%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 16 0 R 18 0 R ] /Count 4 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140922122529+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140922122529+01'00') /Title (The Dutch Slave Trade 1500-1850) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4358 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(The Dutch Slave Trade 1500-1850)] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.091 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This is a short book on what turns out to be a rather bigger subject than might have been expected from the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 301.835 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(title; not because the Dutch slave trade was so important, but because Emmer uses it as an entry to a wide )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.579 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(range of issues concerning the Atlantic slave trade in general and its historiography. In just over 152 pages )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of text the author not only covers the main features of the Dutch slave trade, but also provides a succinct )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(discussion of the impact of the trade as a whole, and even finds space to enter into the contentious arena of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(moral judgements and imputed guilt. Indeed, besides being a triumph of concision, the book is also )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(characterized by its pervasive moral tone. In an interesting variation on the usual form of such discussions, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Emmer moves beyond straightforward condemnation and tries to place the undoubted harshness of the slave )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(trade in the perspective of man?s general inhumanity towards man in the early modern period, and so to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(suggest that there was nothing especially cruel about the treatment meted out to slaves. It is remarkable how )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(much interesting material and controversial argument he has managed to pack into such a limited space. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(translation by Chris Emery from the original Dutch text is clear and reads well.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.019 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Emmer estimates that despite their general economic strength, in the seventeenth century at least, the Dutch )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(had only a relatively insignificant share in the Atlantic slave trade?never averaging much more than 5?6 per )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.507 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cent of the total. However, he argues that they did have a significant role in the development of the trade in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.251 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the first half of the seventeenth century, not only through supplying their short-lived Brazilian colony with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 75.995 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(slaves, but, perhaps more importantly by stimulating the cultivation of sugar?with the consequent urgent )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.739 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(need for slaves?in the French and English Caribbean. Then they turned to Spanish America, transporting )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.699 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(545)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.187 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.931 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Sunday, 1 October, 2006)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.675 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.419 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(P. C. Emmer)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.163 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.907 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1845450310)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.651 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.395 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2006)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.139 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.883 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(45.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.627 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.371 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Berghahn)] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.115 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.859 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Oxford)] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.603 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.347 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(J. Leslie Price)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 7454 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(around 100,000 slaves to this region by 1730. Nevertheless, the Dutch share of the trade as a whole remained )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(relatively small. In a way the problem is not so much why the Dutch role in the Atlantic slave trade was so )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(limited, but rather why they bothered with it at all, as the surviving evidence suggests that, as far as the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Dutch were concerned, the economic returns of the slave trade were notably poor. Certainly, the second )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(West India Company \(after 1674\) failed to make the trade pay, despite enjoying a monopoly until 1730. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Admittedly there were a range of other problems dragging the WIC down, but opening the trade up does not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(seem to have led to a significant improvement in profitability. Indeed, this may be the reason why the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(economically ailing province of Zeeland played such a prominent part in this trade?merchants there had )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fewer alternative options, and there was always the hope of profit.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In his introductory chapter, Emmer sketches the background to the Dutch entry into the slave trade, showing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(how initial hostility faded with the economic opportunities opening up to the \(first\) West India Company )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(after its foundation in 1621. Opposition to the slave trade seems to have been little more than a minor part of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the more general condemnation of Spanish cruelty embodied in the Black Legend rather than having strong )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(moral or religious roots in contemporary Dutch culture. When the conquest of part of Brazil opened up new )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(economic opportunities such moral scruples rapidly faded. \(In a similar way, sympathy for the sufferings of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Native Americans at the hands of the Spanish did not long survive Dutch contact with real, rather than )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(idealized, Indians in New Netherland.\) Emmer suggests that there was a species of racism involved here; )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(subjecting Europeans to slavery was unthinkable but Africans were a different matter. There is, however, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(another way of understanding the situation. Slavery and the slave trade existed in Africa, and the Dutch were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(prepared to take part in it, just as they involved themselves in existing trade and trade systems throughout )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the world in the seventeenth century, without giving too much thought to the moral implications of what )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(they were doing. To this extent racism did not create the slave trade, but it did give Europeans a ready )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(excuse for taking part in it.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The main sections of the book cover the way in which the Dutch collected their slaves in Africa, the crossing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to America, and the destination of the slaves. The Dutch bought their slaves in West Africa and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Congo/Angola region, and they bought them on the open market. This could be a slow business. In the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(eighteenth century it took about five to seven months cruising off the coast of Africa before a full cargo )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(could be obtained, and although traders had their preferences they usually had to take what they could get. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(With regard to the conditions on the ships during the crossing of the Atlantic, Emmer stresses that high rates )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of mortality were not a consequence of deliberate inhumanity, but rather of disease, ignorance, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(overcrowding. There was no profit in dead slaves, but disease came aboard with the slaves and flourished in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the cramped conditions in which the slaves were forced to live. A major problem seems to have been the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(lack of sufficient drinking water?in the hot conditions of the slave-holds the slaves suffered severe )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dehydration as far less water was available than they needed. It was not cruelty that kept rates of mortality )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(aboard the slave ships high but a combination of ignorance of its causes together with an inability to treat )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(tropical?indeed any?diseases effectively. However, the Dutch did lag behind when the English, in the late-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(eighteenth century, began to improve conditions on their slave ships by better ventilation of the slave holds. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(If there was inhumanity involved, it was of a much more general nature and not especially directed at slaves. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The rates of mortality among the crews of slave ships were also high, as they were for the crews of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Dutch East India Company ships on the long voyage to Java. Emmer notes that a particular problem for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Dutch slave ships was the difficulty of finding ships? surgeons with experience of the slave trade and its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(problems, as more than half of them died on their first voyage.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The slaves were mostly taken to the West Indies or Surinam and Emmer gives a brief account of their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(treatment on arrival and the conditions of life on the plantations where most of them were sent. One problem )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(he considers is the relative reproductive failure of slaves in the Dutch West Indies and Surinam, which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(meant that a constant supply of slaves was required to satisfy the needs of the plantation economy. The chief )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reason for this seems to have been a constant high mortality rate caused by the continual importation of West )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(African diseases along with the slaves. \(Emmer points out that mortality among Europeans in the West )] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Indies was even higher than that of the slaves.\) The effects of this unhealthy environment were compounded )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(by the low ratio of female to male slaves, so the birth rate was never able to exceed the death rate. In )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 17 0 R >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Length 7517 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contrast, in the southern United States mortality was lower and the slave population was able to reproduce )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(itself, which in itself produced a demographically healthier male-female ratio.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In assessing the effects of the slave trade on Africa, Emmer sides with those who tend to minimize its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(impact, at least economically. Europeans did not create the African slave trade, though they did stimulate its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(growth, and the Atlantic trade was only a part of the total African trade in slaves, and was never controlled )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(by the Europeans who had to take what African traders offered at the prevailing market prices. Similarly, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(volume of European goods imported to pay for the slaves was far too small to have any significant )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(deleterious effect on the African economy overall. \(Yet, as he points out, this only serves to emphasize how )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(little Africa gained from the sale of so many of its people.\) Demographically too, he argues, the impact on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Africa was minimal: 11 million over nearly four centuries comes to only 1.3 per cent per annum \(p. 52; a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(figure of 12 million is given on p. 56\). In brief, the economic problems of modern Africa have nothing to do )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with the slave trade, however morally repugnant it may have been.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The Dutch played even less of a part in the ending of the slave trade, and what little they did was largely the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(result of British pressure. At first glance it seems odd that the Dutch, with so little to lose, dragged their feet )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(while England, with a much heavier investment in the trade, took the lead. On this issue the Dutch failed to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(take the moral high ground which was to become so familiar to them by the later-nineteenth century. Emmer )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(attributes this failure to the deeply conservative nature of early-nineteenth-century Dutch society and politics )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(together with concern for the plantation economy of Surinam. More weight might, perhaps, have been given )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to the general fragility of the Dutch economy in contrast to the dynamism of industrializing Britain. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Dutch believed they were in no position to take risks, and only later in the century, with increasing profits )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from the exploitation of their East Indian possessions, did they feel able to afford to end slavery in their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(American colonies. Emmer sees this notable lack of humanitarian concern as morally reprehensible but notes )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that other countries with relatively weak economies and an investment in the slave trade and slavery were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(equally unwilling to act.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Throughout the book the author tries to place the unpleasant realities of the slave trade in a comparative )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(perspective. In some cases these comparisons are more than somewhat dubious, and at times they are )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(inaccurate. Unless it is a misprint, he appears to believe that two thirds of the population of central Europe )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(died as a result of the Thirty Years War, while his comments on the general harshness of life in early modern )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Europe are true but of uncertain relevance. More obviously relevant is his comparison of the cruelty of some )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the punishments meted out to slaves with the equally inhumane treatment of condemned criminals in early )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(modern Europe. Appalling cruelty there was, but it was endemic in European society and not specific to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(slave trade. Similarly, as noted above, mortality among slaves during the Atlantic passage is compared with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that among the slave ships? crews and, indeed, with mortality during long-distance voyages in general before )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the advent of effective modern treatment for disease and physical debilitation.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Less helpful perhaps is the comparison with other great crimes of history, though, to be fair, Emmer is more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 249.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(concerned with the problem of selective historical memory rather than with futile arguments as to whether )] TJ ET BT 34.016 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the slave trade was worse than the Holocaust. It is more to the point to ask why the one has been given far )] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(more attention than the other. He claims that the relative neglect of the slave trade is part of a wider tendency )] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for the Dutch to ignore, or play down, the less virtuous aspects of their own history. Here Emmer joins what )] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(seems to be a fashion in Dutch historiography; in recent years historian after historian has attacked what is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(seen as a pervasive sense of moral superiority stemming from a highly selective view of their country?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(history. The spectacular achievements of the VOC are celebrated, but not the ruthless exploitation that was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(essential to this success. The extent of religious toleration in the seventeenth century is praised, but its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sometimes severe limits receive far less attention. The German occupation of the Netherlands during the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Second World War is seen in terms of the heroism of the few and the sufferings of the many, while the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(extent of collaboration of one sort or another is swept under the carpet. Indeed, such condemnations of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(complacency have become so common that one is left to wonder who is left to be complacent?just who still )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(clings to such simplistic views about the past? The Occupation is a case in point. During the last forty or so )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(years a flood of material has been published that has very effectively shattered the myths that were so dear to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the immediate post-war generation. This particular battle against complacency has surely been won. It may )] TJ ET endstream endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 20 0 R ] /Contents 19 0 R >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Length 4375 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(be that the Dutch need to be made aware of the part that their country played in the slave trade, but )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sometimes it seems that the prevailing Dutch vice is not complacency but moral masochism. At one point )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Emmer lists some of the darker aspects of the Dutch past: ?persistent and widespread poverty, high infant )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mortality, the relentless persecution of homosexuals, the degrading treatment of women ? and the inequitable )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(system of class justice?. He then goes on: ?One might expect the present-day Dutch to feel some sense of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(shame, but there is no indication that they do? \(p. 147\). Apart from the fact that there is nothing specifically )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Dutch about such conditions, it is hard to see why anyone should be expected to feel guilt about high infant )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mortality in early modern Europe when no one could have done anything about it at the time. Also, while a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(better understanding of attitudes to women and homosexuals in the past can make a vital contribution to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contemporary social debate, it is far from clear why shame should come into it, and what purpose it would )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(serve if it did. It seems that it is the claims of the black community in the Netherlands?largely from Surinam )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and the Antilles?for some sort of recognition of their part in Dutch history, and perhaps for some form of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reparations for past mistreatment, that has made the imputation of guilt an issue in this case.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(It might be asked whether it should not be possible to study the history of the Atlantic slave trade and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(associated slave systems in the Americas without questions of shame and guilt blurring the picture. It is in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(any case difficult to see who should feel guilty for these undoubted crimes of the past. Should the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(descendants of the almost equally exploited labourers and unskilled workers of early modern Europe be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(excluded?together with women and homosexuals because they too were mistreated? On the other hand, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Emmer argues that without racism the Atlantic slave trade could never have flourished as it did. Europeans )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(did not enslave fellow Europeans but had no such scruples about Africans. It is in the context of persisting )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(endemic racism in the modern world that the history of the slave trade has an enduring relevance.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This book is volume five of the series )] TJ ET BT 218.000 473.093 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(European Expansion and Global Interaction )] TJ ET BT 435.656 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, of which the author is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(one of the general editors, and it certainly constitutes a valuable contribution to the history of the European )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(impact on the wider world in the early modern period and after.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 399.343 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 381.563 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 381.563 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/545)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 380.169 m 322.316 380.169 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 355.192 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 340.792 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/2971)] TJ ET BT 34.016 326.392 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET endstream endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 21 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 380.4835 322.3157 392.3635 ] >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/545) >> endobj xref 0 22 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000342 00000 n 0000000379 00000 n 0000000534 00000 n 0000000616 00000 n 0000005026 00000 n 0000005135 00000 n 0000005245 00000 n 0000005354 00000 n 0000008915 00000 n 0000009043 00000 n 0000009127 00000 n 0000009192 00000 n 0000016699 00000 n 0000016764 00000 n 0000024334 00000 n 0000024418 00000 n 0000028846 00000 n 0000028974 00000 n trailer << /Size 22 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 29069 %%EOF