%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 16 0 R 18 0 R 20 0 R ] /Count 5 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140416081434+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140416081434+01'00') /Title (From World War to Cold War: Churchill, Roosevelt, and the International History of the 1940s) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4405 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(From World War to Cold War: Churchill, Roosevelt, and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 593.937 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(International History of the 1940s)] TJ ET BT 34.016 266.195 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In )] TJ ET BT 47.012 266.195 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(From World War to Cold War: Churchill, Roosevelt, and the International History of the 1940s)] TJ ET BT 507.008 266.195 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, David )] TJ ET BT 34.016 251.939 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Reynolds seeks to bring a sense of contingency to existing considerations of the 1940s, ?the most dramatic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 237.683 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and decisive decade of the twentieth century? \(p. 1\). As Reynolds reminds us, neither World War II nor the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.427 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cold War was inevitable. The development of both depended on decisions and situations, actions, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 209.171 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reactions in a changing world. Reynolds therefore argues for a nuanced view of the state, contending that, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.915 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?The state is not a unitary actor: we need to understand the dynamics of policymaking and the complexities )] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.659 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of bureaucratic politics? in order to understand both the behavior of states and the decade?s international )] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.403 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(relationships \(p. 4\). Nevertheless, the central focus of the book reflects Reynolds?s previous work on both )] TJ ET BT 34.016 152.147 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Churchill and Roosevelt. As such, multiple chapters explore how the United States and, particularly, Great )] TJ ET BT 34.016 137.891 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Britain created, nurtured, and secured their ?special relationship? through a decade of global conflict. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 123.635 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Reynolds argues that this relationship was largely the product of British initiative, as British policymakers )] TJ ET BT 34.016 109.379 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(hoped to use it to retain global influence and national power at a time when Britain?s position in the Allied )] TJ ET BT 34.016 95.123 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(alliance was declining; a decline facilitated in part by the rise of the United States and the Soviet Union. In )] TJ ET BT 34.016 80.867 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(keeping with this emphasis on British initiative, the book implicitly argues for recognition of Great Britain )] TJ ET BT 34.016 66.611 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as an important force shaping the early Cold War, on the basis that the Anglo-American alliance served as a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 52.355 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(key global relationship in the second half of the twentieth century. Indeed, in Reynolds?s analysis, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 563.315 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 549.059 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(553)] TJ ET BT 34.016 534.803 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 520.547 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Tuesday, 31 October, 2006)] TJ ET BT 34.016 506.291 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 492.035 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(David Reynolds)] TJ ET BT 34.016 477.779 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 463.523 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9780199284115)] TJ ET BT 34.016 449.267 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 435.011 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2006)] TJ ET BT 34.016 420.755 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.499 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(30.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.243 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.987 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(376pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.731 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.475 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Oxford University Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.219 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.963 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Oxford)] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.707 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.451 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Jennifer Miller)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 7450 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?special? nature of this relationship has continued into the twenty-first century, continually strengthened and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(distinguished by the ?historic tradition of Anglo-American liberalism? \(p. 330\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(From World War to Cold War)] TJ ET BT 179.684 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( brings together two decades of Reynolds?s work in the form of a collection of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(essays, most of which he previously published elsewhere and updated for this re-release. The eighteen essays )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(are divided into six sections, the first four of which focus on World War II, including separate sections on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Churchill and Roosevelt. The sections based on each of these two figures offer essays on that leader?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(personality, leadership style, and wartime goals. This format leads to some repetition, particularly in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Reynolds?s discussion of the Anglo-American wartime alliance, Churchill?s political and diplomatic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(activities in the early war years, and the birth of the ?special relationship?. Reynolds takes care, however, to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(link the essays together, particularly by clearly summarizing his main arguments and analyses at the end of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(each essay.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The fourth section, entitled ?Mixed Up Together?, highlights Reynolds?s emphasis on the importance of a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(multilayered conception of the state by looking at Anglo-American interactions below the diplomatic level. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(He considers Anglo-American wartime connections, such as the growth of American studies in Britain )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(during World War II and the ?inter-attachment? programme that successfully sought to strengthen the daily )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(working relationship between British troops and American troops stationed in Britain by instituting short-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(term exchange programmes. The British created these programmes with ?considerations of postwar )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(diplomacy? in mind, considering it ?essential that the wartime alliance be perpetuated into the postwar world )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as one of the foundations of British foreign policy? \(pp. 215, 224\). Reynolds thus integrates his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conceptualization of the multilayered state into his discussion of the creation of the ?special relationship?.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 475.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In the next section, Reynolds offers a more limited discussion of the Cold War, focusing on Europe in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 461.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(general and, in particular, on the trilateral relationship between Great Britain, the United States, and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Soviet Union from the dawn of World War II to the division of Europe in 1948; a division that was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?unwanted and unintended? \(p. 265\). The sixth and last section of the book, entitled ?Perspectives', brings )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(together the main themes that have been explored, while extending Reynolds?s considerations of the Anglo-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(American relationship beyond the 1940s and seeking to elucidate its ?special? qualities. The final chapter )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(offers a review of the discipline of diplomatic and international history over the last twenty-five years, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(arguing for an integration of the recent ?linguistic and cultural turn? that balances cultural frameworks with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a sense of contingency, agency, and causality to avoid cultural determinism \(p. 351\). Reynolds thus does not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(investigate every aspect of the Anglo-American relationship but focuses on select inquiries from which he )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ultimately draws broader conclusions about both the relationship between the two states and the practice of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(international history.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Although these essays do not all build upon one another in the creation of one cohesive argument, Reynolds )] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(connects them by several themes and conceptual approaches that run throughout the book. The first of these, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(central to Reynolds?s conceptualization of the 1940s, is contingency. He devotes several chapters to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 249.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(exploring the figures, circumstances, decisions, and courses of action that determined the nature of both )] TJ ET BT 34.016 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(World War II and the development of the Cold War. In investigating the 1940s in this way, it is crucial that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the periodization of the work crosses the World War II-Cold War divide. Simply put, things did not have to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(turn out the way they did. Indeed, an essay entitled ?1940: Fulcrum of the Twentieth Century? makes )] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(exactly this point, arguing that the fall of France in 1940 ?turned a European conflict into a world war and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(helped reshape international politics in patterns that endured for nearly half a century, until the momentous )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(events of 1989? \(p. 26\). Germany?s military success therefore provided a crucial sense of initiative and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(momentum to the Axis powers. Reynolds contends that Japan capitalized upon this momentum especially )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(strongly by signing the Tripartite Pact and pushing into Southeast Asia and, later, Pearl Harbor. In )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Reynolds?s analysis, it was after 1940 that the war pivoted away from a stagnant European conflict?and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(repeat of World War I?to one of global fighting and its postwar consequences, particularly in the form of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(decolonization. The year 1940 also dramatically changed the parameters of the war within Europe itself as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the fall of France not only left Britain standing alone in Western Europe, but made it increasingly clear that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(victory in Europe would depend on the United States and the Soviet Union. This led to a new centrality for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the United States in British strategic thinking while contributing to the ?rise of the superpowers? \(pp. 30, )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 17 0 R >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Length 7472 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(44\). As Reynolds states, ?the fall of France, apparently inevitable in retrospect, revolutionized the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(perceptions and aspirations of most other powers? \(p. 44\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The importance of perception, the ways in which these historical actors conceptualized both their own )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(options and the behavior of other states, serves as another analytical link throughout the work. Exploring )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(British thinking after the fall of France, for example, Reynolds argues that Britain?s continued fight against )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Germany was not a given, but was based on contemporary British understandings of both Germany and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(United States. Assessing Britain?s chances in the summer of 1940, many British policymakers, including )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Churchill, were hoping not for total victory but for an acceptable negotiated peace \(pp. 96?7\). Moreover, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(British policymakers based their ?decision? to keep fighting on the mistaken belief that Germany?s economy )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was stretched to the limit, ready to be broken by American involvement. Britain thus made the right decision )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for what Reynolds asserts were the ?wrong reasons? \(pp. 97?8\). Reynolds seeks to remove the sense of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(inevitability that surrounds the most discussed events of the early war years, the fall of France and Britain?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?finest hour,? to present a closer consideration of how the war actually developed, based in part on each )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(country?s understanding of its own position, options, and capabilities. In discussing the Cold War, he takes a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(similar approach, asserting that the ?Big Three? wanted to retain an element of wartime collaboration that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(did not fully dissipate until 1947. In 1947, however, both events, particularly those leading up to the Truman )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Doctrine and the announcement of the Marshall Plan, and changing perceptions of the possibilities of a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(collaboration ended this possibility, and ?wartime allies? remained unwilling ?to limit their geological and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ideological aspirations,? particularly in Germany \(pp. 285?6\). For Reynolds, events themselves are not the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sole determining factor. Rather, the perceptions and possibilities developed in response to these events )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(determine their impact and effects.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In exploring these linked themes of contingency and perception, Reynolds also takes his analysis in more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(unexpected directions, particularly through his explorations of language. He devotes several chapters to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(breaking down key terms used to describe the events of the 1940s, including ?world war? and ?iron curtain.? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(For Reynolds, the labels applied to events by contemporary actors are central to the process of interpreting )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(these events, of creating the reactions and understanding that are crucial in determining how states and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(policymakers will move forward, and in the political and ideological process of self-definition. It was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Franklin Roosevelt, for example, who most strongly popularized the use of the term ?world war,? seeking to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?globaliz[e] events to prod his countrymen out of their regional cocoon? \(p. 19\). The all-encompassing sense )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the term, however, also illuminated the ?ideological battlelines? between Roosevelt and Hitler, both of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(whom were ?waging ?World War?, in fact and in name, for their own ends? \(pp. 19, 21\). In utilizing a term )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that conveyed the global consequences of the conflict, Roosevelt and Hitler created a situation where the war )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was seen and understood as such. ?Ideology? thus ?played a significant role in establishing [not only] the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(terminology? but also the course of events themselves \(p. 21\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Reynolds extends this consideration of the interplay between language and circumstances by exploring )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Churchill?s ?iron curtain? speech. Whereas Roosevelt used the term ?world war? to alter interpretations of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contemporary events, Reynolds argues that contemporary events and responses altered the intended meaning )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of Churchill?s speech. For Churchill, the focus of the ?iron curtain? speech was not antagonism between )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(England and the United States on the one side and the Soviet Union on the other, but the importance of a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(continued close relationship between Great Britain and the United States, for which the postwar position of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Soviet Union remained a crucial context \(pp. 259?60\). Moreover, Reynolds posits, the rhetorical strength )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the term ?iron curtain? has led historians to underestimate ?the remarkable persistence of [Churchill?s] )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(wartime optimism about Stalin? \(p. 249\). This statement exemplifies another central goal of Reynolds?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(work, namely the importance of distinguishing between myth and history, especially in the figure of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Churchill himself. Reynolds advocates a more balanced understanding of Churchill, a Churchill who was far )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(less certain about the possibility of British victory during World War II, and not entirely convinced of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(necessity of the Cold War. Nevertheless, in large part due to the responses that the speech received in both )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the United States and the Soviet Union, this evocative phrase has served as the speech?s main legacy, as a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rhetorical solidification of global antagonisms which served further to heighten those antagonisms.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Reynolds?s considerations of language raise a central question for studies of diplomacy and international )] TJ ET endstream endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 19 0 R >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Length 7407 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(relationships, namely the extent to which historians can accept language and terms at face value. Often the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(decision to use certain terms is as telling as the terms themselves, highlighting the importance of considering )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(diplomatic language in analyzing the reasons behind a specific outcome. As Reynolds himself contends, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(these considerations also serve to remind us that seemingly-decisive terms and even moments must be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(explored in a more nuanced context. In focusing on issues such as language, Reynolds is attempting to fulfill )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a goal detailed in his introduction, ?the need to understand Anglo-American relations in a framework of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?culture? as well as ?power?? \(p. 5\). What Reynolds implicitly asserts in his analysis, however, is that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(culture is not only a framework for analysis but also serves as a form of power. Whether through language, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(shared liberal values, education, or the military culture of the staging area and battlefield, the higher level of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cultural ?closeness? that existed between Britain and the United States, developed during the war and in its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(aftermath, gave the two states a strong connection, indeed a unique relationship, and contributed vitally to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(shaping the early Cold War.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In seeking to elucidate these ?special? qualities, however, Reynolds?s almost-exclusive focus on Europe )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(limits his analysis. Though the fall of France made World War II a global war, the rest of the world rarely )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(figures in Reynolds?s study. Certainly Roosevelt and Churchill were heavily focused on Europe during )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(World War II, but many of the war?s key legacies?the occupation of Japan, the division of Korea, the re- and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(de-colonization of Southeast Asia, the resumption of the Chinese Civil War, and the changing nature of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(British colonial presence in India and the Middle East?took place elsewhere. It would therefore be helpful to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(consider more fully how these global changes affected Reynolds?s core focus, the Anglo-American alliance, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in terms of the context in which it was created and the challenges posed by a swiftly changing world. In )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(doing so, Reynolds could have explored more fully the myriad other places where the United States and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Britain worked together during the 1940s, including North Africa and Southeast Asia. This would have )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(allowed him to consider the political and cultural connections between these two nations outside a European )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(locale.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Reynolds?s European focus also leads to a limited definition of both the Cold War and its development. In )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(his analysis, the key moment is the division of Germany, as though the Cold War took shape in Europe and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(then radiated out to the rest of the world. Although Germany certainly was central in shaping Cold War )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(antagonisms, focusing exclusively on Germany prevents a more complex consideration of the many )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(different, yet simultaneous, ways that the Cold War manifested itself around the world. The book?s narrower )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(focus thus restricts its abilities to present an exploration of the 1940s that places both Europe and the United )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(States in a global context. Although Reynolds subtitles his book an ?international history?, one of his own )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(essays offers a better description of its contents. Here he explains the book?s true emphasis is to ?illuminate )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the wartime Anglo-American relationship and its place in the history of the 1940s? \(p. 331\). A broader and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(more global conceptualization of the 1940s, however, would have helped him in this goal by offering both a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(more nuanced understanding of the context and qualities of this ?special relationship? and its importance to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(each of these country?s own understandings both of the relationship and themselves vis--vis the rest of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(world.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(From World War to Cold War)] TJ ET BT 179.684 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( ultimately functions as an effective summation of Reynolds?s own work, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(while thoughtfully inserting itself into key debates over the Anglo-American relationship, the development )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of World War II, and the beginning of the Cold War. Reynolds?s essays rely largely on secondary sources, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(yet show careful consideration for the existing body of historiography on these topics. In this sense, the book )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is well suited to scholars aware of the existing debates on these subjects. It is especially effective in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(discussing the early years of World War II, particularly 1940 and 1941 when the outcome of the war hung in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the balance, leaving Roosevelt and Churchill with tough situations and even tougher decisions. Reynolds is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(thus convincing in reminding us that World War II was the product of a series of perceptions, reactions, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(decisions, rather than pre-ordained events. Several chapters?particularly those in the section entitled ?Mixed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Up Together??also serve as excellent models for those looking to explore how ?state level goals?, such as a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(close post-war Anglo-American relationship, are pursued on a variety of levels, often below the level of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(official diplomatic contact. Finally, Reynolds?s closing essay, which reflects on the development of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(study of foreign relations, changing terminologies from diplomatic to international history, and future )] TJ ET endstream endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 22 0 R 24 0 R ] /Contents 21 0 R >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Length 2067 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(directions for the discipline, is helpful reading for graduate students seeking to grasp a changing field. While )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Reynolds?s volume does not stand alone as an international history of the 1940s, nor fully explain the shift )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from World War to Cold War, it presents a variety of inquiries into the Anglo-American relationship. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Reynolds?s book thus serves as a strong reminder that the Cold War world was shaped by alliances as much )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as antagonisms, ultimately demonstrating the importance of the Anglo-American ?special relationship? as a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(key enduring legacy of World War II.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The author thanks Professor Miller for her review and does not wish to respond further.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 672.677 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 658.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Political Review Net)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 644.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.politicalreviewnet.com/polrev/reviews/INTA/R_0020_5850_541_1006904.asp)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 642.771 m 470.984 642.771 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 473.984 644.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 639.439 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 621.659 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 621.659 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/553)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 620.265 m 322.316 620.265 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 595.288 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 580.888 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/2987)] TJ ET BT 34.016 566.488 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://www.politicalreviewnet.com/polrev/reviews/INTA/R_0020_5850_541_1006904.asp)] TJ ET endstream endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 23 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 643.0855 470.9837 654.9655 ] >> endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.politicalreviewnet.com/polrev/reviews/INTA/R_0020_5850_541_1006904.asp) >> endobj 24 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 25 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 620.5795 322.3157 632.4595 ] >> endobj 25 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/553) >> endobj xref 0 26 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000349 00000 n 0000000386 00000 n 0000000602 00000 n 0000000684 00000 n 0000005141 00000 n 0000005250 00000 n 0000005360 00000 n 0000005469 00000 n 0000009030 00000 n 0000009158 00000 n 0000009242 00000 n 0000009307 00000 n 0000016810 00000 n 0000016875 00000 n 0000024400 00000 n 0000024465 00000 n 0000031925 00000 n 0000032016 00000 n 0000034136 00000 n 0000034263 00000 n 0000034396 00000 n 0000034524 00000 n trailer << /Size 26 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 34619 %%EOF