%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 16 0 R 18 0 R 20 0 R ] /Count 5 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20141001000323+01'00') /ModDate (D:20141001000323+01'00') /Title (Soldiers and Strangers: An Ethnic History of the English Civil War) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4230 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Soldiers and Strangers: An Ethnic History of the English Civil War)] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.579 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Wow! It is rare that a view of the civil wars and revolutions of the mid-seventeenth-century British Isles can )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(evoke such a reaction. The historiography of the period is full of dramatic shifts in perception. From )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rebellion to civil wars to revolution to the ?new British? history and its three or four or five kingdoms )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(context \(or, my favourite, the four nations context\); from class conflict to shifts of wealth within class, we )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(have seen major movements in the way the period has been understood. Mark Stoyle?s latest book has the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(potential to do no less than turn our current views on their heads. Stoyle presents the wars as a conflict that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(would fit the description, set out by UN chef de cabinet Mark Malloch Brown at the recent British Council )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Annual lecture, of a modern conflict; that is one that did not recognize national boundaries but which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(involved religions or ethnicities. The English Civil War, in this exciting approach, becomes resolved on the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(issue of the English against the Celtic nationalities that bordered, or in Cornwall?s case inhabited, England. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.019 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The king?s army became associated with these foreigners?Scots, Welsh, Cornish and Irish?whom he used in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 130.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(his war against Parliament. Parliament, in contrast, represented England and the English.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.507 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(That such an argument can arise should be no surprise. The ethnic qualities of the conflict have been brought )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.251 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to the fore as a direct result of the ?new British? approach. Ever since J. G. Pocock began the discussion of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 75.995 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Britishness of the seventeenth century in the 1970s, we have all been turned in such a direction. Of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.739 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(course we English historians were being a bit slow. David Stevenson was a pioneer of this approach in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.699 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(552)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.187 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.931 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Wednesday, 1 November, 2006)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.675 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.419 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Mark Stoyle)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.163 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.907 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9780300107005)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.651 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.395 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2005)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.139 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.883 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(25.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.627 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.371 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(320pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.115 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.859 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Yale University Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.603 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.347 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(New Haven, CT)] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.091 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 313.835 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Martyn Bennett)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 8029 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1970s when he demonstrated clearly the Scottish origins of the civil wars and revolutions. Irish historians )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(such as Aiden Clark and Nicholas Canny were also keenly aware of the British Isles context, but it was only )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(during the late 1980s, when historians like Conrad Russell and Ann Hughes launched examinations from an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(English perspective, that momentum developed and ?Johnny come latelies? such as myself threw themselves )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(on the bandwagon. Of course, in a sense even the Irish and Scottish historians, who were clearly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(instrumental in redirecting us away from the Anglo-centric approach, were latecomers.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In the 1950s, C. V. Wedgwood?s two volumes on the 1630s and 1640s wove a complex narrative of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(interlocking national stories. Coming in an era when increasingly sophisticated analyses of social structures )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were being produced, the work was wrongly dismissed as a narrative work, and the ?British Islesness? of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(books forgotten. Back in the seventeenth century, the notion of exclusivity could not exist. Neither )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Clarendon nor Lucy Hutchinson would have recognized the concept of the English Civil War. Of course )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(there cannot be a complete balance of effort and responsibility. The excellent bi-partisan approach of Jane )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ohlmeyer and John Adamson in )] TJ ET BT 192.332 613.397 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(History Today)] TJ ET BT 261.332 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( in November 1998 presented what appeared to be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(irreconcilable approaches to the issue of centrality. Ohlmeyer was arguing for a pan-national approach, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Sommerville for the centrality of England. Both were right. The context and much of the action was within )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the British Isles; on the other hand the revolution of 1649 was English \(and perhaps a bit Welsh\). It certainly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was not Irish or Scottish. The years 1649?1652 saw political initiative within the British Isles pass decisively )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from Scotland, from where it had arguably sprung since the 1590s, to England, paving the way, through a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(torturous process, to the Act of Union 1707. From this fervent debate springs Mark Stoyle?s latest work.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Mark Stoyle is the author of two books and a series of articles that make very important points about the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(civil war. During the 1990s he alerted us to the unique nature of the war in the south west in )] TJ ET BT 478.952 487.349 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Loyalty and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Locality: Popular Allegiance in Devon During the English Civil War)] TJ ET BT 365.672 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Exeter, 1994\), and of Cornishness in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?Pagans or Paragons? Images of the Cornish during the English Civil War?, )] TJ ET BT 401.636 458.837 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(English Historical Review)] TJ ET BT 527.636 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 111 )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1996\) 299?323. This region of England has been used and abused by English monarchy and government )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(over the centuries. Used by monarchs to pack parliaments, Cornwall has several times made its political will )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(known to London, particularly in the late-fourteenth and mid-fifteenth centuries. By the seventeenth century )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cornwall seemed to be quiescent; with its language in decline and its populace quiet, it has been possible, if )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(not to write it )] TJ ET BT 102.020 387.557 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(out)] TJ ET BT 117.356 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( of history, simply to write it )] TJ ET BT 258.032 387.557 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(into)] TJ ET BT 276.704 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( English history. Stoyle?s work pointed out that this was a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mistake. The region remained distinctive; the civil war there was different. The local issues that shaped war )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in other areas of England were overtly political, and locally so, and war was moulded by a range of socio-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(political relations, often those contained within very small family networks. In Cornwall, there were cultural )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(issues at play too. When Cornish troops baulked at crossing the Tamar, it was not the same as when the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(trained bands in other counties grumbled at leaving their county, claiming that they were brought together )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(solely for the defence of their shire, perhaps because the soldiers rejected the politics of either the Royalists )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(or Parliamentarians who had called them together. In the south west the issue was almost one of nationality. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Naturally, this keen sense of identity worked two ways, for the troops who invaded Cornwall during war, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from 1642 onwards, also saw the Cornish as distinctive. In a period where there was no concept of separate )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(but equal, this was always a difficulty for those defined as ?other?. Stoyle?s work is crucial to our )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(understanding of this cultural aspect. This new book takes his work several steps further, by tying the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Celticness of Cornwall into the Celtic fringe as a whole and viewing the ?differences? from both sides.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The book is divided into two principle parts. The first looks at the period 1642?1644 which Stoyle has )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(termed ?The Influx?, by which he refers to the impact of the Celtic troops allied to the Royalists \(the Welsh )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and Irish\) and \(a faction within\) the Parliamentarians \(the Scots\). The second section is headed ?England?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Recovery?, and this looks at the way in which England defeated the foreigners and established its cultural )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(freedom from them, and, furthermore, inflicted defeat and conquest upon them.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The book opens by looking at the origins of English concerns about its position amongst the Celtic nations )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and fringes and how this led to mixed reactions when the Scots invaded the north east in 1640. It is known )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that there was both a welcome for the liberators and concerns about this incursion by the traditional enemies. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Stoyle points out that this came mainly from within the political Royalist group, but there were general )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(concerns amongst a wider population too. For a year the occupying forces represented a national humiliation )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 17 0 R >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Length 7486 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for the English and their departure from English soil was marked by celebration. Anti-Scots feeling was at )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the heart of the developing Royalist faction. Scotland had been an enemy nation allied to France until the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(previous century and the accession of James VI to the throne of England and Wales \(and Ireland\) in 1603 )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(had been surprisingly peaceful given this animosity and the history of fractious relations on the borders. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(James?s reputation for the importation of Scotsmen into England was something else that did little of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(practical value to ease relations. With this background despair in England at Charles?s religious reforms )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(would have had to be intense indeed to overcome antipathy. For this reason the political empathy of a few )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(people, such as English Presbyterians, and the manipulation of the political scene by the king?s opponents, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(who could use the Covenanting Army as muscle, could never fully outweigh the problematic nature of an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(occupying force in the north east.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(With the Scots entry into the English war in 1644 these problems returned to haunt the nation, and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Royalists again could use anti-Scottish feeling as a political hammer against Parliament. Scotland?s polity )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(had originally attempted to play a mediating role between the factions in England, seeing peace and stability )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in a reformed English and Welsh polity as a defence against Charles I?s attack on the kirk. When the king )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rejected Scotland?s approaches, and moreover appeared to be the likely victor in the war in England and on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the verge of an alliance with the Catholic Confederation of Kilkenny, Scotland accepted the approaches of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(John Pym and the Westminster Parliament. The consequences of this alliance, however, were the acceptance )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(both of creating an assembly of Divines to decide the future of the church in England and a signing of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Solemn League and Covenant that went far beyond a political alliance and created, in effect, a joint spiritual )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(union in defence of the Presbyterian kirk. This would drive a wedge between the allies that grew from a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(division in parliament and its armed forces between those who accepted and those who rejected the ?drift? to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Presbyterianism in England and Wales.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Of course, within three months of England?s liberation from its erstwhile liberators in 1641 a new threat )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from the Celts emerged as Ireland descended into rebellion. This threat was far more that a Celtic threat, for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Irish were apostate unlike the Presbyterian brethren. No faction in England, other than perhaps a tiny )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Catholic minority, could possibly have welcomed the Irish as liberators had the much feared rebellion )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(occurred. The Irish rebels certainly had no real intention of exporting their war to England, even if within the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(earshot of the population of displaced settlers some rebel footsoldiers declared the very opposite. This was a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rebellion to enhance the status of the Roman Catholic Church and its members in Ireland; a rebellion aimed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(at restructuring an existing polity, not replacing it. Even at its most functionally radical height the rebels )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(declared their loyalty to the king and the concept of a lawful parliament. The use of Irish troops in Britain, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(begun by Alistair MacColla in 1644, was part of Irish, not British, strategy, and was aimed at getting the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Scots out of Ulster, not at putting the Irish into Scotland. Nevertheless, seen from Britain the Irish were a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Catholic vanguard that aimed to implant Catholicism in Scotland and, particularly, in England. With this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mentality already firmly rooted by the early months of the rebellion, the arrival of troops from Ireland into )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Wales and England in late 1643 and early 1644 was viewed as terrifying. Stoyle very usefully analyses the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reality of this incursion, which of course was far less dramatic than it appeared. The troops that came from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ireland were generally English soldiers who had been sent to Ireland in the wake of the rebellion to defeat it. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(They were of dubious loyalty as far as the king was concerned, and some, like George Monck, took the first )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(opportunity to change sides. Moreover there were not that many of them, and Stoyle gives a salutary )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(analysis of the numbers involved. Importantly, their impact was not massive; a good portion were defeated )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(at the battle of Nantwich in January 1644, for example. Nonetheless, Westminster made a great deal of their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(presence and used them quite effectively as a hammer with which to beat the Royalists.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Once war began all the Celtic fringe nations became embroiled in the English fears of invasion. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(prevalence of Welsh troops in the king?s army was particularly noted in the early stages of the war. This had )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(origins in a general mistrust of the Welsh within England, and was given a sharp edge by the Roman )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Catholicism of the earl of Worcester, appointed lord lieutenant of Wales. Member of Parliament Oliver )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cromwell commented that he feared another Ireland?a further papist rebellion?in Wales, in the run up to war )] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in England, because of this laboured but perceived-as-potent link between Wales and rebellious Catholic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ireland. The Welsh Royalists were described in vitriolic terms as barbarous and thieving foreigners. That this )] TJ ET endstream endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 19 0 R >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Length 5269 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(affected the minds of the Welsh is undoubted; Stoyle suggests that there were fears amongst the Welsh that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Parliament desired their extirpation in the latter stages of the war when its forces made significant incursions )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(into Wales. There were occasions that would give rise to that expectation; the barbarous murder of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(garrison at Canon Frome being just one example of seeming ?special treatment?. Yet, to confuse matters, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(this massacre was carried out by Scottish troops, not English Parliamentarians.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The second part of the book, headed ?England?s Recovery', the title a genuflection toward Joshua Sprigge?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Anglia Rediviva)] TJ ET BT 111.008 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, is the story of how Parliament?s victory was England?s victory against the various foreign )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(malefactors brought in by the Royalists \(and by a Parliamentarian faction\). The word ?patriot?, Stoyle )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(argues, had come to be identified with Parliament, which had for centuries been identified with the nation, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(perhaps particularly with the south and east?coincidentally the region most distant from the Celtic fringe. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This identification seems, according to Stoyle, to be found across the social spectrum and across the military )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(divide, with soldiers and villagers identifying themselves, Parliament, and their cause as a part of a struggle )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for England. The war within the country was strangely seen, not so much as a war between king and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Parliament, but as a war that kept the two apart; an intrusion by ?outlanders?.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The anti-Scots feeling that pre-dated the civil war was now exemplified by attacks on the Scottish allies )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from Parliamentarians such as Prynne and Cromwell. In both cases, however, it is possible to question the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(extent of true anti-Scottish feeling rather than political and religious division. Cromwell?s attacks on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Lawrence Crawford, for example, did not happen because Crawford was Scottish. It was instead Crawford?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(intolerance as a Presbyterian that excited Cromwell?s ire, and some of the comments Cromwell allegedly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(made were ?recalled? by the earl of Manchester in his argument with Cromwell in late 1644 and early 1645. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cromwell?s description of Marston Moor as a victory of the Lord?s party was an inclusive claim, embracing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(English and Scots, and right into the 1650s Cromwell saw the Scots as ?brothers in Christ?, even if they )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(erred and bizarrely associated themselves with Charles Stuart. There is little doubt that the Scots saw )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cromwell as an enemy, but again it was his sectarianism that was the issue, not nationality. Stoyle suggests )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that the New Model Army was created out of a quarrel that was anti-Scots almost as much as anti \(English\) )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Presbyterian and claims that Sir Thomas Fairfax was no ?friend to the Scots?, yet this is the very man who, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as baron Fairfax of Cameron, handed over his sword when faced with a war against the Scots. Clearly there )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(are levels of complexity, and this Stoyle acknowledges, but he sees his way through with apparent clarity. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(On the other hand this very complexity may well limit the validity of the thrust of ?England?s Recovery?. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This recovery, Stoyle argues, could, from Cornwall and Wales, be viewed as more than a military or political )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(defeat. Whilst victory, particularly in Wales, was a combination of conquest and conciliation, the outcome, it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is argued, was a cultural defeat, at least in part. Stoyle records that this cultural victory was not actually )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(pursued fully by the victors, who realized, for instance, that to explain themselves they had to publish in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Welsh, just as lowland Scots had to publish in ?Erse? to communicate with those living in the highlands and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(islands.)] TJ ET endstream endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 22 0 R ] /Contents 21 0 R >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Length 2969 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(It is a peculiarly English view to see the Celts as foreigners threatening England. King Charles was like his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(father in very few respects; his ability to see with a British perspective was one of them. Unlike James, who )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(saw the opportunity to bring all nations together under one crown and polity, however, Charles saw them as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(an alternating set of resources to be used to secure governance over the whole. Remodelling the churches of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ireland and Scotland on English lines in the 1630s; using Irish, Welsh and English resources against )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Scotland in 1639?1640; using English, Welsh and Scottish resources to fight the Irish in 1641?1642; and, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(latterly, using Welsh, Irish and Scottish resources against England in the 1640s. If this perspective is correct )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(then Stoyle?s argument is problematic, as was the argument about the conflict being one of religion as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(voiced in the 1980s. There was no consensus on the ?war of religion? idea because no one agreed that the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Royalists were fighting one, even if Parliamentarians might have thought that they were. In this new case, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Stoyle is arguing that Parliament was seeking to save England from foreigners, but we are left wondering if )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the foreigners were seeking anything but to restore the status quo ante represented by the king and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Parliament in harmony; balancing not only contending political powers, but ethnic and cultural ones too. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Nevertheless, this is an exciting and controversial account which demands to be read widely and wrestled )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with by students and academics. I return to my opening remark?wow!?this really is great stuff.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 539.647 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 521.867 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 521.867 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/552)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 520.473 m 322.316 520.473 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 495.496 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 481.096 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/2985)] TJ ET BT 34.016 466.696 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET endstream endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 23 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 520.7875 322.3157 532.6675 ] >> endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/552) >> endobj xref 0 24 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000349 00000 n 0000000386 00000 n 0000000576 00000 n 0000000658 00000 n 0000004940 00000 n 0000005049 00000 n 0000005159 00000 n 0000005268 00000 n 0000008829 00000 n 0000008957 00000 n 0000009041 00000 n 0000009106 00000 n 0000017188 00000 n 0000017253 00000 n 0000024792 00000 n 0000024857 00000 n 0000030179 00000 n 0000030263 00000 n 0000033285 00000 n 0000033413 00000 n trailer << /Size 24 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 33508 %%EOF