%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 19 0 R 27 0 R 50 0 R 61 0 R ] /Count 6 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140722032346+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140722032346+01'00') /Title (Luther and German Humanism) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4115 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Luther and German Humanism)] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Historians of sixteenth-century Germany, especially those writing in the English language, owe a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(considerable debt to the work of Lewis W. Spitz. In his )] TJ ET BT 302.312 244.811 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Religious Renaissance of the German)] TJ ET BT 506.960 244.811 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Humanists)] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Cambridge, Mass., 1963\) Spitz gave us what is still an unsurpassed survey of the lives, works, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(characters of the German Renaissance humanists of the late fifteenth and early sixteenth century. His work )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(combines sensitivity towards the goals and tastes of the northern Renaissance, with an appreciation of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(spiritual issues raised by Martin Luther's religious message. It balances on that delicate fulcrum of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(relationship between Renaissance and Reformation. This topic has fascinated scholars from Francis Bacon in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the early seventeenth century through the idealist philosophers of nineteenth-century Germany to the critical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.019 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(history of our own age, and shows no sign of losing its allure.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The present volume collects together eleven of Spitz's essays, all previously published, which range in date )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.507 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from 1959 to 1990. The first presents, by way of introduction, an English version of Spitz's articles on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.251 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('Humanism' and 'Humanism Research' which have already appeared in German in the )] TJ ET BT 447.896 90.251 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Theologische )] TJ ET BT 34.016 75.995 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Realenzyklopaedie)] TJ ET BT 123.992 75.995 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. Four further essays grouped under the heading 'German Humanism' embrace the impact )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.739 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of Renaissance values on German scholarship as a whole. The remaining six address Martin Luther )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.699 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(55)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.187 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.931 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Wednesday, 1 July, 1998)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.675 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.419 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Lewis Spitz)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.163 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.907 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9780860784991)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.651 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.395 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1996)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.139 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.883 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(95.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.627 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.371 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(350pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.115 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.859 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Variorum)] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.603 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher url:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.347 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.ashgate.com/default.aspx?page=1449)] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.091 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 313.835 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Aldershot)] TJ ET BT 34.016 299.579 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 285.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Euan Cameron)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 17 0 R ] /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 8074 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(specifically, and focus on the contribution which Renaissance values made to Luther's Reformation. This )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(formal arrangement in some ways belies the relationship between the various chapters. In the first section, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(on German Humanism itself, parts of chapters II and V, and most of IV, discuss the humanists who lived in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Reformation era. Conversely, parts of the second section, ostensibly devoted to Luther and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Reformation, discuss the earlier pre-Reformation humanists, especially in chapter VII. The themes of Spitz's )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(interests form a seamless web which is not easily cut up into discrete sections. Because several of the essays )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in this volume have been written as contributions to various multi-authored survey volumes, there is a good )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(deal of straightforward repetition in the book. Themes, arguments, pieces of evidence, even quotations, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(allusions, and jokes are repeated across chapters. Such overlap and repetition is an unavoidable consequence )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of gathering together pieces which were first written for other, particular contexts, as the )] TJ ET BT 461.912 668.165 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Variorum )] TJ ET BT 511.580 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(series )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(requires. It in no way reflects upon the author, though it does diminish the impact of the book slightly. On )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the other hand, the two final chapters, 'Luther's importance for anthropological realism', and 'Man on this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(isthmus', range far more widely than the remainder, and ought perhaps to have been graced with a separate )] TJ ET BT 34.016 611.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(section heading. In these essays Lewis Spitz examines Renaissance and early modern 'anthropology'. By this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 596.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(he means contemporary attitudes to the human predicament - the grandeur and misery of being human - in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 582.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the light of later philosophical traditions. These speculative pieces attest a breadth of vision, and wealth of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 568.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(erudition, which is only glimpsed in the earlier chapters, and well repay the careful reading needed to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 554.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(understand them.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The sharing of so many motifs between the majority of the book's chapters confers one distinct benefit on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the book, and on the reviewer. There is a unity of themes and approaches to Spitz's treatment of his problem )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which invites one to consider his argument as a whole. Spitz has formed his approach to his basic question in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conscious contrast to the great traditions of nineteenth- and early twentieth-century German philosophical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(history \(IV.105, VIII, 70\). He is particularly aware of the assessments of the relationship between )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Renaissance and Reformation found in the writings of Wilhelm Dilthey \(1833-1911 \) and Ernst Troeltsch )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1865-1923\). Dilthey, writing from an idealist and nationalist viewpoint, interpreted the Reformation as the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(peculiarly German, religious expression of the movement towards individual spiritual freedom found )] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(elsewhere in the shape of the Renaissance. Troeltsch, whose life's work was to free the religious )] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(consciousness from 'dogma' and the quest for supernatural validation of the claims of faith, found the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(individualism of the reformers too narrow, too dogmatic, too tied down to the supernatural authority of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 371.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(text of Scripture, to count as a part of the process of freeing the human spirit. The true implications of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Renaissance were, for Troeltsch, only realized and amplified in the Enlightenment.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 432.272 356.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 432.272 355.395 m 446.264 355.395 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 446.264 356.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Spitz is far too subtle )] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and too close to the evidence to give undue weight to either of these over-simplified theses: he reacts against )] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(both. Nevertheless, the idealistic treatment of 'Renaissance' and 'Reformation' as portmanteau expressions )] TJ ET BT 34.016 314.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(stands repeatedly in the background to his discussions.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(One can fairly summarize Spitz's overall argument as follows. He defines 'humanism' in slightly broader )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(terms than the fashionable ones associated with Paul Oskar Kristeller, who located humanism within the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(tradition of the late medieval Italian )] TJ ET BT 209.324 259.253 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(ars dictaminis)] TJ ET BT 277.664 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, with its quest for formal latinate rhetoric and an elegant )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(letter-writing style. Spitz prefers to describe humanism as a broad intellectual movement rooted in love for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the classical antique, and in high esteem for philology, rhetoric, poetry, ethics, and history \(VII.93, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(again, VIII.70-1\). Against some German idealists, Spitz sees no reason to deny or play down the extent to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which contacts between Italy and Germany, especially in the first half of the fifteenth century, determined )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the German reception of Italian humanism \(1. 16,11.4-7, 26-9, V.202-3\). He believes that German humanism )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reached its peak, as an independent intellectual tradition, in the first two decades of the sixteenth century )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(11.36-51, IV.106, V.207-9\), at which point it was broadening out into diverse and curious religious )] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(speculations \(III, passim\). When the Reformation came about - and Spitz is properly careful to stress that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 130.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Luther's message arose from an individual spiritual insight, which cannot be neatly summarized in terms of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 116.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(its 'sources' \(e.g. VII.113-14\) - it soon 'derailed' humanism. The energies hitherto devoted to the humanist )] TJ ET BT 34.016 102.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(programme were transferred to more specifically theological ends \(IV.109, V.209\). Nevertheless, humanism )] TJ ET BT 34.016 88.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and the Reformation remained intertwined. The intellectual attainments of the Renaissance humanists 'made )] TJ ET BT 34.016 73.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Reformation possible', by supplying linguistic skills, techniques of textual criticism, and the critique of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 59.669 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(scholastic theology and institutional corruption in the Church \(11.51, V, 213ff, IX, 383-4\). Moreover, since )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj [14 0 R /Fit] endobj 17 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 18 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 432.2717 355.7095 446.2637 367.5895 ] >> endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 22 0 R 25 0 R ] /Contents 20 0 R >> endobj 20 0 obj << /Length 7920 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(many of the younger reformers had been primarily Renaissance humanists in their youth \(IV, passim\), they )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ensured the continuity of humanist values and methods by incorporating them into reformed schooling. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Languages, rhetoric, poetry, and history all found their place in the Lutheran higher educational curriculum. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(By the end of the sixteenth century, study of these subjects had advanced to a level of knowledge well )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(beyond those attained by the propagandists of the 'heroic' period of 1510-20 \(11.57ff, V.215-19, VII,106-8, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(IX.384-93\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(At this point, intellectually speaking, a serious problem rears its head, of which Spitz is only too well aware. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(It has long been customary to regard the Reformation, and even more so Luther's role in it, as representing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(an 'anti-Renaissance' or an 'anti-humanism'.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 243.620 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 243.620 669.027 m 257.612 669.027 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 257.612 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( The Reformation appears as the antithesis of the Renaissance, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in two related and connected areas: the ability of human nature to know the divine through reason, and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ability of human nature to obey the divine law through the moral will. In each case the humanists are )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(depicted as optimists, and the reformers as pessimists. For the latter, only the cloak of Christ's righteousness, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(draped over the sinful soul, could protect it from the terrors of divine justice against sin. Before the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(unsearchable majesty of God, attempts by unaided human reason to comprehend the depths of Providence )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(appeared presumptuous: light came only through the Gospel received in the Word of Scripture, and reason )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was a 'harlot' \(Luther's choice of word\) when it tried to reach beyond revelation. Lewis Spitz is extremely )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sensitive to this antinomy and refers to it on many occasions. He points out that the Renaissance writers saw )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Christ as a moral example to imitate, whereas the reformers saw him as a testimony of God's will towards )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(humanity \(V.215, VII.114-15, IX.384\). This problem gives his studies on religious anthropology \(above all )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in Chapter XI\) their relevance within the book. Spitz seeks to square the circle by claiming Luther, as far as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(possible, as a disciple of the humanists. He points out that Luther praised the powers of human reason, quite )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(extravagantly, in certain particular texts, but only in so far as those powers related to earthly, secular )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(knowledge \(VI.92-4, VII.101, X.136-9\). This claim is perfectly sound \(although based on rather few texts\); )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Calvin said something quite similar.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 207.692 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 207.692 455.187 m 221.684 455.187 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 221.684 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( The difference between Renaissance and Reformation lies not so )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(much on how highly natural reason is valued, as on the relative importance attached to divine and human )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(knowledge; for the reformers, the former was so much more important than earthly knowledge, that mere )] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(worldly wisdom bulked less large. Spitz's approach gives less satisfaction, however, when reformers are )] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(compared one with another. When Luther spoke of the 'harlot reason', he opposed not only human efforts to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fulfill the divine law, but also human efforts to 'rationalize' the divine message. When Zwingli argued that it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 371.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was unreasonable to suppose that performance of a human rite \(say, consecrating the Eucharist\) could bring )] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(about supernatural changes in the elements, Luther accused him \(amongst other things\) of 'arrogantly' )] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(abusing reason. This difference in approach provides one of many reasons why Zwingli and his followers are )] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(usually regarded as more 'humanist' than Luther. The powers of natural reason were a battleground )] TJ ET BT 511.556 328.277 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(within)] TJ ET BT 34.016 314.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Reformation itself. It is not that Spitz is unaware of this point; he simply does not say very much about it.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Chapter XI, 'Man on this isthmus', goes even further in flattening out the distinction between higher and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(lower estimates of the powers of human nature. With a breathtaking range of erudition, Spitz first traces a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(tradition of high estimates of human powers, through classical antiquity, Nemesius of Emesa, Lactantius, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(early Italian humanists, and Luther \(XI.26-39\); then he identifies a parallel tradition of pessimism about )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(human powers, through the melancholic tendencies of Boethius, Innocent III, Petrarch, Salutati, Ficino and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Pico \(XI.39-47\). The pessimists had their hopeful moments; the optimists had their bleak moments. It is not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(altogether clear what this proves, beyond the point \(about which idealist historians perhaps did need a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reminder\) that high or low values of human worth almost never exist in their pure forms in a mind of any )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(subtlety at all.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(One senses that, for Spitz, Luther did indeed embody the Germanic religious spirit of the Renaissance, as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Dilthey might have claimed. Yet it is not absolutely clear how strongly Spitz himself feels about this point. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Evidence for Luther's engagement with humanism is surveyed in two adjacent chapters. In the third section )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of Chapter VII, Spitz reviews Luther's attitude to the classics and the Renaissance on the basis of the 'Table )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Talk' of 1530-46: he remarks upon his continued citation of classical authors, and notes his approval of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cicero, rhetoric, classical drama, music, and history. He cites Gordon Rupp's discovery that Luther actually )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(used more classical allusions in his treatise against Erasmus in 1525 than the latter had used in his own )] TJ ET endstream endobj 21 0 obj [19 0 R /Fit] endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 23 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 243.6197 669.3415 257.6117 681.2215 ] >> endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 24 0 obj [19 0 R /Fit] endobj 25 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 26 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 207.6917 455.5015 221.6837 467.3815 ] >> endobj 26 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 27 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 30 0 R 33 0 R 36 0 R 39 0 R 42 0 R 45 0 R 48 0 R ] /Contents 28 0 R >> endobj 28 0 obj << /Length 9322 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(diatribe \(VII.101-14\). In Chapter VIII, first published some eleven years after Chapter VII, Spitz reviews )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(much of the same evidence, but comes to slightly more measured conclusions. Luther's classical citations )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(may not have been first-hand; his classical erudition was by no means untypical of a scholar of his age, nor )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(did he seem to read any new classics in later life. He interpreted doubtful scriptural texts according to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dogmatic criteria, not the pure humanist principle of comparing text with text. He believed in mass )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(education, but lacked the humanists' prodigious confidence in its improving effects \(V111.77-88\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Luther holds the key to the debate. The problem is that in Lewis Spitz's work only two aspects of that many-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(faceted and elusive mind really come sharply into focus: his Renaissance-inspired scholarship, and his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(biblically inspired theology of justification. Spitz responds to some of the other issues in the shaping of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Luther's mind here and there through this collection, above all in Chapter VII. Since the pioneering work of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Heiko A. Oberman and his students has taught us to take late medieval scholasticism seriously, Luther has )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(been shown to draw on his training in scholastic methods of reasoning, especially the 'via moderna' of late )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(medieval nominalism, long after he had aggressively denounced that school's approach to the justification of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sinful souls.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 92.024 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 92.024 597.747 m 106.016 597.747 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 106.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Luther called William of Ockham his 'master' even quite late in life.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 435.284 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(5\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 435.284 597.747 m 449.276 597.747 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 449.276 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Spitz has little time )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for this paradoxical insistence that Luther may have depended on the thought-patterns of a school of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(theology which he rejected twice, first as a humanist when reforming the Wittenberg curriculum, and again, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(more profoundly, as a reformer \(e.g. VII, 113\). Yet the paradox, that Luther could denounce the 'sophists' )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and yet invoke them against opponents' faulty logic, is not of historians' making, but Luther's. If Spitz is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(hostile to the idea of enduring nominalist influence on Luther, he has no time at all for Oberman's other )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(major thesis, that Luther's religious psyche was shaped by an intense sense of the power and work of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(devil. In recent years Heiko Oberman has alleged that Luther did not intend what we call a 'reformation' at )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(all. He saw his role as that of preaching the Gospel in the face of the ever greater rage of Satan against him )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and the Gospel; when Satan's rage was at its worst, he expected Christ to appear as the true 'reformer'.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 523.052 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(6\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 523.052 469.443 m 537.044 469.443 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 537.044 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( In )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(this light, the work of 'reforming' the Church appeared merely provisional. Spitz is tersely dismissive of this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(claim in the preface: 'Luther was not a cultural freak-out caught between God and Satan expecting )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(momentary eschatological doom, but a university professor and family man ... looking to the future of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mankind' \(preface, p. viii\). It is perfectly legitimate to question whether apocalyptic, near-Manichaean fear )] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the devil was always and equally present in Luther's thought.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 339.800 399.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(7\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 339.800 398.163 m 353.792 398.163 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 353.792 399.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( However, it is also clear that by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(comparison with other reformers, Luther was more apocalyptic, more concerned with the presence of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 371.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(devil, than was usual for his contemporaries. Oecolampadius complained, for example, of the repeated )] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(references to the devil in )] TJ ET BT 155.648 356.789 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(That these)] TJ ET BT 208.316 356.789 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(words, 'This is my)] TJ ET BT 297.896 356.789 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(body' ... still stand firm against the fanatics)] TJ ET BT 505.820 356.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. Luther )] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was not only different from the Swiss humanists; he was also very different from Melanchthon. It is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(questionable whether Spitz has really done justice to this aspect of the man, even in the way suggested by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 314.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the most judicious of recent Luther biographers, Martin Brecht.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 338.636 314.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(8\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 338.636 312.627 m 352.628 312.627 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Professor Spitz is slightly more generous to the suggestion that an 'Augustinian revival' in late medieval )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(theology helped to condition Luther's mind alongside the influences of humanism. Unfortunately, Spitz's )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(discussion Of the 'via Gregorii', the tradition of the fourteenth-century Augustinian Gregory of Rimini and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(his alleged influence at the university of Wittenberg, which was perfectly reasonable in 1974 when Chapter )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(VII was first published, has since been seriously questioned by the researches of D. C. Steinmetz. Steinmetz )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(has shown that the idea of an 'Augustinian school' needs very careful qualification.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 431.264 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(9\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 431.264 215.091 m 445.256 215.091 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 445.256 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( On the other hand, it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(does not really matter that Spitz has not reconsidered late medieval Augustinianism in this context, since he )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is not concerned with Augustinian theology for itself, but for its relationship to humanism. He claims that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(many Augustinian religious were also humanist writers; that followers of the writings of Augustine tended to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(adopt a 'platonized and somewhat mystical theology' which made them prone to oppose Aristotelianism. In )] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(other words, the 'Augustinians' can be drawn into the humanist camp; therefore, 'humanist Augustinians' can )] TJ ET BT 34.016 130.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(be added to the list of forerunners who prepared the ground for Luther \(V11.93-101\). One senses that a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 116.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(certain sleight-of-hand is being used here, consciously or not. Of course there was a strand in Augustine's )] TJ ET BT 34.016 102.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(thought which was consciously and abundantly Neo-Platonist. Recent researches in his )] TJ ET BT 454.628 102.437 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Confessions)] TJ ET BT 512.636 102.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( have )] TJ ET BT 34.016 88.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(revealed numerous unacknowledged quotations and allusions to the writings of the pagan Neo-Platonist )] TJ ET BT 34.016 73.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Plotinus.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 76.364 73.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(10\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 76.364 72.531 m 96.356 72.531 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 96.356 73.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Yet Augustine could be many things to many people, according to whether one focused on his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 59.669 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(doctrine of soul and spirit \(Platonist\), his doctrine of justification \(anti-Pelagian\) or his doctrine of the )] TJ ET endstream endobj 29 0 obj [27 0 R /Fit] endobj 30 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 31 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 92.0237 598.0615 106.0157 609.9415 ] >> endobj 31 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 32 0 obj [27 0 R /Fit] endobj 33 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 34 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 435.2837 598.0615 449.2757 609.9415 ] >> endobj 34 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 35 0 obj [27 0 R /Fit] endobj 36 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 37 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 523.0517 469.7575 537.0437 481.6375 ] >> endobj 37 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 38 0 obj [27 0 R /Fit] endobj 39 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 40 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 339.7997 398.4775 353.7917 410.3575 ] >> endobj 40 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 41 0 obj [27 0 R /Fit] endobj 42 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 43 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 338.6357 312.9415 352.6277 324.8215 ] >> endobj 43 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 44 0 obj [27 0 R /Fit] endobj 45 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 46 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 431.2637 215.4055 445.2557 227.2855 ] >> endobj 46 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 47 0 obj [27 0 R /Fit] endobj 48 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 49 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 76.3637 72.8455 96.3557 84.7255 ] >> endobj 49 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 50 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 53 0 R 56 0 R 59 0 R ] /Contents 51 0 R >> endobj 51 0 obj << /Length 7865 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Church \(anti-Donatist and anti-Manichaean\). It was the second of these doctrines, not the first, which was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(alleged to have shaped the younger Luther. Given that D. C. Steinmetz has warned us all about running )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(together many of the different senses of the word 'Augustinian', Spitz's argument in Chapter VII should )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(perhaps be read with some caution.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(A more fundamental question arises over the assimilation of Luther into the humanist tradition both before )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and after the Reformation crisis. Renaissance humanism, as Spitz shows in Chapter III, did not spawn a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(coherent body of religious teachings. One should go further: it was not only un-dogmatic, but anti-dogmatic. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The religious humanists consciously opposed the attempt to nail down the content of faith in terms of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dogma. In contrast, as Dilthey himself put it, Luther's faith 'is not the exit of dogma ... on the contrary, it has )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(this dogma in all respects as its necessary presupposition. It stands and falls with the dogma.")] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 482.540 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(11\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 482.540 654.771 m 502.532 654.771 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 502.532 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( It was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(because of this essentially un-humanist preoccupation with dogmatic formulations that Lutheranism, like )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Calvinism, eventually outgrew the humanistic, rhetorical garb which it wore in its youth, and had to adopt a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(technical jargon akin to the old scholasticism. It was partly for this reason that Ernst Troeltsch, whose first )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(major scholarly work focused on Reason and revelation in Melanchthon and Johann Gerhard, so emphasized )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the medieval, supernaturalist, dogmatic quality of Reformation thought.')] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 380.816 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(12\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 380.816 583.491 m 400.808 583.491 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(So why is it that Spitz, who shows such sensitivity to so many of the favoured themes of the Renaissance )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(humanists, slides over their opposition to debate over religious dogma? Evidently this antithesis has the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(power to make the progress from humanist to reformer less smooth, less natural, than it could appear to be. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Another quirk in Spitz's writing needs to be remarked upon here. He treats Erasmus of Rotterdam, the leader )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of anti-dogmatic religious writers in the Renaissance, whom one might expect to figure quite largely in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(subject, cursorily and often dismissively. I have great personal sympathy for the view that Erasmus has been )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(excessively and uncritically praised by some of his biographers, who sometimes seem rather to seek to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(justify his stance in terms of modern-day Catholicism, than to locate his beliefs historically in the sixteenth-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(century context.')] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 113.492 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(13\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 113.492 443.187 m 133.484 443.187 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 133.484 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Yet when Spitz refers to the debate between Erasmus and Luther in 1525-6 as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('overrated' \(1.20\), or tidies discussion of him into a corner with German \(or sometimes English\) humanists, it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is hard to see that this represents a fair estimate either of his stature or his influence. Spitz points out that in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contrast to Mutian, Celtis, and Reuchlin, the chief German Neo-Platonist religious philosophers, Erasmus )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(did not develop a 'theologia platonica' in his )] TJ ET BT 248.324 387.557 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Enchiridion)] TJ ET BT 305.660 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(III.130\). This is no doubt true: but surely the point )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is that Erasmus, by appropriating some of the slogans of the Neo-Platonists, e.g. calling on intelligent )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(believers to proceed from 'things visible' \(relics, good works\) to 'things invisible' \(contemplation of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(virtues of great Christians\), produced a sort of Platonized ethical theology which was potentially much more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(accessible and influential to a wide readership than the secretive musings of Mutian or the arcana of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Reuchlin.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(A deeper historical question lies under the surface of the material covered in this book. The earlier religious )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(humanists, as Spitz himself has shown so well, could wander off into remote ethereal zones of religio-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(philosophical speculation, and mock the crass piety of the vulgar, safe in the knowledge \(as they thought\) )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that the great machinery of the Church and its rites was never likely to be challenged. The next generation of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(humanists found by the early 1520s that this very system )] TJ ET BT 310.004 232.997 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(had)] TJ ET BT 328.004 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( been challenged, and to devastating effect. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(disturbing and destructive speculations of a Mutian could not provide a safe haven for young scholars whose )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(means of grace had suddenly been shattered: so they turned to the dogmas of the Reformation, and brought )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(their intellectual baggage with them. In this unstable world it took a rare and resolute belief in the priority of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ethics over doctrine in the Christian life - such a belief as Erasmus held - to resist the drift onwards into )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Lutheranism or backwards into sacerdotalism. Spitz's insights into the continuity of humanist values are vital )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and valuable. Yet if one is to take the measure of the religious turmoil of the early sixteenth century, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conflict between Renaissance and Reformation values and priorities may need to be acknowledged, more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(than he appears willing to do.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 84.051 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 53.434 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 53.429 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(See the essays by Dilthey and Troeltsch translated in L. W. Spitz, ed., )] TJ ET BT 401.972 53.429 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Reformation: Basic)] TJ ET BT 64.016 39.173 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Interpretations)] TJ ET endstream endobj 52 0 obj [50 0 R /Fit] endobj 53 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 54 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 482.5397 655.0855 502.5317 666.9655 ] >> endobj 54 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 55 0 obj [50 0 R /Fit] endobj 56 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 57 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 380.8157 583.8055 400.8077 595.6855 ] >> endobj 57 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 58 0 obj [50 0 R /Fit] endobj 59 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 60 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 113.4917 443.5015 133.4837 455.3815 ] >> endobj 60 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 61 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 63 0 R 65 0 R 67 0 R 69 0 R 71 0 R 73 0 R 75 0 R 77 0 R 79 0 R 81 0 R 83 0 R 85 0 R 87 0 R 89 0 R ] /Contents 62 0 R >> endobj 62 0 obj << /Length 8050 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 64.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 2nd edn., \(Lexington, Mass., 1972\), 1143\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 275.996 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 275.996 795.075 m 329.984 795.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 782.218 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This is the precise phrase used in Jean Delumeau, )] TJ ET BT 305.300 782.213 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Naissance et affirmation de la rforme)] TJ ET BT 490.964 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Paris, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1973\), 74\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 117.008 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 117.008 766.563 m 170.996 766.563 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 753.706 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(3.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Spitz's analysis of Luther's use of the term 'reason' draws on Brian Gerrish, )] TJ ET BT 426.596 753.701 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Grace and Reason)] TJ ET BT 515.912 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(: )] TJ ET BT 64.016 739.445 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(A Study in the Theology of Luther)] TJ ET BT 226.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Oxford, 1962\). Compare the discussion of man's natural gifts in )] TJ ET BT 64.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Calvin, Institutes, II. ii. 12-24\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 213.680 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 213.680 723.795 m 267.668 723.795 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 710.938 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(4.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(See esp. Heiko A. Oberman, 'Headwaters of the Reformation' in Oberman, ed.,)] TJ ET BT 442.580 710.933 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [( Luther and the)] TJ ET BT 519.248 710.933 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Dawn )] TJ ET BT 64.016 696.677 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(of the Modern Era)] TJ ET BT 153.008 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(: )] TJ ET BT 159.344 696.677 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(papers for the Fourth International Congress for Luther Research)] TJ ET BT 477.344 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Leiden, 1974\), )] TJ ET BT 64.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(54-69 and refs\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 140.324 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 140.324 681.027 m 194.312 681.027 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 668.170 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(5.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(O. Scheel, )] TJ ET BT 116.672 668.165 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Dokumente zu Luthers Entwicklung)] TJ ET BT 287.660 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(bis 1519\), 2nd edn., \(Tubingen, 1929\), 86-7, 94,110, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(144,162,175\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 131.012 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(5\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 131.012 652.515 m 185.000 652.515 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 639.658 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(6.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(See Oberman's essay, 'Martin Luther: Forerunner of the Reformation', in H. A. Oberman, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 625.397 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Reformation: Roots and Ramifications)] TJ ET BT 270.020 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, trans. A. C. Gow \(Edinburgh, 1994\), 27-38. On the devil )] TJ ET BT 64.016 611.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(see ibid., 56-70\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 145.004 611.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(6\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 145.004 609.747 m 198.992 609.747 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 596.890 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(7.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 596.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(See my review article, 'Heroic Ideas and Hero-Worship', in )] TJ ET BT 350.588 596.885 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Historical Journal)] TJ ET BT 460.592 596.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( 40 No. 1 \(1997\), )] TJ ET BT 64.016 582.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(217-226 and esp. 221-2\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 184.328 582.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(7\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 184.328 581.235 m 238.316 581.235 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 568.378 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(8.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 568.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(On Oecolampadius's remarks, see Martin Brecht, )] TJ ET BT 302.792 568.373 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Martin Luther: Shaping and defining the )] TJ ET BT 64.016 554.117 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reformation)] TJ ET BT 124.016 554.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, trans. J. M. Schaaf \(Minneapolis, 1990\), 319 and refs\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 392.636 554.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(8\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 392.636 552.723 m 446.624 552.723 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 539.866 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 539.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(D. C. Steinmetz, )] TJ ET BT 146.684 539.861 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Luther and Staupitz: An Essay in the Intellectual Origins of the Protestant )] TJ ET BT 64.016 525.605 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reformation)] TJ ET BT 124.016 525.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Durham, NC, 1980\), 23-34\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 267.992 525.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(9\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 267.992 524.211 m 321.980 524.211 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 42.816 511.354 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(10.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 511.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Augustine, )] TJ ET BT 119.348 511.349 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Confessions)] TJ ET BT 177.356 511.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, trans. and ed. Henry Chadwick \(Oxford, 1991\), esp. 111ff\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 468.620 511.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(10\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 468.620 509.955 m 528.608 509.955 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 42.816 497.098 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(11.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 497.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Dilthey, 'The Interpretation and Analysis of Man, in Spitz, )] TJ ET BT 347.480 497.093 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Reformation: Basic)] TJ ET BT 465.140 497.093 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Interpretations)] TJ ET BT 537.140 497.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( [as )] TJ ET BT 64.016 482.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(note 1], 18\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 122.672 482.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(11\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 122.672 481.443 m 182.660 481.443 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 42.816 468.586 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(12.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 468.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(See e.g. )] TJ ET BT 104.672 468.581 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Wilhelm Pauck, Harnack and Troeltsch: two historical theologians)] TJ ET BT 427.328 468.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(New York, 1968\), 58-65\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 64.016 454.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(12\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 64.016 452.931 m 124.004 452.931 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 42.816 440.074 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(13.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 440.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(See my review articles discussing e.g. R. J. Schoeck's two-volume biography of Erasmus in )] TJ ET BT 506.792 440.069 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The )] TJ ET BT 64.016 425.813 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Historical Journal)] TJ ET BT 153.020 425.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( 36 No. 4 \(1993\) 957-64 \(vol 1\) and )] TJ ET BT 328.328 425.813 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(European History Quarterly)] TJ ET BT 464.984 425.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( 26 \(1996\) 125-40 )] TJ ET BT 64.016 411.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(vol 11\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 105.344 411.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(13\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 105.344 410.163 m 165.332 410.163 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 385.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Due to outstanding work commitments the author has not yet been able to respond to this review. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 371.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(response will be posted in due course.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 325.807 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 308.027 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 308.027 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/55)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 306.633 m 316.316 306.633 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 281.656 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 267.256 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/435)] TJ ET BT 34.016 252.856 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET endstream endobj 63 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 64 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 275.9957 795.3895 329.9837 807.2695 ] >> endobj 64 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 16 0 R >> endobj 65 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 66 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