%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 18 0 R 24 0 R ] /Count 4 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140723174204+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140723174204+01'00') /Title (Citizen Soldiers. The Liverpool Territorials in the First World War) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4287 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Citizen Soldiers. The Liverpool Territorials in the First World War)] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.579 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Although the First World War ended almost ninety years ago, it has become a truism to note that the echoes )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of that conflict continue to resound in Western culture. In any given year, there will be numerous academic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and journalistic books and articles, novels, museum exhibitions, television programmes, and websites )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dedicated to re-examining the history of 1914?1918 to meet the seemingly insatiable public appetite for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(information about, and representations of, the war. Much of the academic material is dedicated to the re-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(examination of already familiar archival sources, and to the reconsideration of existing debates about )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(particular aspects of the war, such as the ongoing debate about the character and ability of those in charge of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(British military policy, or the discussion of women?s role in the war. Additionally, academic work on the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(war continues to be divided by discipline, with military histories largely remaining almost entirely distinct )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from cultural, political, economic, and social histories of the period. )] TJ ET BT 363.308 159.275 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Citizen Soldiers)] TJ ET BT 439.652 159.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( is one of the rare )] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.019 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(publications to breach this divide, combining detailed knowledge of military organization and structure with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 130.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a careful consideration of the impact of the war on society and class and regional identity. McCartney?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 116.507 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(study, whilst it contributes to debates both about the experience of the combatants, and to our knowledge of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 102.251 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the impact of this first ?total war? on the home front, does so by examining one of the less well known )] TJ ET BT 34.016 87.995 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(aspects of the war; the experience of the Territorial forces.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.739 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The British Army of 1914 was composed of three types of infantry battalion: regular, territorial and service. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.699 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(550)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.187 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.931 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Wednesday, 1 November, 2006)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.675 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.419 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Helen McCartney)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.163 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.907 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9780521848008)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.651 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.395 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2005)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.139 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.883 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(50.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.627 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.371 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(275pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.115 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.859 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cambridge University Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.603 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.347 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cambridge)] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.091 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 313.835 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Lucy Noakes)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 16 0 R ] /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 7912 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(From the late-nineteenth century onwards, Britain became increasingly preoccupied by issues of imperial )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and home defence. Numerous organizations dedicated to organizing for this defence, such as the Navy )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(League in 1895 and the National Service League of 1901, sprung into being as patriotism and militarism )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(became intertwined in an increasingly militarized society. By 1903, over 8 per cent of British men had )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(undergone some form of military training, many of them with the Volunteer Force, the precursor of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Territorial Force, which had become popular during the invasion scare of the mid-nineteenth century. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Territorials were established by Lord Haldane, Secretary of State for War, in 1908 to act as a reserve force )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which could be called upon to support the regular army, whether in home defence or abroad. However, as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(McCartney demonstrates, the public, as well as the majority of Territorial members, continued to view the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(force as essentially an organization for home defence?a legacy of its origins as a bulwark against )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(invasion?and defence of the home and the local region was both used as a recruiting tool and functioned as a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(motivational force amongst members of the Territorials. These locally-raised battalions, initially raised to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(defend the home, McCartney argues, largely maintained their civilian identity during the long years of war.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The regional nature of the Territorials gave them a distinctive character, which McCartney examines in order )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to support her contention that soldiers in these battalions maintained their civilian character throughout the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(war, drawing on shared belief systems, and local, often class-based, identities to retain a civilian, as opposed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to a military, identity throughout the four years of war. McCartney focuses on two specific Territorial )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(battalions: the Liverpool Rifles and the Liverpool Scottish. Both of these were primarily formed from the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Liverpool mercantile middle class, and their members were drawn from both the wealthy merchant families )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of Liverpool and from the professions and other white-collar occupations. They also often shared ?a middle-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(class web of sociability? \(p. 26\) in which members not only frequently worked together and lived in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(same districts of the city, but took part in shared leisure activities, and often worshipped at the same )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(churches. The middle-class nature of the two Liverpool Territorial battalions examined here resulted in a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(wealth of archival material?used by McCartney to good effect?such as letters, diaries, scrapbooks, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(memoirs. Whilst McCartney makes excellent use of this archival material to explore the lives and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(experiences of these soldiers, the material also fascinates on a cultural level, first because it allows us some )] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(access to the experiences of the citizen soldier of the First World War, and secondly because it provides an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(important example of a class- and regionally-based body of writing dating from that time. The soldiers often )] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(express a strong sense of class and regional identity that did not always transfer successfully to military life. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 371.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(For example, at the outbreak of war both battalions saw large numbers of men of high social status enlisting )] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as privates rather than as officers. This led to some tension in the battalions as opportunities for promotion )] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(could not always match demand, so that ?civilian standing was no longer commensurate with military )] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(authority? \(p. 48\). As a response to this, the battalions often operated with a more relaxed approach to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 314.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(discipline and relations between the ranks than found elsewhere. Discourses of social class and of regional )] TJ ET BT 34.016 299.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(identity were thus transferred to military life, leading, as McCartney argues, to a continuity of pre-war )] TJ ET BT 34.016 285.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(civilian identities amongst the members of the two Liverpool battalions she studies.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The book is divided into three sections. Following the Introduction and a brief but illuminating survey of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Liverpool and its Territorial Forces before the war, section 1 examines the characteristics and morale of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Territorial soldier. Emphasizing the shared social class of most members of these battalions, this section )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(explores the relative stability of these soldiers? pre-war identities during wartime. Section 2 discusses the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(impact that the social characteristics of the battalions had upon the experience of trench warfare, particularly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in relation to the systems of command and methods of punishment and discipline used. The final section )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(focuses on the experience of trench warfare for the battalions and then briefly examines the postwar memory )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the war in Liverpool, arguing that most of the survivors ?successfully merged back into civilian life, their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(pre-war ambitions and interests substantially intact? \(p. 257\). This final section is fascinating, and it would )] TJ ET BT 34.016 130.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(have been interesting if it had been expanded to consider current debates on sites of cultural memory, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 116.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(work on the interaction between experience and memory such as Janet K. Watson?s )] TJ ET BT 439.916 116.693 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Fighting Different )] TJ ET BT 34.016 102.437 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Wars: Experience, Memory and the First World War in Britain)] TJ ET BT 337.316 102.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, also published in this series \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 482.312 102.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 482.312 101.043 m 488.312 101.043 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 488.312 102.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(One of the most interesting aspects of McCartney?s study is its contribution to the ongoing debate regarding )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the relationship between combatants and civilians during the war. In chapter 5, ?The links with home: )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 17 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 482.3117 101.3575 488.3117 113.2375 ] >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 20 0 R 22 0 R ] /Contents 19 0 R >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Length 8422 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(communication between the home front and the fighting front during the Great War?, McCartney uses her )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(archival material to good effect to argue, in support of the revisionist thesis put forward by, amongst others, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Bourke and Winter, that, contrary to earlier belief, the British public had an all too clear understanding of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(life in the trenches \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 129.992 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 129.992 752.307 m 135.992 752.307 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 135.992 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\). Whilst soldiers? letters, despite military censorship, often managed to convey a vivid )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(picture of their experiences, letters, magazines, and newspaper cuttings from home enabled soldiers to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(maintain their interest in home life, and their sense of themselves as citizens over and above their identity as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(soldiers. Amongst other sources, McCartney examines )] TJ ET BT 299.312 710.933 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Young Crescent)] TJ ET BT 375.644 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, the newsletter of the Crescent )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Congregational Church in Liverpool, which was published specifically to ?provide an interchange of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(experiences between those at home and those whose services are required by King and Country? \(pp. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(98?99\). As well as acting as an informal support for the bereaved, through its publication of obituaries and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(letters from soldier comrades of the deceased, )] TJ ET BT 257.288 653.909 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Young Crescent)] TJ ET BT 333.620 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( acted to maintain links between combatants )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and civilians in the church community by publishing articles and messages which stressed how much the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(men at the front were missed, and the sorts of activities they could participate in again once they returned. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 611.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Church services were also described in the magazine, with soldiers being encouraged to write in requesting )] TJ ET BT 34.016 596.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(favourite hymns, and to participate in prayers. Thus the magazine acted to reinforce the sense of group )] TJ ET BT 34.016 582.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(identity which was in danger of being pulled apart by the war, as the experiences of soldiers acted to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 568.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(differentiate them from those who remained at home. On a larger scale, local newspapers, such as the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 554.117 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Liverpool Echo)] TJ ET BT 108.344 554.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( and )] TJ ET BT 131.672 554.117 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Liverpool Courier)] TJ ET BT 219.344 554.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, ?formed a vital link between the home and fighting fronts? \(p. 115\), )] TJ ET BT 34.016 539.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as letters and articles by soldiers and by their family and friends at home, were published together in their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 525.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(pages. Thus, through a variety of means of communication, an interchange of views, news, and information )] TJ ET BT 34.016 511.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was maintained which served not only to uphold the morale of the men at the front, but also to build a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 497.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(common knowledge of the conflict, shared by combatants and civilians, and, crucially, to preserve the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 482.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(civilian, local identity of members of the Liverpool battalions.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(As McCartney acknowledges, the battalions that she studies were fairly unique in the extent to which their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(local and class-based identity was maintained throughout the war. Unlike some other Territorial battalions, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that saw their locally-based character denuded by high casualty rates, and the replacement of casualties by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(soldiers from outside of the local area, or by the merging of smaller, local battalions into larger, less )] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(geographically discrete organizations, the Liverpool battalions examined here managed to preserve, to a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(large extent, their pre-war character. Although local ties did, inevitably, decrease as the war progressed, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 371.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Liverpool battalions continued to be largely composed of men drawn from the wider Lancashire area. As )] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Lancashire was a large, industrialized county, with several high-density urban areas, it had more local )] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(manpower to draw upon than smaller, more rural areas, such as Buckinghamshire, whose Territorial )] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(battalions, as Ian Beckett has shown, had largely lost their local character by the end of the war \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 497.912 328.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(3)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 497.912 326.883 m 503.912 326.883 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 503.912 328.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\). In )] TJ ET BT 34.016 314.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contrast, the regional identity of the Liverpool battalions expanded to encompass Lancashire, with posters of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 299.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Blackpool being placed in camp canteens, and the red rose, the symbol of Lancashire regional identity, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 285.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(adopted as a divisional badge in 1916. McCartney uses her study of the regional character of these battalions )] TJ ET BT 34.016 271.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to argue that, counter to established argument, there was no conscious decision to nationalize the British )] TJ ET BT 34.016 256.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(army in the second half of the war. Instead, she argues, the War Office recognized the power of local )] TJ ET BT 34.016 242.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(identities, both as a recruitment tool and as a means of maintaining troop morale at the front, and attempted )] TJ ET BT 34.016 228.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to preserve the regional identity of the army as far as possible. Nevertheless, as Beckett?s earlier study )] TJ ET BT 34.016 214.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(demonstrates, this regionalism was not always retained, as the necessity to reorganize and rebuild shattered )] TJ ET BT 34.016 199.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(battalions overrode the desire to protect local identity. This needs to be borne in mind when considering )] TJ ET BT 34.016 185.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(McCartney?s study of the relatively well maintained pre-war character of the Liverpool battalions.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The local nature of McCartney?s study is thus both a strength and, to a much lesser extent, a weakness, of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(this work. The focus on the Liverpool battalions allows McCartney to develop a vivid and focused picture of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 130.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(their regional and class-based identity, but also begs the question of comparison, and of the extent to which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 116.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the very specific conditions of Liverpool can be applied nationally. Although the local character and identity )] TJ ET BT 34.016 102.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of McCartney?s soldiers appears to have been maintained throughout and beyond the war years, to what )] TJ ET BT 34.016 88.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(extent was this true of other Territorial battalions, particularly those, such as the Buckinghamshire )] TJ ET BT 34.016 73.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(battalions, that were merged with other units from outside of their region? To what extent was the identity of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 59.669 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the ?citizen soldier?, identified by McCartney, already shaped by the militarism of the Edwardian period? )] TJ ET endstream endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 21 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 129.9917 752.6215 135.9917 764.5015 ] >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 23 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 497.9117 327.1975 503.9117 339.0775 ] >> endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 24 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 26 0 R 28 0 R 30 0 R 32 0 R ] /Contents 25 0 R >> endobj 25 0 obj << /Length 3370 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(How far were soldiers from less clearly established backgrounds, and with weaker links between the home )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(front and the war front, able to re-establish themselves in their pre-war positions following the Armistice? It )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is, however, the job of good historical studies to ask as many questions as they answer. McCartney?s careful, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(detailed and fascinating study of the experiences and identities of the Liverpool battalions in the war years )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(deserves to be accompanied by further regional studies, in order that we may build a more detailed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(understanding of the lives of those who experienced the Great War.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 690.291 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 659.674 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 659.669 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Janet K. Watson, )] TJ ET BT 149.000 659.669 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Fighting Different Wars: Experience, Memory and the First World War in Britain)] TJ ET BT 64.016 645.413 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Cambridge, 2004\). )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 161.336 645.413 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 161.336 644.019 m 215.324 644.019 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 631.162 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 631.157 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(J. Bourke, )] TJ ET BT 116.012 631.157 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Dismembering the Male: Men?s Bodies, Britain and the Great War)] TJ ET BT 439.976 631.157 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(London, 1996\), p. 20; )] TJ ET BT 64.016 616.901 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(J. Winter, )] TJ ET BT 114.008 616.901 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Sites of Memory, Sites of Mourning: The Great War in European Cultural History)] TJ ET BT 64.016 602.645 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Cambridge, 1995\), p. 36. )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 191.336 602.645 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 191.336 601.251 m 245.324 601.251 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 588.394 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(3.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 588.389 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(I. Beckett, ?The Territorial Force? in )] TJ ET BT 243.968 588.389 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(A Nation in Arms: A Social Study of the British Army in the First )] TJ ET BT 64.016 574.133 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(World War)] TJ ET BT 117.680 574.133 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, ed. I. F. W. Beckett and K. Simpson \(Manchester, 1985\). )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 400.640 574.133 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 400.640 572.739 m 454.628 572.739 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 547.877 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 533.621 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 528.895 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 511.115 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 511.115 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/550)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 509.721 m 322.316 509.721 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 484.744 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.344 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/2981)] TJ ET BT 34.016 455.944 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET endstream endobj 26 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 27 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 161.3357 644.3335 215.3237 656.2135 ] >> endobj 27 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 28 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 29 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 191.3357 601.5655 245.3237 613.4455 ] >> endobj 29 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 30 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 31 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 400.6397 573.0535 454.6277 584.9335 ] >> endobj 31 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 32 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 33 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 510.0355 322.3157 521.9155 ] >> endobj 33 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/550) >> endobj xref 0 34 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000342 00000 n 0000000379 00000 n 0000000570 00000 n 0000000652 00000 n 0000004991 00000 n 0000005100 00000 n 0000005210 00000 n 0000005319 00000 n 0000008880 00000 n 0000009008 00000 n 0000009092 00000 n 0000009176 00000 n 0000017141 00000 n 0000017269 00000 n 0000017305 00000 n 0000017396 00000 n 0000025871 00000 n 0000025999 00000 n 0000026035 00000 n 0000026163 00000 n 0000026199 00000 n 0000026304 00000 n 0000029727 00000 n 0000029855 00000 n 0000029891 00000 n 0000030019 00000 n 0000030055 00000 n 0000030183 00000 n 0000030219 00000 n 0000030347 00000 n trailer << /Size 34 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 30442 %%EOF