%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 16 0 R 22 0 R 24 0 R 26 0 R 34 0 R ] /Count 6 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140827050917+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140827050917+01'00') /Title (History's Beauties: Women and the National Portrait Gallery, 1856?1900) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R 14 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4598 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(History's Beauties: Women and the National Portrait Gallery, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 593.937 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(1856?1900)] TJ ET BT 34.016 294.707 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Studies of the National Portrait Gallery have analysed its history as an institution, as an architectural space, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 280.451 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(or as instrumental in the development of portraiture \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 288.644 280.451 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 288.644 279.057 m 294.644 279.057 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 294.644 280.451 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\). Lara Perry focuses on the role of women 'in' the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 266.195 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(National Portrait Gallery during the nineteenth century as: the subject of portraits; artists; the sellers or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 251.939 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(donors of portraits; the informal contributors to the social life of the Gallery; and, finally, the visitors, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 237.683 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sometimes unruly, of its collection. This contributes to our understanding of portraiture, and the history of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.427 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(women, as objects and subjects of representations used to forge the ideas of the nation. The book is most )] TJ ET BT 34.016 209.171 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(successful in analysing the complicated negotiations across ideologies of gender, class, history, and national )] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.915 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(identity, revealed by the trustees' decisions about what portraits to include or exclude from the collection, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.659 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and how to display them. Women could be at once elevated to the status of celebrated individuals, and 'put )] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.403 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in their place' by being represented as exemplary; fulfilling roles consistent with dominant modes of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 152.147 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(nineteenth-century femininity. At times, however, women and their representations could resist the control )] TJ ET BT 34.016 137.891 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the Gallery and become difficult to incorporate in its narrative.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 111.635 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The main aim of the National Portrait Gallery then, as today, is to collect and make available to the public )] TJ ET BT 34.016 97.379 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(portraits of 'those persons who are most honourably commemorated in British History as warriors or as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 83.123 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(statesmen, or in the arts, in literature or in science' \()] TJ ET BT 282.128 83.123 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Hansard Parliamentary Debates)] TJ ET BT 439.448 83.123 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 2 March 1856, still )] TJ ET BT 34.016 68.867 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(quoted in the Gallery website\). Perry's book 'explores the gendering of the nation in a period when women )] TJ ET BT 34.016 54.611 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(had little access to national politics, but when an institution such as the National Portrait Gallery?established )] TJ ET BT 34.016 563.315 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 549.059 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(547)] TJ ET BT 34.016 534.803 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 520.547 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Sunday, 1 October, 2006)] TJ ET BT 34.016 506.291 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 492.035 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(0754630811)] TJ ET BT 34.016 477.779 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 463.523 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2006)] TJ ET BT 34.016 449.267 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 435.011 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(55.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 420.755 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.499 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(220pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.243 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.987 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ashgate)] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.731 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.475 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Aldershot)] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.219 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.963 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Patrizia di Bello)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 15 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 288.6437 279.3715 294.6437 291.2515 ] >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 18 0 R 20 0 R ] /Contents 17 0 R >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Length 7495 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(by the national government to display the nation for the public?collected and displayed over one hundred )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(portraits of women' \(p. 1\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The concept of separate spheres, of the division of society into a private, domestic, female domain, and an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(active, public, male world, has come to dominate our understanding of the nineteenth century. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(implications and extent of this ideology in the organization of social and cultural norms, and the impact it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(had on the lives of women from different classes and locations, has been a hotly debated topic. Feminist )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historical analysis has been particularly concerned with unpacking this division, emphasizing how any )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(seclusion of women into the 'private' was different for different classes, and often symbolic rather than )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(actual. Women's separation from the world of formally paid work did not stop them being productive, even )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(if only at the level of cultural rather than economic capital. It was, on the contrary, what guaranteed elite )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(women their power and effectiveness as agents of moral, social, and cultural improvement, not only for their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(family but also for society at large. Perry complicates descriptions of the role of women in the nineteenth )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(century as one secluded within middle-class domesticity, showing how the contribution of women to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(nation's history was publicly acknowledged and celebrated. As recent scholarship has suggested, domesticity )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was constructed as a matter of national importance, and the role of women within it as having political and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(even heroic dimensions. If the history of the nation was constructed by the Portrait Gallery as including )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(women, this was partly because the ideology of separate spheres was not as rigid as some of its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(representations \(in both the nineteenth century and since\) have implied; and partly because of the continuing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(importance of the aristocracy, where women were never expected to confine themselves to the care of family )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and home, but performed important roles in the privileged yet public stage of 'Society' \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 454.616 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 454.616 512.211 m 460.616 512.211 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 460.616 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\). Within middle-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(class feminine culture, the image of the lady continued to be a figure of desire and identification, even as the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(word became inflected by the moral values that the middle classes considered important.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The Gallery itself can be seen as an institution at once representing a new political order?a parliament )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(elected by a constituency including middle-class men?but modelled on the portrait galleries celebrating the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dynastic continuity and achievements, including those of taste, of aristocratic families. This was part of a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(wider process in which the middle classes were making their own cultural forms that had aristocratic origins )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and connotations, repackaging them as being now available to the whole nation. In other words, the National )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Portrait Gallery was doing for the nation what galleries in country houses had been doing for their owners. In )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(this tradition, women were important for their role as curators of family collections \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 439.952 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(3)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 439.952 371.907 m 445.952 371.907 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 445.952 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Lara Perry's interdisciplinary approach weaves together in a complex pattern many ideas, topics, and strands )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of thought. Each chapter is arranged around a cluster of themes, reconfiguring and developing her argument, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which is at times in danger of getting lost in the wide-range of her research. Running through the book, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(however, is the central theme of the role of women in the public space of the Gallery.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The first chapter focuses on representations of women that were active in the civic sphere?corresponding )] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(loosely to the 'warriors and statesmen' in the Gallery's aims. Perry analyses the Gallery's acquisitions and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 249.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rejections to understand how these recognized and constructed certain types of femininity as worthy of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(celebration. The trustees rejected, for example, various portraits of Lydia Becker, a notable suffragist, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(group portraits including women's rights campaigners Emily Davies and Elizabeth Garrett Anderson. They )] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(seemed to prefer representations of 'women's activities in civil life which were less overtly associated with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(challenges to the masculine prerogative of national politics' \(p. 16\), such as Haydon's )] TJ ET BT 445.940 192.485 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Anti-Slavery )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Society Convention, 1840)] TJ ET BT 157.004 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(1841\). This portrays women present not as active campaigners, but as there to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(show support.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 137.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Women were excluded from the category of warriors. The trustees declined a 1750 print of Hannah Snell, a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 123.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(celebrated sailor who had enrolled by passing as a man. Acts of physical bravery were however admissible, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 109.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as exemplified by a bust of Grace Darling \(1838\), who had helped her father to rescue people from a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 94.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(shipwreck. Young, working class, and demure, her heroism in a supporting role remained womanly, and her )] TJ ET BT 34.016 80.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(strength class-appropriate.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 54.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Perry shows how the Portrait Gallery was conceived as a new means through which to articulate and )] TJ ET endstream endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 19 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 454.6157 512.5255 460.6157 524.4055 ] >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 21 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 439.9517 372.2215 445.9517 384.1015 ] >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 23 0 R >> endobj 23 0 obj << /Length 7210 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(represent existing structures of power' \(p. 24\), including gender. Women's actions could become 'historically )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(significant' \(p. 15\) not by challenging male prerogatives and modes of activism, but by fulfilling unofficial )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(roles based on familial and personal connections. This informal model was replicated within the Gallery )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(itself. Women were excluded from appointment as trustees, but were involved in the social networks in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which appointments might be discussed and made, and portraits coming up for donations or purchase )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(evaluated. 'Women were also the ones to offer portraits of family members' \(p. 29\). Here, it would have been )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(interesting to consider in more detail the continuing role of women as curators of family collections, and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(powers, pressures, and meanings bound up in the act of selling or donating portraits to a public collection.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In chapter two, the book goes on to analyse the representations of royal women. As wives and mothers of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(kings, this is perhaps the least controversial area of inclusion. Perry shows how their significance went )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(beyond that of dynastic continuity, and how it was used in the collection to 'evoke affective moments' \(p. 35\) )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in the history of a nation that was being imaged as a family. The chapter is at its most interesting when )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(discussing how the organization of the displays emphasised the role of men?even Queen Elizabeth I was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(positioned as subordinate to her heir James I. It demonstrates the power of curators and trustees in authoring )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the collection with a degree of independence from the original meaning of the portraits. By being )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(incorporated into the family, queens were shown as exemplary femininity, rather than as holders of royal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(power, especially as the trustees preferred portraits that avoided depicting them bearing the symbols of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(power.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('Sentimental Histories', the third chapter, focuses on cultivated women as national treasures. In their case )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('personal attributes' rather than 'events', were considered 'suitable for historical concern' \(p. 60\). Women's )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cultural achievements were represented as a prerequisite of successful marriages and families. In this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(context, even portraits of women that were professional writers or artists became absorbed by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(representations of women as accomplished, their work an extension of their homemaking skills.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The trustees were not always entirely successful in recuperating all portraits of women to the stereotypes of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(genteel and companionate femininity. Perry argues that Mary Wollstonecraft, included in a series of family )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(portraits donated by Jane Lady Shelley in 1899, was accepted only because by then a 'suitable biography' \(p. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(77\) had been created for her. Catherine Macaulay, an equally well-known writer of history, was rejected )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(throughout the century. She was not only a republican?male republicans were accepted?but also politically )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(active in ways that defied conventions of genteel femininity, and had had an unusual private life, marrying a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(much younger man.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Authors were the greatest number of contemporary women in the collection, especially writers of scholarly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(works and long novels, rather than popular works with a less serious reputation. It might have been )] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(interesting here to see if, and how, contemporary writers too had to produce 'suitable biographies' to be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(accepted. How, for example, was the portrait of George Eliott negotiated, given her unconventional private )] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(life? At any rate, the portraits of contemporary women writers acquired for the Gallery were usually )] TJ ET BT 34.016 249.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('watercolours, pastels, pencil sketches and miniatures' \(p. 81\), different from the oils of male writers and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(learned women from earlier generations. This was partly due to the perceived difficulties of portraying )] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contemporary women writers in oils. Attempts to do so tended to produce uneasy mixtures of literary )] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(symbols and fashionable props, as documentary realism gave in awkwardly to the pressure to depict all )] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(women as beautiful. Works on paper were smaller, less detailed, more sketchy and abstract. In the displays )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dedicated to authors, the difference between the sombre oils of male writers, and the 'light grounds of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(drawings of women created a highly visible gendered difference' \(p.84\). The qualities intrinsic to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(medium?drawings and watercolours are less durable and more associated with domestic practice?could seep )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from the image to the reputation of the writer and her work. 'The phrase ?she was not a genius?, repeatedly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(used in the Dictionary of National Biography entries on women writers, is given visual expression in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Portrait Gallery's collection' \(p. 87\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 80.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Chapter four is dedicated to the theme of beauty. Gallery policy stipulated that portraits should be evaluated )] TJ ET BT 34.016 66.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for their historic rather than aesthetic value; yet the collection has 'artistic as well as historical significance, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 52.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and these dual interests have always been held in tension within the institution' \(p. 89\). Portraits of women )] TJ ET endstream endobj 24 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 25 0 R >> endobj 25 0 obj << /Length 5598 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were the lynchpin of this balancing act. An interest in beautiful women was an important part of aristocratic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(culture, and this remained so in the nineteenth century. Beautiful women could still become 'professional )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(beauties' not through success at court, but in the emerging celebrity culture associated with illustrated )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(periodicals and mass-circulated photographs.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Beauty was a morally ambivalent word-it could be used to refer to virtue and inner beauty, or to visual, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sensual beauty. The play between virtuous and vicious beauty was one of the staple plots of nineteenth-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(century fiction. Perry shows how the trustees were able to deploy portraits of women to colour the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(representation of particular periods. Morally ambiguous beauties from the late Georgian courts were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(avoided, as 'too close to the bone of the present' \(p. 96\). But unruly beauties from the more distant past could )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(be used as a foil to emphasise contemporary notions of appropriate female behaviour and how much elite )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(society had improved. They figured freely in the Gallery's representation of the Restoration, where the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(immorality and excess of the Stuart monarchy, with its tendencies towards absolutism and Catholicism, was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('indexed by the behaviour of women' \(p. 96\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(By the end of the century, the significance of beauty in portraits was loosing its moral connotations, by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(becoming not a function of the character or the appearance of actual women, but an aesthetic quality. Female )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(beauty became 'the central trope of artistic practice [...] understood as a testament to the professional skills of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the artist, rather than the appearance of a sitter' \(p. 90\). While the Portrait Gallery resisted suggestions that it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(should merge with the National Gallery, it began to use aesthetic ideals in selecting works, even if the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(official rules were never changed, and to collect and display not only the history of the nation but also that of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(portrait painting, seen as a particularly British area of excellence.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 475.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The final chapter begins with a discussion of women artists in the Portrait Gallery. They were not many, but )] TJ ET BT 34.016 461.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a lot more than in the National Gallery?twenty-seven, while the National Gallery in the nineteenth century )] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(had only five. But then portraiture was considered a genre suitable for women?it did not need nude models )] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and it could be practised at home. Lack of aesthetic value could be compensated for-or implied by-the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Gallery's interest in the historic status of its objects. There were exceptions. Perry singles out for discussion )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(two 'beautiful' self-portraits by Angelica Kauffmann \(c. 1770-75\) and Ann Mary Newton \(c. 1863\) as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('instances where particular women's lived \(and in this case painted\) experience transcended the institutional )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(discourse of the feminine' \(p. 125\). Both half-length oils?a format 'rarely accepted for women who were not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(courtiers' \(p. 125\)?they quietly assert the professional status of the sitters, while avoiding confrontational )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(poses.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 308.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Both Kauffmann, as a Royal Academician, and Newton, as a painter to the Queen and illustrator )] TJ ET BT 64.016 294.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for her archaeologist husband Charles, succeeded in their careers as artists within institutions )] TJ ET BT 64.016 280.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which were recognized by the National Portrait Gallery as conferring ?national? significance. )] TJ ET BT 64.016 266.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([...] Entering [it] through self-portraiture was perhaps the highest accolade that the Gallery could )] TJ ET BT 64.016 251.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(confer on their careers. \(p. 126\))] TJ ET BT 34.016 213.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(With their demure poses and beautiful faces, the self-portraits might conform to the visual tropes of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 199.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(femininity, but they were too powerful to be considered amateur practice. They succeeded in doing what )] TJ ET BT 34.016 184.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(most portrait painters found difficult; to reconcile the demands of femininity and aesthetic practice by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 170.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(portraying women as professional and creating at the same time beautiful paintings.)] TJ ET endstream endobj 26 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 28 0 R 30 0 R 32 0 R ] /Contents 27 0 R >> endobj 27 0 obj << /Length 7318 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Finally, Perry discusses women as visitors to the Gallery. Existing records demonstrate that women were an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(important constituency of its public, and that the Gallery was part of an established 'itinerary of social )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(consumption and sociability' for women of a variety of classes, including artists who used the gallery to copy )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(works. These ranged from east-end mothers and their children, particularly when the Gallery was at Bethnal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Green to students of history, from the queen of the Netherlands, who visited anonymously in 1875, to a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(group of school girls in 1889 who vandalized seventeen portraits by scratching them vigorously with a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(hatpin.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 672.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(As Perry argues, 'the discipline of the museum is challenged by the diversity of both its objects, and of its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 658.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(interpreters' \(p. 136\). Amongst these challengers were the suffragettes, who in 1914 mounted a campaign of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 644.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(attacks on paintings in the National Gallery, Royal Academy Exhibition, and the National Portrait Gallery. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 629.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(When Annie Hunt 'wielded a cleaver against J. E. Millais's portrait of Thomas Carlyle' in protest against the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(re-arrest of Mrs Pankhurst, the Portrait Gallery as a 'stage for the display of the \(gendered\) nation became for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a brief moment [...] a battlefield' \(p. 137\). The suffragettes were also creating their own alternative by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(commemorating female achievement with portrait banners of women, often also represented in the National )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Portrait Gallery.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 546.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This is perhaps at once the most interesting and the least satisfying chapter, as material with much potential )] TJ ET BT 34.016 532.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is covered all too briefly. More could have been said about the National Portrait Gallery as a space )] TJ ET BT 34.016 518.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(connected to a wider feminine culture where portraits circulated as a staple image in prints, illustrations, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 503.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(photographs, and adverts. Photography, in particular, was instrumental in blurring the boundaries between )] TJ ET BT 34.016 489.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the time-honoured and the ephemeral, public and private people, portraits of national importance, and those )] TJ ET BT 34.016 475.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with personal or affective significance. From Queen Victoria to her servants, the photograph album was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 461.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(making many women collectors and curators of their own portrait gallery.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 434.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Overall, Perry successfully shows how the role 'inhabited by women in the National Portrait Gallery bears )] TJ ET BT 34.016 420.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(less comparison with the Angel in the House, than it does to [...] a culture of femininity which had long been )] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(established in elite English life' \(pp. 139-140\). The roles fulfilled by elite women in the social, political and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cultural life of the nation, were celebrated by the Gallery as a matter not of class privilege, but of 'national )] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(pride' \(p. 140\). Perry is very careful to contextualise her argument and qualify her analysis in terms of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(current debates. Given the interdisciplinary nature of her topic and her approach, this means having to deal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with a wide range of material, from the historiography of gender, class, and nation in the nineteenth-century, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to contemporary studies of museums and their audiences. In the opening chapters, this care is welcome, as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Perry summarizes the debates and uses existing material effectively. By the end, the running summary of her )] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(argument and its position in current scholarship seems to take up space that might have been more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(productively engaged with the concluding topics. This, however, might also be the generosity of the writer. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This is a stimulating book, offering much to provoke further studies.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 243.123 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 212.506 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 212.501 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(C. Saumarez Smith, )] TJ ET BT 163.016 212.501 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The National Portrait Gallery)] TJ ET BT 307.364 212.501 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(London, 1997\); G. Hulme, B. Buchanan and K. )] TJ ET BT 64.016 198.245 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Powell, )] TJ ET BT 103.352 198.245 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The National Portrait Gallery: An Architectural History)] TJ ET BT 374.024 198.245 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(London, 2000\); M. Pointon, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 183.989 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Hanging the Head: Portraiture and Social Formation in Eighteenth Century England)] TJ ET BT 475.340 183.989 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(New Haven )] TJ ET BT 64.016 169.733 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and London, 1993\); P. Barlow, ?Facing the Past and Present: The National Portrait Gallery and the )] TJ ET BT 64.016 155.477 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Search for ?Authentic? Portraiture?, in )] TJ ET BT 252.632 155.477 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Portraiture: Facing the Subject)] TJ ET BT 404.288 155.477 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, ed. J. Woodall, \(Manchester, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 141.221 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1997\). )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 98.012 141.221 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 98.012 139.827 m 152.000 139.827 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 126.970 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 126.965 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The best analysis remains L. Davidoff, )] TJ ET BT 253.316 126.965 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Best Circles: Society, Etiquette and the Season)] TJ ET BT 499.292 126.965 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(London, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 112.709 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1986\). )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 98.012 112.709 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 98.012 111.315 m 152.000 111.315 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 98.458 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(3.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 98.453 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(See for example K. Retford, )] TJ ET BT 202.316 98.453 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Art of Domestic Life: Family Portraiture in Eighteenth-Century )] TJ ET BT 64.016 84.197 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(England)] TJ ET BT 104.684 84.197 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(New Haven and London, 2006\). )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 269.312 84.197 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 269.312 82.803 m 323.300 82.803 l S endstream endobj 28 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 29 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 98.0117 140.1415 151.9997 152.0215 ] >> endobj 29 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 30 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 31 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 98.0117 111.6295 151.9997 123.5095 ] >> endobj 31 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 32 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 33 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 269.3117 83.1175 323.2997 94.9975 ] >> endobj 33 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 34 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 36 0 R ] /Contents 35 0 R >> endobj 35 0 obj << /Length 755 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 777.487 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 759.707 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 759.707 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/547)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 758.313 m 322.316 758.313 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 733.336 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 718.936 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/2975)] TJ ET BT 34.016 704.536 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET endstream endobj 36 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 37 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 758.6275 322.3157 770.5075 ] >> endobj 37 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/547) >> endobj xref 0 38 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000356 00000 n 0000000393 00000 n 0000000587 00000 n 0000000676 00000 n 0000005326 00000 n 0000005435 00000 n 0000005545 00000 n 0000005654 00000 n 0000009215 00000 n 0000009343 00000 n 0000009427 00000 n 0000009555 00000 n 0000009591 00000 n 0000009682 00000 n 0000017230 00000 n 0000017358 00000 n 0000017394 00000 n 0000017522 00000 n 0000017558 00000 n 0000017623 00000 n 0000024886 00000 n 0000024951 00000 n 0000030602 00000 n 0000030700 00000 n 0000038071 00000 n 0000038198 00000 n 0000038234 00000 n 0000038361 00000 n 0000038397 00000 n 0000038523 00000 n 0000038559 00000 n 0000038643 00000 n 0000039450 00000 n 0000039578 00000 n trailer << /Size 38 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 39673 %%EOF