%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 16 0 R 22 0 R 30 0 R 36 0 R ] /Count 5 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140722080652+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140722080652+01'00') /Title (Spies in Uniform: British Military and Naval Intelligence on the Eve of the First World War) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R 14 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4622 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Spies in Uniform: British Military and Naval Intelligence on the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 593.937 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Eve of the First World War)] TJ ET BT 34.016 294.707 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Matthew Seligmann's )] TJ ET BT 140.840 294.707 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Spies in Uniform)] TJ ET BT 222.176 294.707 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( is an attempt to understand more fully the bases of British decision-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 280.451 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(making and policy from 1900?1914 in the light of a full investigation of the reports and work of the naval )] TJ ET BT 34.016 266.195 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and military attachs in Germany. In historiographical terms, the book falls into the school of argument that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 251.939 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sees British foreign policy in the period as principally rationally motivated by external events and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 237.683 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(considerations of the balance of power rather than internal cultural or societal causation, for example the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.427 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('social-imperialism' often associated with German actions. The work offers a rebuttal to arguments that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 209.171 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(British actions were based on at best ignorance of?or at worst a wilful disregard for?intelligence and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.915 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(assessments of Germany's intentions and capabilities. Seligmann's basic view of the determinants of British )] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.659 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(policy reflects much general work on British foreign policy \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 326.300 180.659 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 326.300 179.265 m 332.300 179.265 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 332.300 180.659 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\). His analysis of these sources posits three )] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.403 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(further contentions: first, that the attachs were a vital source for the analysis of German armed forces; )] TJ ET BT 34.016 152.147 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(second, they helped to emphasize the feeling of a 'German menace' in the War Office, Admiralty, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 137.891 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Foreign Office; and, finally, he argues that 'military and naval attachs played a dynamic and underrated role )] TJ ET BT 34.016 123.635 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in moulding Britain's diplomatic and strategic behaviour' \(p. 29\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 97.379 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The text opens with a discussion of the types of military and naval intelligence available to British policy )] TJ ET BT 34.016 83.123 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(makers: open-source; consuls; ad hoc visits by serving officers; and espionage. Not surprisingly, Seligmann )] TJ ET BT 34.016 68.867 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(concludes that the attachs were the most effective form of intelligence available. His investigation of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 54.611 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(attach sources is extremely thorough and must be applauded, and it has brought to light material which has )] TJ ET BT 34.016 563.315 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 549.059 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(546)] TJ ET BT 34.016 534.803 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 520.547 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Wednesday, 1 November, 2006)] TJ ET BT 34.016 506.291 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 492.035 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Matthew Seligmann)] TJ ET BT 34.016 477.779 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 463.523 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9780199261505)] TJ ET BT 34.016 449.267 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 435.011 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2006)] TJ ET BT 34.016 420.755 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.499 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(55.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.243 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.987 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Oxford University Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.731 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.475 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Oxford)] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.219 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.963 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Jonathan Todd)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 15 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 326.2997 179.5795 332.2997 191.4595 ] >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 18 0 R 20 0 R ] /Contents 17 0 R >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Length 8287 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(hitherto been considered missing, or not known to exist, such as the Dumas diary. While the much-lamented )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('weeding' of the files of the service ministries discussed here has destroyed many of their records, including )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the attach reports, it must stand as something of an indictment that much of the material is freely available )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in The National Archives, in the Foreign Office files, and Admiralty library, and thus hardly 'lost' in any real )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sense. Some historians have looked at certain aspects of this material. Most notably, Arthur Marder was able )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to see some of this material before it was destroyed, although, of course, Marder's selection must necessarily )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(be seen through the prism of his interpretation. Chapter 1 is concerned with the 'court and social' functions of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the attachs within Germany. Seligmann is clearly on his home turf as an authority on Germany, especially )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in highlighting that in a militaristic society with a militaristic Kaiser, the attachs' position as diplomats was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(necessarily heightened. The stress on hoffhig \(behaviour appropriate to social status\) and wealth of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(individual attachs gives a further insight into the nature of both the Kaiser's court and the impact of cultural )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(factors on the Edwardian diplomatic and armed services. Indeed, a certain level of personal wealth was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(valued more highly than fluency in German. The attachs' dual role as representatives of their service and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 611.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(intelligence assets as well as officials under the auspices of the Foreign Office is acknowledged and given )] TJ ET BT 34.016 596.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(due attention. Seligmann also notes that many of the attachs were 'high-flyers' usually possessed of a high )] TJ ET BT 34.016 582.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(degree of personal intelligence and distinguished service records before and after these postings. Some of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 568.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(differences between the attitudes of the Army and Navy are highlighted, with the Naval attachs being given )] TJ ET BT 34.016 554.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the systematic training necessary for their more technical role \(p. 71\). If anything, all of these features could )] TJ ET BT 34.016 539.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(have been further examined and their significance brought more into the subsequent analysis. The modi )] TJ ET BT 34.016 525.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(operandi of the attachs and the limitations of the sources available to them are discussed in depth: absence )] TJ ET BT 34.016 511.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of espionage; importance of third parties; and so forth. Anyone wishing to understand some of the methods )] TJ ET BT 34.016 497.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and limitations of intelligence acquisition during this period will find this section useful. Seligmann is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 482.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(successful in his objective of establishing both the credibility and accuracy of the attachs and appreciating )] TJ ET BT 34.016 468.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the environment in which they operated.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The book then moves to examine the attachs' work in gathering information on personnel and materil. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Raw intelligence data, of course, presents the historian with numerous problems of how to create a narrative )] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(account and an assessment of its significance, particularly when the approach is a thematic one as largely )] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(undertaken here. The author elects to take three 'case studies' of materil?German aviation, motor vehicles )] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and flotilla vessels?and looks as well at personnel issues. The case studies make interesting reading and shed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 371.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(some light on both the technological development of the German armed forces and the nature of British )] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(responses to them. Nevertheless, the reader is, to a degree, left wondering as to the overall significance of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(these points. For instance, in the discussion of submarines and destroyers we are told that Henry Jackson, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Controller, and Jackie Fisher, then First Sea Lord, were both instructing the attachs to obtain information )] TJ ET BT 34.016 314.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(pp. 132?33\), but there is no indication as to why this was, nor what the significance was of the effectiveness )] TJ ET BT 34.016 299.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of German flotilla craft in prewar building policy, strategy, and tactics \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 378.284 299.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 378.284 298.371 m 384.284 298.371 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 384.284 299.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\). We are later told that the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 285.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Assistant Director of Naval Construction found reports on this 'very interesting' \(p. 236\), but the analysis )] TJ ET BT 34.016 271.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(merely seeks to show that they )] TJ ET BT 184.664 271.253 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(were)] TJ ET BT 207.992 271.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( important rather than )] TJ ET BT 315.308 271.253 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(why)] TJ ET BT 334.640 271.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( they were important and what the necessary )] TJ ET BT 34.016 256.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(implications of the reports were. German aviation is discussed with more reference to British policy, but as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 242.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(motorized transport was in its infancy before 1914, it can hardly be treated with the same pertinence as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 228.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(German flotilla craft, or, indeed artillery, given that the latter was the decisive arm in the battlefields of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 214.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1914?1918. More central to existing literature is the fleeting reference to Dumas's acquisition of up-to-date )] TJ ET BT 34.016 199.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(information on German range finders in 1908 \(p. 115\), which is briefly mentioned at the end of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 185.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(preceding chapter. It could, this reviewer would speculate, add to the 'fire-control' controversy so central to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 171.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the work of Jon Sumida and John Brooks, and the intelligence assessment may be a fruitful and relatively )] TJ ET BT 34.016 157.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(unexplored avenue \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 131.984 157.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(3)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 131.984 155.811 m 137.984 155.811 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 137.984 157.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 130.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The remaining two chapters constitute the core of the argument, examining the substantial material from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 116.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sources in Germany reporting the scale and nature of the threat to Britain and the extent of German )] TJ ET BT 34.016 102.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Anglophobia. Seligmann shows that the attachs were generally conscious of a 'German Menace' and that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 88.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(their reports to London reflected this. In chapter 4, Seligmann develops the personalities and concerns of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 73.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(attachs and nuances their hitherto rather anonymous reports. Colonel Trench's \(1906?1910\) reports are )] TJ ET BT 34.016 59.669 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mostly absorbed in discussions of a surprise German invasion. While the genesis of Trench's own views in )] TJ ET endstream endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 19 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 378.2837 298.6855 384.2837 310.5655 ] >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 21 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 131.9837 156.1255 137.9837 168.0055 ] >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 24 0 R 26 0 R 28 0 R ] /Contents 23 0 R >> endobj 23 0 obj << /Length 8098 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the South African War are traced, their overall significance is again left in a vacuum. We are only later )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(shown the obvious link between Trench's work and policy?the fact that he was reporting on the possibility of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a German invasion at the very time that the Committee of Imperial Defence was undertaking its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(investigations on this subject at the instigation of the pro-conscription party. Similarly, the reports of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Colonel Russell are used to portray German belligerence and menace, but they are not related to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(absolutely critical changes taking place in British national strategy at the time, particularly the notorious CID )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(meeting of 23 August 1911 and the 'continental commitment'. To some extent, these are structural problems. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(As 'policy' is separated at the end of the book, it is harder to see the implications of Trench's reports which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were obsessed with German invasion plans. Seligmann's comment that 'the influence of military attachs did )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(not run as far as challenging existing preconceptions at the War Office' is surely important to any historian )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(examining the realities of the Army's, and particularly Wilson's, strategic designs \(p. 231\). As the author )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(shows, the War Office ignored Trench because his warnings of invasion threatened its plans for an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(expeditionary force. Curiously, this point seems to challenge the overall contention that the attachs had an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 611.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(influential voice.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Captain Heath's \(R.N.\) reports open many questions regarding the Acceleration Crisis. Heath repeatedly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(tried to show that acceleration was possible, and, moreover, probably occurring \(p. 203\). This is in striking )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contradistinction to Paul Kennedy's and Michael Balfour's views that German acceleration had not occurred, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(even if it were possible \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 152.324 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(4)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 152.324 540.723 m 158.324 540.723 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 158.324 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\). Seligmann's interpretation of Captain Henderson's \(R.N.\) attitude can be queried. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Taking over as attach in 1913, Seligmann proposes that the lack of a German menace evident in his reports )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(can be explained by a combination of his short period in Germany, his personal problems, and the fact that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(London barred him from visiting dockyards \(why this happened is not evident\), and discounts the idea that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Henderson did not perceive a German threat. While the personalities and circumstances of the individuals )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(involved are vital, the impression here is that personality becomes important when it does not reinforce the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(general thesis of a German menace. There is at this point a focus on personality to the detriment of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(changing strategic and military-technical context in which it operated. The evidence may or may not support )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(this view, but it does seem a remarkable coincidence that as German naval spending started to decline with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Army laws in 1912 and 1913, the German menace?at sea if not on land?was starting to alter.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The final chapter aims to show the influence of the service attachs on the British government. Seligmann )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(uses the various minutes and reports on the attachs' intelligence to develop the impression that they carried )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(substantial weight and influence on policy-makers at the War Office, Admiralty, Foreign Office, and in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cabinet. This is necessary for his thesis to show that there was, in fact, intelligence demonstrating a clear )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(threat from Germany. That the attachs were a significant source of information to the Foreign Office can )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(hardly be doubted given this evidence, although some events such as the appointment of Goschen as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ambassador to Berlin in 1908 reduced the significance of their role in this \(p. 246\). The reader cannot help )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(but think that a mere ten pages devoted to the influence of the attachs on policy itself is not quite adequate, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and again, due to the structure, seems divorced from discussions of the intelligence itself. The example used )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is airships, yet these were a relatively minor issue both before and during the war compared to, say, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Dreadnought balance.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Niall Ferguson's )] TJ ET BT 115.508 218.741 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Pity of War)] TJ ET BT 191.840 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( provides the genesis for the central argument. As thought provoking as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ferguson's book may be, its assertions are not based on examinations of primary source material \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 504.104 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(5)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 504.104 203.091 m 510.104 203.091 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 510.104 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\). )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Seligmann also critiques Ferguson's counterfactual work regarding the danger of German hegemony \(p. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(261\). While counterfactual conceptions can be an interesting tool, the sources used have much more valuable )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(application to the historian interested in more conventional assessments of causality. Of course, Ferguson's )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(popular appeal may play a role, and in this sense a response to his assertion is important and laudable. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Nevertheless, the most influential analysis of British service intelligence before 1914 hitherto remains Paul )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Kennedy's. Kennedy examines intelligence and its relation to British naval and military planning, rather than )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Foreign Office, but his approach to intelligence is more holistic. Kennedy's view that attachs 'did not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(penetrate far below the deliberately exposed surfaces' is seriously called into question by Seligmann's work \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(6)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 74.787 m 40.016 74.787 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 40.016 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\). Again, the logical conclusions to this from the point of view of the Services are not examined. The direct )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(role of the attachs is noteworthy, but their primary intelligence function was to gather technical and )] TJ ET endstream endobj 24 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 25 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 152.3237 541.0375 158.3237 552.9175 ] >> endobj 25 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 26 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 27 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 504.1037 203.4055 510.1037 215.2855 ] >> endobj 27 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 28 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 29 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 75.1015 40.0157 86.9815 ] >> endobj 29 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 30 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 32 0 R 34 0 R ] /Contents 31 0 R >> endobj 31 0 obj << /Length 7725 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(qualitative data on the German armed forces. There are tantalizing hints that these sources would provide at )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(least some measure of reinterpretation.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Seligmann perhaps dismisses the importance of the consuls' role too readily. Whatever Foreign Office )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(objections to a 'permanent and regular system' \(p. 11\) for collecting information, individual consuls had long )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(been in the pay of the Admiralty. Moreover, consuls were responsible for a significant and extremely )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(important area of information gathering, namely the trade statistics. The importance of trade statistics in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Admiralty, War Office, and British planning can hardly be overstated, given the anticipated role of blockade )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in British strategy vis--vis Germany \(not to mention the other Powers\), and yet they are entirely neglected. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This is a significant omission given the research Avner Offer has undertaken in showing the role of trade )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(particularly grain\) statistics in Admiralty war planning \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 306.980 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(7)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 306.980 654.771 m 312.980 654.771 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 312.980 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\). In focusing solely on the attachs \(and their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(influence in the Foreign Office\) it fails to live up to the promise of the title?it is manifestly not an analysis of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('British military and naval intelligence on the eve of the First World War'. The 'machinery' of intelligence )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(assessment in either of the services is similarly neglected and the familiar?but problematical?criticisms of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Herbert Richmond of the Naval Intelligence Department repeated.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Efforts to reduce the compartmentalization of 'military', 'naval', and 'foreign-policy' history must be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(applauded. The foregoing concerns from the perspective of the naval-military historian are mirrored in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(foreign policy direction. The absence of an examination of the role of the attachs in July 1914 is an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(unexplained lacuna. Without having viewed the material himself, the reviewer can only speculate that the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(attach reports at this point either did not exist or have been lost. It is surprising that a text largely concerned )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with the determinants of British policy towards Germany before 1914 largely ignores the very events leading )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(up to the War and the role of these intelligence sources within it otherwise. If, as Seligmann contends, that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('owing to the paucity of surviving documentation' \(p. 249\) the impact of intelligence on policy is difficult to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(establish, then we may have to conclude with disappointment that this source material can only be used in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the limited ways herein. It must be said that establishing the role of intelligence in policy-making, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(particularly specific decisions such as a declaration of war, is never an easy task, as recent events have )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(shown. The policy areas that are addressed here are thoroughly handled. If, however, we can trace its role in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(airship construction or the 1909 naval building decisions, would it be possible to trace the role of military )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and naval intelligence during the diplomatic decisions of July 1914?)] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(We can be left in no doubt that the attachs were a highly important source of intelligence on Germany, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(not merely in the technical domain. However, a broader view is required. British policy-makers did not need )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to rely solely on attach reports to show that there was a menace coming from Germany; it was writ large in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Tirpitz plan and German Navy Laws, especially after 1905, and in the changing balance of power. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Indeed, the idea of a preventive strike against Russia and consequently France and the ambition for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Weltherrschaft runs throughout the German historiography \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 323.960 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(8)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 323.960 288.627 m 329.960 288.627 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 329.960 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\). Whilst British policy-makers did not have )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(access to the correspondence that historians enjoy, observers of Germany in various positions could see this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and relied on a variety of sources \(attachs included\) to do so. Critically, the key dimension of the attachs in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(establishing the German menace?the changing size and potency of her armed forces relative to the other )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Powers' and the resulting impact on the balance of power?is neglected in favour of a focus on a less-tangible )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(perception of menace, important though this may be. Quite opposite to counterfactuals, there is an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(underlying telos that pervades. That war did occur in 1914 is strikingly presaged in the attachs' belief that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1913?1915 would be a danger point for Germany relative to France and the apparently increasing power of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Russia. Indeed, the view of some of the attachs that 1913?1915 was the danger period is enormously )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(important. Why, we are left to wonder, was 1915 considered the end point of this when Russia was in all )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(likelihood only going to become more powerful relative to Germany, not less?)] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(There is evidently research in a wide range of primary sources, both well-known and newly-discovered )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(official and personal papers. On the other hand, the analysis lacks a degree of engagement with the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(enormous secondary literature and seems to fall between two stools in its approach to the naval, military, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and foreign policy literature. In only looking to Germany, and only to the attachs, the reader is disappointed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(by the promise of the subtitle, and it is hard to escape a feeling of narrowness of approach. The book itself is )] TJ ET endstream endobj 32 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 33 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 306.9797 655.0855 312.9797 666.9655 ] >> endobj 33 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 34 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 35 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 323.9597 288.9415 329.9597 300.8215 ] >> endobj 35 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 36 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 38 0 R 40 0 R 42 0 R 44 0 R 46 0 R 48 0 R 50 0 R 52 0 R 54 0 R 56 0 R 58 0 R 60 0 R ] /Contents 37 0 R >> endobj 37 0 obj << /Length 8590 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(very well produced, with no obvious errors and easily-accessible footnotes. To the author's credit, many )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(more questions are raised than it is perhaps possible to answer in one work. For example, there are some )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(interesting instances throughout regarding the uses of the intelligence for propaganda purposes, both by the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(government?and inevitably Fisher?and by the attachs themselves. With the increasing stress in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contemporary work on public opinion, and its role in both the naval race and the outbreak of war, this is a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(facet worthy of further exploration. Further, can these sources help to explain why British deterrence of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Germany failed, or was not used in the traditional way during the critical days of 1914? The main object, to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(show that there was intelligence indicating a 'German menace', is achieved, and we cannot doubt that the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(attachs played a greater and more effective part than has been acknowledged, especially in the development )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of this concept within the Foreign Office. This reviewer would argue that this is a necessary, but hardly a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sufficient causal factor in 1914, not to mention rather nebulous. Ultimately, there is much more here than a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(refutation of Ferguson. Seligmann's main argument does confirm the prevailing trends in the historiography. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Moreover, he shows that the attachs were and are important, and historians have too long ignored them. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 611.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This work has re-opened these sources and brought them back to the fore.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 576.243 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 545.626 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 545.621 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(For example, Z. S. Steiner and K. Neilson, )] TJ ET BT 271.664 545.621 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Britain and the Origins of the First World War)] TJ ET BT 497.012 545.621 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 2nd edn. )] TJ ET BT 64.016 531.365 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Basingstoke, 2003\), p. 3 and passim. )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 247.340 531.365 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 247.340 529.971 m 301.328 529.971 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 517.114 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 517.109 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The importance of the capabilities of German destroyers in British building policy was recently )] TJ ET BT 64.016 502.853 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(indicated by Professor Eric Grove in his recent talk 'The battleship revolution - technology and the )] TJ ET BT 64.016 488.597 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(evolution of the capital ship, 1887-1914: Dreadnought in context', presented at the 'Dreadnought and )] TJ ET BT 64.016 474.341 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Edwardian Age' Conference \(9-11 February 2006, National Maritime Museum, London\). )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 512.756 474.341 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to )] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 512.756 472.947 m 552.752 472.947 l S BT 64.016 460.085 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 64.016 458.691 m 78.008 458.691 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 445.834 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(3.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 445.829 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(While he does pay some attention to British assessments of the likely ranges at which the Germans )] TJ ET BT 64.016 431.573 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(intended to fight, Sumida does not give much attention to British assessments of German fire-control )] TJ ET BT 64.016 417.317 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(capability prewar, although he notes that 'Much of the Admiralty's satisfaction with the existing )] TJ ET BT 64.016 403.061 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(service system of fire control can ? be explained by their assessments of the gunnery capabilities of the )] TJ ET BT 64.016 388.805 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(German navy'. He does not list the Foreign Office or attach reports in his bibliography \(J. T. Sumida,)] TJ ET BT 64.016 374.549 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(In Defence of Naval Supremacy: Finance, Technology and British Naval Policy, 1889?1914 )] TJ ET BT 64.016 360.293 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Abingdon, 1989\), pp. 252?253\). Interestingly, Sumida is critical of an over-reliance on intelligence )] TJ ET BT 64.016 346.037 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(by the Admiralty \(J. T. Sumida 'The quest for reach', in )] TJ ET BT 332.300 346.037 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Tooling for War: Military Transformation in )] TJ ET BT 64.016 331.781 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(the Industrial Age)] TJ ET BT 150.680 331.781 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, ed. S. D. Chiabotti \(Chicago, 1996\), p. 81\). )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 367.004 331.781 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 367.004 330.387 m 420.992 330.387 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 317.530 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(4.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 317.525 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(P. Kennedy 'Great Britain before 1914', in )] TJ ET BT 269.300 317.525 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Knowing One's Enemies: Intelligence Assessment Before )] TJ ET BT 64.016 303.269 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(the Two World Wars)] TJ ET BT 163.688 303.269 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, ed. E. R. May \(Princeton, 1984\), p. 180. )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 365.336 303.269 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 365.336 301.875 m 419.324 301.875 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 289.018 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(5.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 289.013 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(See also J. Winter, review of )] TJ ET BT 205.316 289.013 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Pity of War)] TJ ET BT 281.648 289.013 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( by N. Ferguson, )] TJ ET BT 364.976 289.013 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 455.636 289.013 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, May 1999 < )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 64.016 274.757 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/paper/ferguson.htm>)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 64.016 273.363 m 328.088 273.363 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 331.088 274.757 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET BT 345.080 274.757 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 351.080 274.757 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(5\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 351.080 273.363 m 405.068 273.363 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 260.506 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(6.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 260.501 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Kennedy, 'Great Britain before 1914', p. 182. )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 283.292 260.501 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(6\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 283.292 259.107 m 337.280 259.107 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 246.250 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(7.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 246.245 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(A. Offer, )] TJ ET BT 110.660 246.245 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The First World War: An Agrarian Interpretation)] TJ ET BT 349.328 246.245 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Oxford, 1989\), pp. 233?243, esp. p. 240. )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 64.016 231.989 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(7\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 64.016 230.595 m 118.004 230.595 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 217.738 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(8.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 217.733 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(J. C. G. Rhl, 'Germany', in )] TJ ET BT 200.000 217.733 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Decisions for War 1914)] TJ ET BT 314.996 217.733 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, ed. K. M. 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