%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 18 0 R 22 0 R 28 0 R 34 0 R ] /Count 5 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140818090654+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140818090654+01'00') /Title (Marital Violence: An English Family History, 1660?1857) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R 14 0 R 16 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4727 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Marital Violence: An English Family History, 1660?1857)] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.579 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This study connects the experience of domestic abuse to the historical development of family life from the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Restoration until the passage of the Divorce Act 1857. A critical mass of examples drawn from a variety of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sources, including 220 cases of separation or restitution from the London consistory court, peculiars of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Archbishop of Canterbury, the Court of Arches, the High Court of Delegates, and the Judicial Committee of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Privy Council provides the empirical foundation for the discussion. Printed law reports from 1754?1855, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cases reported in the London )] TJ ET BT 175.652 216.299 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Times)] TJ ET BT 204.320 216.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, and sixty-seven cases involving child or spousal custody heard by the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(King?s Bench between 1738 and 1800 extend the range of the study. The analysis of these materials adds )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(substantially to our knowledge of domestic violence during the eighteenth century, bridging the gap between )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(studies of the early- modern period and those that focus on the Victorian period. In doing so, the book offers )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a revision of our understanding of the changing legal and cultural status of domestic violence, arguing that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.019 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the increasing disapproval of a husband?s physical correction of his wife that James Hammerton \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 503.924 145.019 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 503.924 143.625 m 509.924 143.625 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 509.924 145.019 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\) and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 130.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Martin Weiner \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 111.992 130.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 111.992 129.369 m 117.992 129.369 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 117.992 130.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\) placed in the later-nineteenth century actually developed much earlier.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.507 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The first stage of Foyster?s analysis focuses on how contemporaries defined violence and how resistance to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.251 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(violence expressed itself. The discussion usefully complicates the concept of violence, pointing out that the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 75.995 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(inclination of historians to focus on murder as a surrogate for violence overlooks the ?every day? element of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.739 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(non-lethal violence and perhaps overstates the extent to which violence has declined over time \(p. 34\). Based )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.699 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(551)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.187 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.931 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Wednesday, 1 November, 2006)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.675 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.419 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Elizabeth Foyster)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.163 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.907 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9780521619127)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.651 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.395 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2005)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.139 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.883 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(15.99)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.627 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.371 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(296pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.115 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.859 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cambridge University Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.603 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.347 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cambridge)] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.091 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 313.835 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Gail Savage)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 15 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 503.9237 143.9395 509.9237 155.8195 ] >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 17 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 111.9917 129.6835 117.9917 141.5635 ] >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 20 0 R ] /Contents 19 0 R >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Length 7643 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(upon her reading of the depictions of violence in the range of cases under study, Foyster concludes that the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(understanding of the experience of violence expressed by litigants could include ?physical, verbal and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sexual? \(p. 35\) acts. Not surprisingly, given the contentious nature of marital litigation, the identification of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(violence always remained contested, and neither judges nor litigants ever reached consensus about exactly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(what marked unacceptably violent behaviour.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Foyster then takes up the range of responses to a violent husband, assessing the treatment of domestic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(violence by prescriptive literature, violent responses to domestic violence, and the development of additional )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(options of resistance to cruelty. Foyster shows that courts expressed concern for the emotional consequences )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of marital violence, predating the change in judicial attitudes in the nineteenth century documented by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Hammerton. She also gives examples of women engaging in verbal ?violence?, arguing that verbal anger )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(increasingly came to be associated with working-class women and became less acceptable for middle- and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(upper-class women during this period. Foyster identifies the emergence of nervous illness as ?a new form of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(protest and a way of responding to marital violence? \(p. 123\) during the eighteenth century. Foyster refines )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Martin Wiener?s claim that toleration for male violence declined during the nineteenth century, contending )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that the decline in judicial tolerance for male violence began earlier than previously thought, but that it did )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(not necessarily lead to concomitant changes in popular attitudes.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The next stage in the analysis examines the familial and the community context of violent behaviour. In a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(chapter entitled ?Children and marital violence?, Foyster attempts to ?...reintegrate the stories of children )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and married adults into new histories of the family? \(p. 131\) by considering the impact of domestic violence )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(on children in the household. Children could act as witnesses; they also might try to protect their mother or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(call for help. Foyster shows that the use of children as pawns in struggles between their estranged parents is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(not a contemporary innovation. In this period, however, the legal rights of fathers over the custody of their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(children gave husbands an especially powerful weapon, and wives might stay in violent marriages rather )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(than give up their children. In addition, critiques of parenting could play a role in courts endeavouring to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(assess the worthiness of the husbands and wives who brought their cases for adjudication. Foyster concludes )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(this chapter with a discussion of the passage of the Custody of Infants Act 1839, highlighting the role of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Caroline Norton in achieving this modest reform.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Foyster?s analysis then expands its focus to examine a larger social space, arguing that the evidence of these )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cases shows that domestic violence remained in a public realm well into the nineteenth century. Foyster )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(counterposes the continued importance of community and kinship ties exhibited by these cases to the views )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of Alan Macfarlane and Keith Thomas on the timing of the rise of individualism and the erosion of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(communal relations. Foyster gives vivid examples of the different ways in which parents would intervene in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(violent domestic disputes involving their children, showing that parental involvement ?in terms of nurture )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and responsibility for care, clearly did not end with the marriage of children? \(p. 173\). A wife?s parents )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(might confront a violent son-in-law directly or might try to control his behaviour using their financial )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(influence. Wives might return home for refuge, and family members commonly served as witnesses in court )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(proceedings. Servants not only served as witnesses, they might also actively intervene to protect a wife, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(although servants and parents might also side with a husband against a wife. In Foyster?s view, such )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(interventions by both friends and neighbours argue against understanding the eighteenth- and early-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(nineteenth-century marriage relationship as conducted in an isolated private space.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In the third and concluding phase of her argument, Foyster examines mid-nineteenth-century transitional )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(developments. She suggests that the emergence of the helping professions served to isolate married couples, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(by reducing the role of parents, servants, friends, and neighbours in monitoring and mediating between )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(violent spouses. Foyster surveys the limited but growing role of clergymen, the police, and medical doctors )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in instances of domestic violence. George Behlmer?s work has taken up this part of the story for the late-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(nineteenth and early-twentieth centuries, although my own work on separations in early-twentieth-century )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(magistrates? courts suggests that family members and neighbours continued to be an important presence in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(marital litigation \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 121.352 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(3)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 121.352 77.043 m 127.352 77.043 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 127.352 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\). Finally, Foyster considers the passage of the Divorce Act 1857 as the culminating )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(event of the period encompassed by her study. In her view, the terms of the Act and the debates surrounding )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(its passage evidence the extent to which male authority in marriage continued to include the presumed right )] TJ ET endstream endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 21 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 121.3517 77.3575 127.3517 89.2375 ] >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 24 0 R 26 0 R ] /Contents 23 0 R >> endobj 23 0 obj << /Length 7720 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of husbands to utilize physical correction against their wives. The debates also show that the link between )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(violence and class status identifying domestic violence with the lower classes had already been forged. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Caroline Norton again figures in Foyster?s analysis of these legislative developments, and Foyster repeats )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the commonly-held view that the passage of the Divorce Act, although it improved the status of separated or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(divorce wives, delayed the reform of married women?s property law for over another decade.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Foyster?s book joins a growing body of work based on a diligent mining of court records and archival )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(materials, along with a range of other kinds of sources, to uncover the lived experience of family life. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Foyster?s work shows the progress made in this scholarly enterprise since Margaret Hunt?s 1992 essay on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(domestic violence in eighteenth-century London, based on only ten cases, and the pioneering, and much )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cited, 1978 essay by Nancy Tomes, which was based on 100 cases of violence between men and women in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(London, selected from those reported during two months out of every five years between 1841 and 1875 \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 542.588 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(4)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 542.588 640.515 m 548.588 640.515 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 548.588 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\). )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The nature of the sources, the practical difficulties of surveying them, and the unevenness of their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(preservation hampers any attempt to examine systematically large numbers of cases across the entire British )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Isles. Consequently, this endeavour continues to be both collective and incremental. Foyster has )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(painstakingly accumulated a significant body of evidence and subjected it to a systematic and nuanced )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(analysis that links the experience of violence between spouses to the larger community on the one hand and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to the institutions of law and justice on the other. With this book, coupled with the recent work on domestic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(abuse reported in Joanne Bailey?s )] TJ ET BT 200.312 542.117 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Unquiet Lives)] TJ ET BT 267.308 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 274.304 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(5)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 274.304 540.723 m 280.304 540.723 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 280.304 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\), we have a much more detailed and nuanced picture of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(violence and family life during the eighteenth century.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Foyster intends her work on marital violence to have a significant impact on the historiography of family )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(history by revising the chronological framework of our understanding of the development of family life; a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(chronological framework that has been in contention since the publication of Lawrence Stone?s ever-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(controversial )] TJ ET BT 99.668 458.837 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Family, Sex and Marriage in England 1500-1800)] TJ ET BT 358.316 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(1977\). She also seeks to link the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(experience of family violence in the past to the contemporary experience of family violence, exposing the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(origins of our own misconceptions about the social roots of such violence. Her approach and her conclusions )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(raise important issues that need further attention by scholars interested in gender, family, and social change. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(These issues include: the tension between quantitative and qualitative analysis; the evaluation of Caroline )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Norton?s role in the 1839 and 1857 legislative landmarks in the treatment of the family and marriage; and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the ways in which historical research on family violence might bear on the contemporary understanding of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(domestic abuse.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Foyster deliberately eschews quantitative analysis, observing that ?domestic violence does not yield )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(evidence that can be readily translated into reliable numbers or statistics? \(p. ix\). As Foyster points out, no )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historical records exist that could form the basis for a comprehensive survey of the extent of domestic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(violence?too much of this behaviour escaped any kind of record. And the records that do exist manifest )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(many problems that Foyster conscientiously weighs. In light of these obstacles, Foyster proceeds by the use )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of example, using particular examples to frame her discussion. Foyster begins her study by contrasting the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(experience of two women, Rachael Norcott in 1666 and Mary Veitch in 1837, who both applied to the Court )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of Arches, seeking separations on the grounds of their husbands? cruelty. The author repeatedly returns to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the commonalities and contrasts exhibited by these two cases in order to frame her discussion of the changes )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(over time in the meanings attributed to marital violence.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Examples serve both as especially dramatic illustrations and as a way to summarize the salient elements of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(other cases. For instance, in her discussion of the role of servants, Foyster refers in the notes to eight )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(examples from years ranging from 1666 to 1837 \(pp. 184?6\). But are these all the examples of this nature in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the cases she collected? Do eight cases over a period of approximately 170 years provide a sufficient )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(foundation for the claims that Foyster wishes to advance? Similarly, for the role of friends Foyster lists some )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ten cases between 1717 and 1847, and for the role of neighbours she refers to six cases between 1662 and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1853 \(pp. 190?6\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 66.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The use of examples, in so far as it suggests a representativeness of some kind, avoids directly grappling )] TJ ET BT 34.016 52.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with a quantitative analysis while relying on implicitly quantitative inferences. To assert that the cases of )] TJ ET endstream endobj 24 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 25 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 542.5877 640.8295 548.5877 652.7095 ] >> endobj 25 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 26 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 27 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 274.3037 541.0375 280.3037 552.9175 ] >> endobj 27 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 28 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 30 0 R 32 0 R ] /Contents 29 0 R >> endobj 29 0 obj << /Length 7694 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Rachael Norcott and Mary Veitch were ?typical? \(p. 234\) implies such representativeness. The book does )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(not include any summary tables of the cases, which might clarify the basis for determining typicality, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(although publishers often resist the inclusion of such supporting apparatus in order to keep down the cost of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(production. Other quantitative aspects of a qualitative analysis also beg for attention. Establishing a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(developmental scheme for changes in the nature of family life requires distinguishing between uncommon )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and common behaviour. Even the analysis of discourse, often concerned with the differentiation between )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(predominant voices and contesting or resisting voices, has a quantitative aspect. As the archival work on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(gender and family life proceeds, the need to bridge the bifurcation between qualitative and quantitative )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(analysis becomes more pressing.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Foyster?s treatment of Caroline Norton?s role in the passage of the Custody of Infants Act 1839 and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Divorce Act 1857 depends upon Norton?s published pamphlets and some of the standard treatments of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Norton?s life. Foyster describes Norton as ?upper-middle-class? \(p. 156\) and finds her role in the debates on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(custody and divorce legislation limited to that of a ?suitable figurehead ? because of her antifeminism and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(unwillingness to confront many of the realities of women?s and children?s lives who endured marital )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(violence, she represented the conservatism of her age? \(p. 157\). This understates both the complexities of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Norton?s social identity as well as her political acumen and influence. Norton, in her writings, famously )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(claimed protection from men rather than equality to men, a stance that put her at odds with Barbara Leigh )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Bodichon?s approach to the same issues at the centre of an emerging feminist organisation in the 1850s. But )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(behind the scenes Norton operated as a political force within the Whig elite in ways reminiscent of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(methods adopted by aristocratic women interested in politics and political issues \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 426.980 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(6)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 426.980 512.211 m 432.980 512.211 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 432.980 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\). And her pamphlets on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Divorce Bill had a decisive effect on the course of the Parliamentary debate, leading to the appointment )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of a Select Committee that broadened the grounds for divorce recognized by the proposed Bill.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Foyster repeats the claim, associated with the scholarship on married women?s property law reform, that the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(passage of the Divorce Act delayed the reform of the law of married women?s property \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 460.892 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(7)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 460.892 443.187 m 466.892 443.187 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 466.892 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\). The first )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Married Women?s Property Bill fell by the way-side during the debate over the Divorce Bill, and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(recognition of the property rights of divorced and separated wives by the Divorce Act seemed to relieve the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(most pressing inequities of the law. But in 1857 those working on behalf of divorce law reform had been )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(seriously contesting in the Parliamentary arena since 1844?a period of thirteen years. The introduction of a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(bill was a common tactic to raise a topic for discussion, and that is how the law reform community regarded )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the introduction of that early married women?s property measure, since there was no realistic prospect that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(any such reform could pass into the law the first moment it was proposed. When the statutes reforming the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(law of married women?s property were passed in 1870 and 1882, a comparable period of discussion, debate )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and lobbying had by then elapsed. A thorough reconsideration of Caroline Norton?s life and political career )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(would have been far beyond the scope of Foyster?s study, but such a reconsideration, long past due, would )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(significantly advance our understanding of this transitional period.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Historians differ among themselves on the question of the extent to which the fruits of historical study bear )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(on the present. In this instance, Foyster wishes to set her work on marital violence in a chronological )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(continuum that speaks to the present day. For instance, she sees the linkage between class and a purported )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(tendency towards domestic violence being forged during the period under study. More problematic, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(however, is the slippage between defining verbal abuse as ?violence,? because that is how contemporaries )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(regarded it, and generalizing that definition because the ?distress? suffered by wives subjected to verbal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(abuse serves to answer the tendency to regard verbal abuse as ??less serious, alarming or damaging in its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(consequences than physical violence? \(p. 38\). But is verbal abuse violence or not? To record the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(disagreements about that question in the eighteenth and the twenty-first century, and to note the changing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(trajectory of the consensus about this question, do not, by themselves, actually produce a definitive answer. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(That would depend upon an extended discussion of a rather different kind than the one offered here.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Foyster?s conclusions, which underline the commonalities in the experience of marital violence across the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(past 350 years, draw additional power from the cover illustration of the book; a George Cruikshank woodcut )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of 1847 entitled ?The Bottle.? The image depicts a drunken husband, gripping his wife by the front of her )] TJ ET endstream endobj 30 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 31 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 426.9797 512.5255 432.9797 524.4055 ] >> endobj 31 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 32 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 33 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 460.8917 443.5015 466.8917 455.3815 ] >> endobj 33 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 34 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 36 0 R 38 0 R 40 0 R 42 0 R 44 0 R 46 0 R 48 0 R 50 0 R ] /Contents 35 0 R >> endobj 35 0 obj << /Length 6155 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dress, poised with clenched fist about to unleash a blow. Two children grapple with the enraged husband and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(father desperately trying to protect their mother, while a woman, perhaps a servant, calls out from the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(doorway. The horrific intensity conveyed by this image poignantly echoes the voices that Foyster recovers, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(powerfully reminding us of the humanity of the myriad individuals whose eventful lives form the basis for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(our attempts to discern the social and cultural dynamics of those past lives.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 704.547 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 673.930 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 673.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(A. J. Hammerton, )] TJ ET BT 152.672 673.925 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Cruelty and Companionship: Conflict in Nineteenth-Century Married Life)] TJ ET BT 509.012 673.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(London )] TJ ET BT 64.016 659.669 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and New York, 1992\). )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 174.656 659.669 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 174.656 658.275 m 228.644 658.275 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 645.418 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 645.413 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(M. J. Weiner, )] TJ ET BT 132.668 645.413 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Men of Blood: Violence, Manliness, and Criminal Justice in Victorian England)] TJ ET BT 64.016 631.157 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Cambridge, 2004\). )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 161.336 631.157 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 161.336 629.763 m 215.324 629.763 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 616.906 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(3.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 616.901 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(George C. Behlmer, )] TJ ET BT 163.664 616.901 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Friends of the Family: The English Home and its Guardians, 1850?1940)] TJ ET BT 64.016 602.645 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Stanford, CA, 1998\); G. Savage, '"The magistrates are men": working-class marital conflict and )] TJ ET BT 64.016 588.389 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(appeals from the magistrates? court to the divorce court after 1895', in )] TJ ET BT 403.772 588.389 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Disorder in the Court: Trials )] TJ ET BT 64.016 574.133 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(and Sexual Conflict at the Turn of the Century)] TJ ET BT 286.688 574.133 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, ed. G. Robb and N. Erber \(New York, 1999\), 231?49. )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 64.016 559.877 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 64.016 558.483 m 118.004 558.483 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 545.626 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(4.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 545.621 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(M. Hunt, ?Wife beating, domesticity and women?s independence in eighteenth-century London?, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 531.365 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Gender and History)] TJ ET BT 160.004 531.365 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 4 \(1992\), 10?33; N. Tomes, ?"A torrent of abuse": crimes of violence between )] TJ ET BT 64.016 517.109 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(working-class men and women in London, 1840?1875?, )] TJ ET BT 336.980 517.109 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Journal of Social History)] TJ ET BT 458.648 517.109 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 11 \(1978\), 328?45. )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 64.016 502.853 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 64.016 501.459 m 118.004 501.459 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 488.602 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(5.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 488.597 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(J. Bailey, )] TJ ET BT 112.016 488.597 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Unquiet Lives: Marriage and Marriage Breakdown in England, 1660?1800)] TJ ET BT 475.664 488.597 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Cambridge, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 474.341 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2003\). )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 98.012 474.341 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(5\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 98.012 472.947 m 152.000 472.947 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 460.090 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(6.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 460.085 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(E. Chalus, ?Elite women, social politics, and the political world of late eighteenth-century England?, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 445.829 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Historical Journal)] TJ ET BT 153.020 445.829 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 43 \(2000\), 669?97. )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 253.340 445.829 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(6\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 253.340 444.435 m 307.328 444.435 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 431.578 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(7.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 431.573 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(See especially L. Holcombe, )] TJ ET BT 204.656 431.573 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Wives & Property: Reform of the Married Women?s Property Law in )] TJ ET BT 64.016 417.317 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Nineteenth-Century England)] TJ ET BT 202.340 417.317 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Toronto, 1983\), 102?3 and Olive Anderson?s revision of this reading of )] TJ ET BT 64.016 403.061 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Parliamentary debates on the Divorce Act 1857 in ?Hansard?s hazards: an illustration from recent )] TJ ET BT 64.016 388.805 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(interpretations of married women?s property law and the 1857 Divorce Act?, )] TJ ET BT 437.264 388.805 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(English Historical )] TJ ET BT 64.016 374.549 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Review)] TJ ET BT 98.672 374.549 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 112 \(1997\), 1202?12. )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 210.992 374.549 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(7\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 210.992 373.155 m 264.980 373.155 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 348.293 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 334.037 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 329.311 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 311.531 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 311.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/551)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 310.137 m 322.316 310.137 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 285.160 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 270.760 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/2983)] TJ ET BT 34.016 256.360 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET endstream endobj 36 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 37 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 174.6557 658.5895 228.6437 670.4695 ] >> endobj 37 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 38 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 39 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 161.3357 630.0775 215.3237 641.9575 ] >> endobj 39 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 40 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 41 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 64.0157 558.7975 118.0037 570.6775 ] >> endobj 41 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 42 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 43 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 64.0157 501.7735 118.0037 513.6535 ] >> endobj 43 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 44 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 45 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 98.0117 473.2615 151.9997 485.1415 ] >> endobj 45 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 46 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 47 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 253.3397 444.7495 307.3277 456.6295 ] >> endobj 47 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 48 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 49 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 210.9917 373.4695 264.9797 385.3495 ] >> endobj 49 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 50 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 51 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 310.4515 322.3157 322.3315 ] >> endobj 51 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/551) >> endobj xref 0 52 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000349 00000 n 0000000386 00000 n 0000000564 00000 n 0000000660 00000 n 0000005439 00000 n 0000005548 00000 n 0000005658 00000 n 0000005767 00000 n 0000009328 00000 n 0000009456 00000 n 0000009540 00000 n 0000009668 00000 n 0000009704 00000 n 0000009832 00000 n 0000009868 00000 n 0000009952 00000 n 0000017648 00000 n 0000017774 00000 n 0000017810 00000 n 0000017901 00000 n 0000025674 00000 n 0000025802 00000 n 0000025838 00000 n 0000025966 00000 n 0000026002 00000 n 0000026093 00000 n 0000033840 00000 n 0000033968 00000 n 0000034004 00000 n 0000034132 00000 n 0000034168 00000 n 0000034301 00000 n 0000040509 00000 n 0000040637 00000 n 0000040673 00000 n 0000040801 00000 n 0000040837 00000 n 0000040964 00000 n 0000041000 00000 n 0000041127 00000 n 0000041163 00000 n 0000041290 00000 n 0000041326 00000 n 0000041454 00000 n 0000041490 00000 n 0000041618 00000 n 0000041654 00000 n 0000041782 00000 n trailer << /Size 52 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 41877 %%EOF