%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 16 0 R 18 0 R 24 0 R ] /Count 4 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140819133346+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140819133346+01'00') /Title (Britain's Policy Towards the European Community: Harold Wilson and Britain's World Role, 1964?1967) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R 14 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4299 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Britain's Policy Towards the European Community: Harold Wilson )] TJ ET BT 34.016 593.937 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(and Britain's World Role, 1964?1967)] TJ ET BT 34.016 266.195 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Every prime minister's reputation combines a mixture of image and reality, and that of Wilson has all too )] TJ ET BT 34.016 251.939 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(often been the image of the wily, pipe-smoking fixer. However, there is a growing school of revisionist )] TJ ET BT 34.016 237.683 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(thinking about Wilson that is more nuanced and sympathetic, seen in recent publications such as those edited )] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.427 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(by Oliver Daddow and Peter Dorey \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 211.304 223.427 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 211.304 222.033 m 217.304 222.033 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 217.304 223.427 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\). This excellent book forms part of this revisionist assessment. Based )] TJ ET BT 34.016 209.171 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(on detailed archival research and on extensive interviews, it creates a subtle and complex assessment of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.915 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Wilson the pragmatic politician. The book succeeds in its aim of recreating British government decision )] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.659 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(making on European integration during the mid-1960s, and of analysing the resulting effort to achieve )] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.403 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(membership of the European Communities \(EC\). Parr both elucidates and critiques Wilson's motivation and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 152.147 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(strategy in deciding to launch a second British application for membership, in the context of domestic and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 137.891 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(international constraints. She has produced a well-written and compelling analysis.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 111.635 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The structure of the book is logical and clearly set out, moving through the period 1964?1967 )] TJ ET BT 34.016 97.379 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(chronologically but with attention to the key arguments throughout. The introduction sets out the context of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 83.123 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(British foreign and European policy in the 1960s and illustrates the current debates surrounding Harold )] TJ ET BT 34.016 68.867 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Wilson in the literature. Parr gives a clear rationale for a reassessment of Wilson, and of his handling of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 54.611 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(domestic environment in the arena of European policy. The introduction also notes the important )] TJ ET BT 34.016 563.315 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 549.059 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(544)] TJ ET BT 34.016 534.803 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 520.547 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Tuesday, 1 August, 2006)] TJ ET BT 34.016 506.291 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 492.035 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Helen Parr)] TJ ET BT 34.016 477.779 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 463.523 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9780714656144)] TJ ET BT 34.016 449.267 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 435.011 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2005)] TJ ET BT 34.016 420.755 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.499 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(75.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.243 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.987 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(231pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.731 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.475 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Routledge)] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.219 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.963 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Abingdon)] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.707 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.451 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Melissa Pine)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 15 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 211.3037 222.3475 217.3037 234.2275 ] >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 17 0 R >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Length 7095 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(developments within the European Community during the 1960s, and highlights the significance of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(British application for membership for those developments. The introduction finishes with a useful overview )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the structure of the book.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(To start, the book sets out the flaws in the existing historiographical assessment of Wilson's European )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(policy, arguing that it was more consistent and more thoroughly based on strategic concerns than has been )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(recognised. Wilson's thinking developed during the first, Conservative, application to the EC, when he )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(acknowledged the attraction of 'the right sort of Europe' \(p. 19\)?outward-looking, Atlanticist, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(intergovernmental and facilitating of technological progress. However, he remained focused on the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Commonwealth and on modernization in Britain itself. At the same time, the desire to maintain a strategic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(world role and thus partnership with the United States meant a focus outside Europe. These priorities, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(combined with difficulties within the EC itself, meant that despite Whitehall pressure, there was no urgent )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(need to revisit European policy during the early months of the Labour government.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Diplomacy therefore concentrated, as the second chapter explores, on 'bridge building' between the EC and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the British-formed European Free Trade Association \(EFTA\). The need to assuage EFTA anger at the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(British imposition of an import surcharge tied in neatly with Wilson's desire to seek technological )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(collaboration and greater free trade more widely in Europe. However, Foreign Office pressure for a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reassessment of the membership question contributed to Wilson's decision to raise the issue in Cabinet. At )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(this stage, Parr demonstrates, Wilson's policy was both reactive and inadequate; he was responding to EFTA )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(discontent, to efforts at resolving the Common Agricultural Policy \(CAP\) in the EC, to the increasing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fragmentation of the Commonwealth, and to the 1965-66 crisis in the Community itself. He had not yet )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(grasped the impossibility of creating 'the right sort of Europe', but increasingly felt the constraints of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(weakening of Britain's international position.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The work goes on to explore the transition from this amorphous trend of seeing Britain's future in Europe, to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the decision to apply, unconditionally, for full membership of the EC. International developments such as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the French decision to withdraw from the Integrated Military Command of the North Atlantic Treaty )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Organisation \(NATO\) and American rage at Wilson's policy on Vietnam shook the Atlantic Alliance and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(made the need for consolidation in Europe more apparent. Economic realities, including the failure of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(National Plan and consequent need for massive cuts in the defence budget, contributed to the narrowing of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(options. The sterling crisis of July 1966 was the proximate cause for Wilson's shift to a policy of seeking )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(membership and his suggestion that he and Foreign Secretary George Brown should tour European capitals )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to explore the likely continental response to a British application. No single moment of conversion is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(pinpointed; rather, at some point between the sterling crisis and the Cabinet meeting held in Chequers a few )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(months later in October, Wilson made up his mind that an application to the EC was the best option for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Britain. From this point, Parr argues, 'backsliding from some kind of approach to the EEC was extremely )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(unlikely' \(p. 95\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 249.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The rest of the book is therefore concerned less with Wilson's own decision making and more with his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(domestic and international efforts to bring the policy to fruition. Chapter Four describes and analyses the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(aforementioned tour, during which Wilson accepted that only a full and unconditional application for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(membership, rather than a conditional one or a request for exploratory talks, could have any chance of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(success. The centrality of the French role was clear from the outset. As Wilson saw it, the only possible way )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to pre-empt French criticism and likely veto was to take a clear step away from previous British hesitations )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and conditions, and to 'state willingness to enter the EEC almost at any price' \(p. 124\). However, it was not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(only the Six whom Wilson had to convince.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 123.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Wilson still had to bring his Cabinet to accept the notion of an unconditional application, a problem covered )] TJ ET BT 34.016 109.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in the fifth chapter. He did so by making the political case for entry, arguing that in both the short and long )] TJ ET BT 34.016 94.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(term, entry into the EC was Britain's only option; Britain had no choice but to keep trying until successful. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 80.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ministers did not come to agreement on terms of entry?indeed, Wilson forced them to address only the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 66.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(broader political case. That is not to say that problematic issues like CAP, capital movements, New Zealand )] TJ ET BT 34.016 52.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and the Commonwealth Sugar Agreement were not discussed, but that they were not permitted to obscure or )] TJ ET endstream endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 20 0 R 22 0 R ] /Contents 19 0 R >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Length 6916 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(take priority over the fact that Wilson saw entry as the only possible choice for Britain. He spun this decision )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in a positive light, arguing that membership and leadership in Europe would enable Britain to play a greater, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(not lesser, role in the world. Resolution of some Commonwealth issues, the decision to withdraw fully from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(East of Suez, and ongoing economic problems only made the outcome more certain, and ministers ultimately )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(acquiesced in Wilson's desire for a full and unconditional application.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The final chapter charts the period from the publication of Britain's application to the EC to French President )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(de Gaulle's veto of the same. Despite the likelihood of a French veto, Wilson and Brown genuinely believed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that entry in the short term was possible, and they directed their attention both to negotiating with de Gaulle )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and to demonstrating Britain's ability to accept the Treaty of Rome in order to undermine potential French )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(criticism and to bolster the support of the Five. Wilson sought to win de Gaulle over through offering )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(technological and political collaboration. When he could not overcome what he saw as de Gaulle's )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('irrationality' \(p. 160\) he made a tactical shift toward wooing the Five instead, returning to his earlier idea of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a technological community. Continued British economic weakness, culminating with the devaluation of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sterling in November, gave de Gaulle the opportunity decisively to block the opening of negotiations with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Britain, first in a press conference and then within the formal structures of the EC. Nevertheless, the firm )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(nature of Wilson's pragmatic conversion to a future in the EC was underlined when he, Brown and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cabinet insisted that the application remained live.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The conclusion coherently draws the several arguments of the book together. Parr restates the point that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Britain's turn to the EEC under Wilson was not in any way inevitable \(p. 185\). Instead, reacting both to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(domestic constraints and international developments, Wilson became a strong advocate of British entry to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the EC. Events culminating in the July 1966 sterling crisis forced him to make a pragmatic choice in order to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rebuild domestic strength and to safeguard a future role for Britain in the world. In a similarly pragmatic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(manner, he accepted that only an unconditional application had any chance of success. He forced his Cabinet )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(into a position where they had little option but to back the application, whatever ministers' misgivings over )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(possible terms. Finally, although the application was unsuccessful in the short term, it compelled an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(acknowledgement that 'Europe' could not be confined to 'the Six' in the long term. Nevertheless, Wilson's )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(pursuit of European policy was flawed both domestically and internationally, leaving crucial questions open )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for the future.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The book is based upon extensive and detailed archival research, in multiple British archives: The National )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Archives in Kew; the Labour Party Archives in Manchester; the Bank of England Archives in London; and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(collections of private papers held in several libraries. The National Archives research alone involved the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(papers of a number of different departments, illustrating that European policy was capable of dominating )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(government attention, and that the application for membership required a truly cross-departmental approach. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The private papers consulted included all those available from relevant ministers and officials, although the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(papers of Lord Wilson of Rievaulx are only recently open and may well merit deeper examination \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 511.916 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 511.916 274.371 m 517.916 274.371 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 517.916 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\). No )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(non-British archives have been used in this research?a criticism directed at other recent works \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 491.900 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(3)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 491.900 260.115 m 497.900 260.115 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 497.900 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\). However, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the central aim of this book is to reconstruct )] TJ ET BT 248.324 247.253 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(British)] TJ ET BT 281.000 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( decision-making and )] TJ ET BT 387.320 247.253 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(British)] TJ ET BT 419.996 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( diplomacy on the European )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(continent; therefore, the British nature of the research is wholly justified. Moreover, Parr handles the mass of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(documentary evidence with great clarity and assurance.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Archival sources are supplemented by a number of interviews or written correspondence with key officials )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and two former Cabinet ministers. Some key Cabinet ministers alive at the time of writing are missing from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the list?Barbara Castle, Denis Healey and Roy Jenkins come to mind immediately?but of course it is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(impossible to assess whether these or other ministers declined an invitation to be interviewed.)] TJ ET endstream endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 21 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 511.9157 274.6855 517.9157 286.5655 ] >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 23 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 491.8997 260.4295 497.8997 272.3095 ] >> endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 24 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 26 0 R 28 0 R 30 0 R 32 0 R ] /Contents 25 0 R >> endobj 25 0 obj << /Length 6641 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Parr also makes use of the many published diaries and memoirs produced by Wilson himself, by his Cabinet )] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ministers and acquaintances, and by other leading European statesmen. The book is further grounded in a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(wide and up to date reading of relevant secondary literature, detailed in the extensive bibliography. Cutting )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(edge research was harvested from unpublished sources including conference papers and PhD theses. As Sir )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Michael Palliser comments in the foreword, Parr has produced a work of 'meticulous research and real )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(scholarship' \(p. x\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 686.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The book therefore asks and answers clear research questions with no overt omissions. European policy is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 672.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(considered in the context of broader foreign policy and of domestic economic concerns. No attention is paid )] TJ ET BT 34.016 658.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to other areas of domestic policy, perhaps because it had little or no impact on the core themes of the book. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 644.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(There are two mutually connected areas where further discussion and analysis would be interesting, given )] TJ ET BT 34.016 629.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(time and space. First, there is little reference to the internal dynamics of the Labour Party itself on the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(question of European policy outside the first chapter; this omission may simply reflect the lack of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(importance of the Party in the making of European policy. Second, Parr argues in the introduction that '1967 )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(emerges as the moment at which the domestic political consensus in Britain shifted decisively in favour of a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(British future in Europe' \(p. 7\). She clearly illustrates this assertion in terms of the two main political parties, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(but there is little reference to public opinion and any role it may have played in shaping the change in policy. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(As with the Labour Party, public opinion may simply prove to be irrelevant in the formation of European )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(policy, particularly after the consolidation of Wilson's governing strength in the 1966 election.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 503.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Parr's scholarship in )] TJ ET BT 133.832 503.861 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Britain's Policy Towards the European Community)] TJ ET BT 380.072 503.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( is convincing. It provides a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 489.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(persuasive revision of Harold Wilson the politician in general and of his European policy in particular. It is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 475.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(not a hagiography: there is no effort to present Wilson as driven by principle or as an idealist, and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 461.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(weaknesses and flaws in his decision-making, his world-view and his statesmanship are laid bare. However, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the book convincingly undoes the still popular image of Wilson the wily politician, driven only by power )] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(politics and the necessities of party management. It presents Wilson as a leader confronted with tremendous )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(domestic economic difficulties and, at the same time, narrowing international options for a state used to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(playing a large role in the world.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 369.171 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 338.554 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 338.549 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Harold Wilson and European Integration: Britain's Second Application to join the EEC)] TJ ET BT 485.588 338.549 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, ed. O. )] TJ ET BT 64.016 324.293 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Daddow \(2003\); )] TJ ET BT 146.000 324.293 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Labour Governments 1964-1970)] TJ ET BT 324.320 324.293 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, ed. P. Dorey \(Abingdon, 2006\). )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 485.300 324.293 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 485.300 322.899 m 539.288 322.899 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 310.042 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 310.037 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ben Pimlott had access to the Wilson papers for his biography, as did Philip Ziegler, but few other )] TJ ET BT 64.016 295.781 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historians have yet had access to this enormous and under-catalogued resource \(Ben Pimlott, )] TJ ET BT 511.940 295.781 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Harold )] TJ ET BT 64.016 281.525 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Wilson)] TJ ET BT 97.352 281.525 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Glasgow, 1992\); Philip Ziegler, )] TJ ET BT 259.676 281.525 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Wilson: The Authorised Lifeof Lord Wilson of Rievaulx )] TJ ET BT 64.016 267.269 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1993\). )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 102.008 267.269 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 102.008 265.875 m 155.996 265.875 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 253.018 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(3.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 253.013 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(See N. Piers Ludlow, 'The making of the CAP: towards a historical analysis of the EU's first major )] TJ ET BT 64.016 238.757 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(policy', )] TJ ET BT 102.176 238.757 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Contemporary European History)] TJ ET BT 261.500 238.757 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 14.3 \(2005\), 348. )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 353.492 238.757 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 353.492 237.363 m 407.480 237.363 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 212.501 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 198.245 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 193.519 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 175.739 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 175.739 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/544)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 174.345 m 322.316 174.345 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 149.368 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 134.968 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/2969)] TJ ET BT 34.016 120.568 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET endstream endobj 26 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 27 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 485.2997 323.2135 539.2877 335.0935 ] >> endobj 27 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 28 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 29 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 102.0077 266.1895 155.9957 278.0695 ] >> endobj 29 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 30 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 31 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 353.4917 237.6775 407.4797 249.5575 ] >> endobj 31 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 32 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 33 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 174.6595 322.3157 186.5395 ] >> endobj 33 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/544) >> endobj xref 0 34 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000342 00000 n 0000000379 00000 n 0000000601 00000 n 0000000690 00000 n 0000005041 00000 n 0000005150 00000 n 0000005260 00000 n 0000005369 00000 n 0000008930 00000 n 0000009058 00000 n 0000009142 00000 n 0000009270 00000 n 0000009306 00000 n 0000009371 00000 n 0000016519 00000 n 0000016610 00000 n 0000023579 00000 n 0000023707 00000 n 0000023743 00000 n 0000023871 00000 n 0000023907 00000 n 0000024012 00000 n 0000030706 00000 n 0000030834 00000 n 0000030870 00000 n 0000030998 00000 n 0000031034 00000 n 0000031162 00000 n 0000031198 00000 n 0000031326 00000 n trailer << /Size 34 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 31421 %%EOF