oxford Dictionary of National Biography \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 270.980 153.221 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 270.980 151.827 m 324.968 151.827 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 126.965 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 112.709 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([3])] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 107.983 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 90.203 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 90.203 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/543)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 88.809 m 322.316 88.809 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 63.832 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.432 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/2967)] TJ ET endstream endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 23 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 270.9797 152.1415 324.9677 164.0215 ] >> endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 24 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 25 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 89.1235 322.3157 101.0035 ] >> endobj 25 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/543) >> endobj 26 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 27 0 R >> endobj 27 0 obj << /Length 218 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.354 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://www.cartoons.ac.uk/)] TJ ET BT 34.016 781.954 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([3] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET endstream endobj xref 0 28 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000342 00000 n 0000000379 00000 n 0000000581 00000 n 0000000677 00000 n 0000006321 00000 n 0000006430 00000 n 0000006540 00000 n 0000006649 00000 n 0000010210 00000 n 0000010338 00000 n 0000010422 00000 n 0000010550 00000 n 0000010586 00000 n 0000010714 00000 n 0000010792 00000 n 0000010857 00000 n 0000018192 00000 n 0000018283 00000 n 0000025239 00000 n 0000025367 00000 n 0000025403 00000 n 0000025530 00000 n 0000025625 00000 n 0000025690 00000 n trailer << /Size 28 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 25960 %%EOF