%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 20 0 R 24 0 R 26 0 R 30 0 R ] /Count 6 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140930141822+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140930141822+01'00') /Title (Wearing Propaganda: Textiles on the Home Front in Japan, Britain and the United States 1931-1945) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4225 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Wearing Propaganda: Textiles on the Home Front in Japan, Britain )] TJ ET BT 34.016 593.937 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(and the United States 1931-1945)] TJ ET BT 34.016 266.195 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Textiles and dress occupy a central position within the realm of material culture. Apart from fulfilling the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 251.939 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(basic human need for clothing and protection, textiles play important political, economic, and religious )] TJ ET BT 34.016 237.683 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(functions. Through variations of construction and patterning, cloth also has a great capacity for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.427 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(communication and serves as a significant site of personal and cultural identity. Dress in particular is, by its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 209.171 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(very nature, one of the most visible of the arts. Yet it is simultaneously one of the most intimate, for while it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.915 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(publicly distinguishes the wearer dress is also a very private matter, one that touches our skin.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 168.659 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Given the nature and role of textiles, it should therefore come as no surprise to discover that they can serve )] TJ ET BT 34.016 154.403 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as potent visual vehicles for patriotic sentiment. However, the very personal aspect of the textile arts makes )] TJ ET BT 34.016 140.147 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the pieces that are the subject of )] TJ ET BT 190.976 140.147 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Wearing Propaganda)] TJ ET BT 295.304 140.147 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( totally unexpected and today, given their often overt )] TJ ET BT 34.016 125.891 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(militaristic sentiments, even a little disturbing. With their bold and evocative designs, these textiles are )] TJ ET BT 34.016 111.635 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(certainly worthy of aesthetic consideration. But it is their wider socio-political context that is the main focus )] TJ ET BT 34.016 97.379 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of this study, the insight that they give to the nature and role of propaganda, and the ?unique window? they )] TJ ET BT 34.016 83.123 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(offer ?into the culture of war on the Home Front? \(p. 11\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 56.867 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(It was some years ago that Jacqueline Atkins, the editor and main author of )] TJ ET BT 398.288 56.867 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Wearing Propaganda: Textiles )] TJ ET BT 34.016 42.611 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(on the Home Front in Japan, Britain and the United States 1931?1945)] TJ ET BT 34.016 563.315 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 549.059 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(548)] TJ ET BT 34.016 534.803 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 520.547 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Sunday, 1 October, 2006)] TJ ET BT 34.016 506.291 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 492.035 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Jacqueline Atkins)] TJ ET BT 34.016 477.779 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 463.523 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9780300109252)] TJ ET BT 34.016 449.267 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 435.011 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2005)] TJ ET BT 34.016 420.755 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.499 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(75.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.243 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.987 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(400pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.731 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.475 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Yale University Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.219 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.963 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(New Haven, CT)] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.707 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.451 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Anna Jackson)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 16 0 R 18 0 R ] /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 8015 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and the curator of the exhibition that )] TJ ET BT 212.324 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the book accompanies, came to visit me at the Victoria and Albert )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Museum in London where I look after the collection of Japanese textiles and dress. I had nothing of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(relevance to show her, but remember the remarkable textiles?mainly fragments at that early stage in Atkins? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(research?that she brought to show me. Since that time, Japanese propaganda textiles have begun to garner )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(much attention and today there are a number of significant collectors. Last year the V&A made its first )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(acquisition in this area, a boy?s winter kimono celebrating the journey of the Kamikaze-go which set the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(speed record for a flight from Tokyo to London in 1937, which is also the subject of two pieces illustrated in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Wearing Propaganda)] TJ ET BT 138.344 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. Despite this growing interest, there is little written about the subject of propaganda )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(textiles and it is therefore wonderful to see Atkins? study come to fruition in this fascinating book \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 510.968 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 510.968 681.027 m 516.968 681.027 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 516.968 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Japan has a particularly rich textile history. The main focus for artistic expression is the kimono, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(traditionally the principal item of dress for men and women of all classes. The simple T-shaped structure of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(this and associated garments such as juban \(under-kimono\) and haori \(kimono jacket\) has remained virtually )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(unchanged since the sixteenth century. While in the West it is the cut and construction of clothing that bears )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(witness to stylistic changes, in Japanese dress the significant site of meaning is on the surface of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(garment. It was through choice of colour and, more importantly, decoration that the Japanese expressed their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(personal, cultural, and social sensibilities, and through which the vibrant fashion culture that existed in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Edo \(1603?1868\) and Meiji \(1868?1912\) periods can be traced. Nature, particularly seasonal references, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(provided a major source of design, together with allusions to classical literature, views of country and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(townscapes, aspects of popular culture, and visual puns. Many of the images used on kimono had complex )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(levels of meaning, often with auspicious significance.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(It was thus Japan, with its tradition of potent textile designs, that produced the most striking and varied )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(propaganda textiles in the period 1931?1945. The objects are powerful enough to stand without comparison, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(but Atkins has chosen to broaden her study to include Britain and America, the other countries most closely )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(involved with the Asia-Pacific war. I feared initially that this might skew or dilute the discussion, yet the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(inclusion of British and American examples provides for interesting cultural comparisons, revealing that the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Japanese textiles were not an isolated phenomenon, and making the broader discussion of propaganda more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(useful and persuasive. In her introduction Atkins reveals the significance of these textiles and explains how )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(they provided ?both public and personal canvases on which to express patriotic sentiments, and ? acted as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(visible markers of national unity, tangible testimony to military and national goals? \(p. 19\). The book is then )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(divided into four parts. Part 1, ?Setting the context?, provides a general background to the textiles, the Asia-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Pacific war, and the role of propaganda, while part 2, ?The visual culture of war?, explores the unique )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(iconography of the period. The core of the study is presented in part 3, ?Wearing propaganda: fashion, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(textiles and morale on the home front?, and the book concludes with a look at specific designs in part 4, ?An )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(arsenal of designs: themes, motifs, and metaphors in propaganda textiles?.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Propaganda textiles were produced and consumed in reaction and relation to a very particular set of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(circumstances, explored in the opening chapter of section 1, ?Setting the context?, by Atkins, which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(provides a succinct outline of the growing tensions and events that led to conflict in Asia and World War II. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In ?Propaganda on the home front: clothing and textiles as message?, Atkins explores the way in which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(visual propaganda was used in Japan, Britain, and America as a way of galvanizing and unifying citizens )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(into acceptance of national and military goals. Textiles proved an excellent medium for delivering such )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(messages, and items were created that not only reflected national ideology but were striking, fashionable, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and, therefore, appealing on a number of levels. Atkins explores the production and marketing of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(propaganda textiles in the West but, although it was briefly touched upon in the introduction, what is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(missing here is a similar discussion about Japan. I would have liked to know more about who created these )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(textiles, who sold them, and how customers commissioned or chose them. What is interesting, and fully )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(discussed, is the way in which propaganda textiles were used in different ways in the East and West. In )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Britain and America, as one might imagine, they were designed to be seen and recognized. Propaganda )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(iconography was used on textiles for clothing, accessories such as headscarves, and domestic furnishings )] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(such as bedspreads, tablecloths, napkins, and even, in America, feed sacks. In Japan, however, propaganda )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(imagery appears predominantly on men?s juban and haori linings \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 354.968 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 354.968 60.531 m 360.968 60.531 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 360.968 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\). In other words they were private, )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 17 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 510.9677 681.3415 516.9677 693.2215 ] >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 19 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 354.9677 60.8455 360.9677 72.7255 ] >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 22 0 R ] /Contents 21 0 R >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Length 7550 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rather than public, images. That the Japanese did not wear such sentiments on their \(outer\) sleeves does not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reflect a lack of patriotic fervour. Indeed in many ways it meant that they aligned themselves to the nation?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(goals on an even more intimate level. The tradition of using vibrant designs on under-garments or linings has )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(its historical roots in the sumptuary laws issued at various points during the Edo period forbidding lower )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sections of society from wearing particular fabrics and using particular colours and decorative techniques. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Those with money and style, however, found ways to circumvent such rules, and a fashion developed for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(wearing extravagant linings and under-garments beneath a more sombre and permitted exterior. This taste )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(continued even when, with the end of the Edo period, such laws were no longer enforced. In Japan such )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(hidden images can also serve a symbolic function, the auspicious motifs wrapping the wearer in divine )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(protection. This belief in the literal, as well as figurative, power of images is revealed in the other major )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(manifestation of propaganda textiles in Japan, kimono for boys, particularly those worn on festive and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(celebratory occasions. In these garments military motifs were combined with traditional ones as metaphors )] TJ ET BT 34.016 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for bravery, loyalty, strength and filial piety?expressions of both parental hopes and the magical transference )] TJ ET BT 34.016 611.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of such qualities.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The important way in which patterns function symbolically in Japan is further discussed by Atkins and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Miyuki Otaka in? Propaganda precedents?, which looks at pre-1930 examples. Earlier propaganda textiles in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(both East and West tended to commemorate particular episodes and people, providing individuals with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mementos that allowed them to incorporate great national events into their own daily lives. In the twentieth )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(century images were increasingly used as a way of boosting public morale, something that would figure )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(strongly in wartime textiles. Although the propaganda textiles produced both before and during the Asia-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Pacific war often incorporated government slogans and imagery, they were not officially sanctioned goods. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Rather they were produced in response to market demand and thus reflected the public enthusiasm for items )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?that helped to shape and sustain a sense of national pride and unity? \(p. 89\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Section 2 opens with ?Japan?s beautiful modern war? by John Dower, which looks at the context within )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which Japanese propaganda textiles were created. Japan?s occupation of Manchuria, its war with China, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(its expansion into South-East Asia were presented as necessary and legitimate acts; propaganda that proved )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(enormously persuasive to a populace that had little real knowledge of what was happening in Asia and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(wider world. Attacks on Anglo-American values were combined with proclamations of traditional and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(unique Japanese values tied, particularly in the early years of the war, to images of the country as positive )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and forward-looking. As Dower points out, such concepts of modernity were crucial to the Japanese national )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(psyche, and had been central to the ethos of the Taisho period \(1912?1926\), which saw cities such as Tokyo )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(develop into places of consumerism and mass entertainment where Modanizumu, ?modernism?, became the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(catchword of the day. Symbols of this modernity?skyscrapers, fast cars, aeroplanes?were used in advertising, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(graphic design, and even on kimono. With increased militarization in the late 1920s and 1930s, such iconic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(images were expanded to include the paraphernalia of Japan?s modern war such as battleships and military )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(vehicles. As Dower so eloquently puts it, ?no one else beautified war with such panache or wore the war so )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(literally? \(p. 110\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In ?Potatoes are protective, too: cultural icons of Britain at war?, Antonia Last explores the rich, complex )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and often unstable iconography of war. Through discussions of barrage balloons and blackout curtains she )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(examines the war?s ?radical assault? on gender roles. Women?s mobilisation was central to Britain?s war )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(effort, yet threatened to undermine traditional notions of civil stability and lead to unacceptable )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(psychological, social, or political aspirations. While her image might become increasingly masculine, a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(woman was also required to retain her femininity. And despite her heroic efforts on farms and in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ammunition factories, she was perceived as a danger to the nation, easy prey for the squander bug and, more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(crucially, the enemy because of her ?natural? propensity to gossip?as reflected in the ?Careless Talk Costs )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Lives? campaign \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 122.660 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(3)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 122.660 117.555 m 128.660 117.555 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 128.660 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\). The American government, which also needed to persuade women to enter the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(workforce, had to counter prevailing racist attitudes as well in their attempt to overcome labour shortages. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Powerful posters were produced showing white and black men working together under slogans such as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?United we Win?. These are discussed by Marianne Lamonaca in her essay, ?An American vision: )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(propaganda on the home front during World War II?, which examines the government agencies established )] TJ ET endstream endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 23 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 122.6597 117.8695 128.6597 129.7495 ] >> endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 24 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 25 0 R >> endobj 25 0 obj << /Length 7429 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to provide information and the tactics they used to disseminate propaganda and influence public opinion.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The third and largest section of the book opens with three chapters that turn again to the subject of Japan. In )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?Extravagance is the enemy: fashion and textiles in wartime Japan?, Atkins looks at the modernization of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Japanese textile industry in the late-nineteenth century. Technical advances such as the development of new )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fabrics and the introduction of chemical dyes offered textile designers great opportunities to create exciting )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(new patterns to suit modern taste. The cut of kimono remained the same, but the designs bore an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(unmistakably modern flavour as motifs were dramatically enlarged or distorted. The bold designs seen on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the propaganda textiles are an extension of these developments. By the late 1930s however, Japan was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(beginning to feel the effects of the war. Slogans such as ?Extravagance is the Enemy? encouraged frugality, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and in 1940 stringent restrictions were introduced. Certain textile craft industries were allowed to continue )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as it was considered important to preserve traditional practices, but lack of raw materials, particularly silk, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(did begin to affect production seriously. Clothing styles were regulated by the Welfare Ministry, but only )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(monpe \(loose trousers\) were generally adopted, not because they were patriotic but because they were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(practical.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The contrast between officially-sanctioned civilian wartime dress and the striking propaganda designs is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(highlighted in a fascinating chapter by Kashiwagi Hiroshi, ?Design and war: kimono as ?parlour )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(performance? propaganda?. The pleasures of ?hidden? decoration, as discussed by Atkins in chapter 1, arose )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in part as a response to Edo period sumptuary laws. These rules were designed to distinguish status and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(served to remind people of their place in the social hierarchy, while the introduction of wartime dress aimed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to join all citizens together in a visible expression of patriotic unity. The propaganda images used on men?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(juban and haori differed because they were concealed and thus known only to the wearer. However, they )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(would sometimes be revealed in a private room \(zashiki\) or parlour to a few close friends who could )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(appreciate the design and would, one assumes, share the patriotic spirit the patterns embodied. This concept )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of dress as ?parlour performance? \(ozashiki\) relates to notions of play \(asobi\) that are a key element of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Japanese aesthetics and which, during the Asia-Pacific war, became in themselves a form propagandist )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(expression.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The restrictions placed on clothing and all aspects of people?s life in wartime Japan are discussed in more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(detail by Wakakuwa Midori in the chapter ?War-promoting kimono?. Despite the limitations that such )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(regulations imposed, it seems that until the war with America large numbers of kimono were still produced, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(many, as this book reveals, featuring designs with war-related themes. Wakakuwa discusses the importance )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of motifs in Japanese dress and the auspicious powers with which such designs were believed to be imbued, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(before looking a specific propaganda examples.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(If the power of textile motifs was implicitly understood in Japan, in the West too certain objects took on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(talismanic qualities as Pat Kirkham reveals in ?Keeping up home front morale: ?beauty and duty? in wartime )] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Britain?. Moreover the intrinsic importance and significance of dress is revealed by the fact that so many of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 249.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the debates about morale, duty, and patriotism were played out in the arena of fashion. This is something )] TJ ET BT 34.016 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that emerges very clearly in Kirkham?s absorbing essay, which examines the British government?s attempts )] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to find a balance between saving scarce materials and maintaining home front morale. Women were seen as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(key to civilian morale and much of the discourse about appearance was aimed at downplaying the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(instabilities, not just of war itself, but also of the shifting gender roles created by women?s mobilization. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Women were forced to make enormous sacrifices during the war, but at the same time were expected to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?keep up a front? as beauty became a duty. What is particularly effective in Kirkham?s chapter is the way in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which she evokes a sense of the personal experience of women through the voice of fifty-one year old Nellie )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Last, who wore her ?gayest frock? and made up ?rather heavily? to help her face the day when her youngest )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(son went off to fight \(p. 207\). Kirkham discusses underwear, stockings, scarves, and cosmetics?particularly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(lipstick?revealing how emotionally charged such items were. They provided both important psychological )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(links with the prewar period and an imagined future, and served as magical protectors and markers of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(resistance. A theme that reveals itself in many of the chapters of )] TJ ET BT 344.948 78.437 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Wearing Propaganda)] TJ ET BT 449.276 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( is the blurring of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(boundaries between public and private that occurred during the war. This is made clear again by Kirkham in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the way in which beauty, which one would normally associate with self-identity and the private world, )] TJ ET endstream endobj 26 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 28 0 R ] /Contents 27 0 R >> endobj 27 0 obj << /Length 7380 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(became a crucial part of the public arena, an outward sign of patriotism and civic duty.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(One of the greatest signifiers of women?s ?emancipation, economic independence, commitment, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(glamour? \(p. 236\)?the headscarf?is the focus of Paul Rennie?s chapter, ?London squares: the scarves of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(wartime Britain?. This apparently simple accessory was in fact replete with meaning in wartime Britain. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Rennie analyses the motifs used on scarves and discusses the varied production and marketing strategies of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(leading textiles firms such as Jacqumar and Ascher. The image of a woman wearing a headscarf, together )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with the slogan ?The girl he left behind him is still behind him?, opens Beverley Gordon?s chapter, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?Showing the colors: America?. During the war, the physical labour of American women was seen as an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(extension of their domestic duties, with images such as the powerful?and incredibly enduring?Rosie the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Riveter casting women as heroic workers. Gordon, like Kirkham, reveals how in the West, as in Japan, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(textiles could embody symbolic power as with ?victory? quilts, ?comfort? items knitted for servicemen, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the pillowcases they sent back from the front bearing ?I forget-you-not? sentiments. America was in a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(unique position during the war, for although it had to endure shortages and adapt to utility dress, it came late )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(into the conflict and was never under direct attack. With Europe in ruins, America suddenly found itself the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fashion centre of the world. As Gordon shows, the styles that emerged combined elements of the American )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(pioneer spirit, Hollywood glamour, and concepts of leisure and relaxation. The resulting fresh, easy-going )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(look endured well beyond the war, forming the essence of modern America style.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The final section of the book looks at the objects under discussion in more detail. In ?An arsenal of design: )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(themes, motifs and metaphors in propaganda textiles?, Atkins discusses the way in which designs function )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and how in propaganda textiles the use of familiar visual conventions allowed for the introduction of newer )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and often more radical motifs. The broadest range of elements are seen in Japanese propaganda textiles, in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which celebrations of modernity, empire and nation, playful images of child soldiers, and scenes of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(battleships and warplanes are combined with familiar auspicious motifs such as Mount Fuji. British and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(American propaganda textiles are more limited in scope. In Britain the focus is on home front ideals in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which government-sponsored campaigns are cleverly and often humorously utilized by designers, while in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(America the emphasis is on patriotism and victory. Atkins then goes on to explore specific motifs and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(examples under the headings of modernity and tradition, empire, militarism, patriotism, the enemy, leaders )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and heroes, sacrifice, alliances, slogans and songs, animals, and victory.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The final section of the book is followed by a glossary and bibliography, and a checklist of the )] TJ ET BT 490.952 361.301 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Wearing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Propaganda)] TJ ET BT 94.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( exhibition. The book also contains useful maps and a detailed timeline, as well as extended )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(captions to the illustrations. Curiously, however, it does not have an index and I also missed notes on the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(authors, some of whom were not familiar to me. These are very minor points however, for this is a book )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with very high production values. It is beautifully produced, the illustrations certainly doing justice to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(wonderful objects. Although there is inevitably some overlap between chapters, they are all absorbingly and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(lucidly written.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 249.509 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Wearing Propaganda: Textiles on the Home Front in Japan, Britain and the United States 1931?1945)] TJ ET BT 34.016 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(covers a remarkable amount of ground and gives much food for thought. In dealing with this important )] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(period and these striking and significant objects the book makes an enormous contribution, both to the study )] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the persuasive power of wartime propaganda and to the understanding of the capacity of textiles and dress )] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to communicate and motivate. It has been a pleasure to read and to look at. I am sure I shall return to it often.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 157.587 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 126.970 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 126.965 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The collection of Jeffrey Montgomery, which contains some propaganda textiles, has recently been )] TJ ET BT 64.016 112.709 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(published in )] TJ ET BT 126.020 112.709 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Fashioning Kimono: Dress and Modernity in Early Twentieth Century Japan)] TJ ET BT 497.012 112.709 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, ed. Annie )] TJ ET BT 64.016 98.453 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(van Assche \(Milan, 2005\). Liza Dalby briefly discusses Japanese wartime dress in )] TJ ET BT 461.936 98.453 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Kimono: )] TJ ET BT 64.016 84.197 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Fashioning Culture)] TJ ET BT 158.360 84.197 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(New Haven and London, 1993\). British wartime fashions have also received )] TJ ET BT 64.016 69.941 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(attention, notably from Pat Kirkham, one of the contributors to)] TJ ET BT 365.660 69.941 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [( Wearing Propaganda)] TJ ET BT 472.988 69.941 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 478.988 69.941 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 478.988 68.547 m 532.976 68.547 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 55.690 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 55.685 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Propaganda images were generally considered too masculine for women?s garments, although there )] TJ ET endstream endobj 28 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 29 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 478.9877 68.8615 532.9757 80.7415 ] >> endobj 29 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 30 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 32 0 R 34 0 R 36 0 R ] /Contents 31 0 R >> endobj 31 0 obj << /Length 2083 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 64.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(are a few exceptions. There are also examples of women?s obi \(the sash that secures the kimono\) with )] TJ ET BT 64.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(images of battleships, airplanes and bombs, albeit rather subtly rendered. )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 416.960 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 416.960 780.819 m 470.948 780.819 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 767.962 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(3.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The Squander Bug was a hairy insect, usually with Nazi swastikas on his belly, who urged citizens to )] TJ ET BT 64.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(waste food and splurge on the high street. In one advert he was shown whispering to a woman in her )] TJ ET BT 64.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sleep. The most famous manifestation of the ?Careless Talk Costs Lives? campaign are the series of )] TJ ET BT 64.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(secret-leaking scenes drawn by Fougasse which show people?often women?gossiping while Hitler, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(hiding or in disguise, listens in. These cartoons appeared on women?s dress fabric and headscarves. )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 64.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 64.016 695.283 m 118.004 695.283 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 651.439 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 633.659 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 633.659 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/548)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 632.265 m 322.316 632.265 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 607.288 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 592.888 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/2977)] TJ ET BT 34.016 578.488 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET endstream endobj 32 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 33 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 416.9597 781.1335 470.9477 793.0135 ] >> endobj 33 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 34 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 35 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 64.0157 695.5975 118.0037 707.4775 ] >> endobj 35 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 36 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 37 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 632.5795 322.3157 644.4595 ] >> endobj 37 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/548) >> endobj xref 0 38 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000356 00000 n 0000000393 00000 n 0000000613 00000 n 0000000695 00000 n 0000004972 00000 n 0000005081 00000 n 0000005191 00000 n 0000005300 00000 n 0000008861 00000 n 0000008989 00000 n 0000009073 00000 n 0000009164 00000 n 0000017232 00000 n 0000017360 00000 n 0000017396 00000 n 0000017522 00000 n 0000017558 00000 n 0000017642 00000 n 0000025245 00000 n 0000025373 00000 n 0000025409 00000 n 0000025474 00000 n 0000032956 00000 n 0000033040 00000 n 0000040473 00000 n 0000040599 00000 n 0000040635 00000 n 0000040733 00000 n 0000042869 00000 n 0000042997 00000 n 0000043033 00000 n 0000043160 00000 n 0000043196 00000 n 0000043324 00000 n trailer << /Size 38 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 43419 %%EOF