%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 16 0 R 18 0 R 20 0 R ] /Count 5 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140818075023+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140818075023+01'00') /Title (Journeymen-Printers, Heresy, and the Inquisition in Sixteenth-Century Spain) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4075 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Journeymen-Printers, Heresy, and the Inquisition in Sixteenth-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 593.937 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Century Spain)] TJ ET BT 34.016 266.195 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Clive Griffin?s study is a major and exciting contribution to the burgeoning field of the history of the book. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 251.939 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Journeymen-Printers, Heresy, and the Inquisition in Sixteenth-Century Spain)] TJ ET BT 404.972 251.939 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( provides us with many )] TJ ET BT 34.016 237.683 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(histories wrapped up in one book: a history of printing and reading; a social and cultural history of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.427 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(skilled foreign craftsmen who worked the Iberian presses; and a history of heterodoxy, popular xenophobia, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 209.171 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and the Inquisition in early-modern Spain. Undoubtedly, Griffin?s greatest success is that he illuminates the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.915 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(previously shadowy existence of the foreign workers whose labour sustained the printing houses of early-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.659 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(modern Spain. The reader can expect surprising details of lives deemed lost to obscurity on almost every )] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.403 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(page.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 140.147 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Griffin is able to reconstruct the biographies of early-modern working men \(and, occasionally, women\) )] TJ ET BT 34.016 125.891 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(because he approaches well-quarried sources with a fresh and inspired focus. Historians have traditionally )] TJ ET BT 34.016 111.635 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(searched the Inquisition archives, especially the archives of the Spanish Inquisition, for traces of the lives of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 97.379 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(minorities accused of heterodoxy. The tribulations of converses, moriscos, and of those sympathizing with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 83.123 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Lutheran or Reformed ideas have received ample attention. Griffin?s dazzling turn is that he examines the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 68.867 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(trial-records and correspondence of the tribunals for details of the professional, social and spiritual lives of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 54.611 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(humble pressmen, pullers and beaters. The supposed heresy of those print workers and their relatives )] TJ ET BT 34.016 563.315 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 549.059 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(554)] TJ ET BT 34.016 534.803 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 520.547 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Wednesday, 1 November, 2006)] TJ ET BT 34.016 506.291 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 492.035 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Clive Griffin)] TJ ET BT 34.016 477.779 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 463.523 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9780199280735)] TJ ET BT 34.016 449.267 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 435.011 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2005)] TJ ET BT 34.016 420.755 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.499 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(63.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.243 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.987 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(336pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.731 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.475 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Oxford University Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.219 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.963 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Oxford)] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.707 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.451 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Harald Braun)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 7304 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(unfortunate enough to attract the suspicion of the Inquisition serves Griffin as a window into the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(personalities, attitudes, and beliefs of the mainly French but also Flemish craftsmen working the Spanish )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(presses.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Foreigners had always ranked prominently among those the Inquisition, as well as ordinary Spaniards, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(tended to suspect of ?Lutheran sympathies? \(Spaniards referred to Lutheran and Reformed doctrine )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(summarily as luteranismo\). The printing business stood out among the Iberian trades relying on foreign skill )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and labour for the potential harm a luterano craftsman might inflict?certainly in the view of a society )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(increasingly concerned with protecting itself from doctrinal contamination. In April 1562, a Seville auto de )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fe passed a death sentence on one Sebastin Martnez, a ?cleric from Alcal de Henares and a typesetter by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(trade?, who had travelled across Spain scattering heretical flysheets in his trail. Martnez had been part of a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(network of clerics and printers committed to disseminating heterodox views. The existence of such a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(network confirmed the worst fears of inquisitors already deeply suspicious of the subversive power of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(printing press. Xenophobia played its part. Griffin discusses the case of one Antonio de la Bastida, a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(pressman from Albi in Southern France. His Spanish fellow workers accused Bastida of heresy, mainly on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the grounds that he was a foreigner. His arrest and subsequent trial are one of many instances making )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(evident that in the mind of inquisitors, as well as that of ordinary Spaniards, religious orthodoxy was tied to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Spanish descent.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(It is no accident that the men and women whose lives Griffin rescues from obscurity became entangled with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Inquisition during the late 1560s and early 1570s. By the time Martnez was sent to the stake and burned, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Charles V?s campaigns against Protestant princes abroad had exhausted his Castilian subjects and fuelled )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(already popular anti-Protestant sentiment and xenophobia. Fernando de Valds, appointed Inquisitor General )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in 1547, had by then restored the fortunes of a Holy Office that had been somewhat subdued and starved of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(resources during the first half of the century. The discovery of luterano cells in Seville and Valladolid in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1557 and 1558 fanned the widely held belief that Spain was under imminent threat from Lutheran ideas, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(confirmed the status and objectives of the Inquisition. As Griffin points out, the fact that the majority of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Old Christians were frighteningly ignorant of even the most basic tenets of the Catholic faith did much to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(inspire the resolve with which the Inquisition tracked down its victims. It did not help the victims that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(inquisitors appear to have subscribed to a rigid and simplified view of what beliefs and practices constituted )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(luteranismo.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In the autumn of 1569, the inquisitors? simmering suspicion of foreign printing workers as a Lutheran fifth )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(column gained focus and direction. Inquisitors arrested and interrogated two men on suspicion of heresy, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Benito Dulcet, a twenty-six year old typefounder from Lyon, and the forty-one year-old typesetter, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Guillermo Herlin. Both Dulcet and, especially, Herlin fingered many of their fellow foreign print workers as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sharing in their ?Lutheran heresy?. Their denunciations set the Holy Office on the track of a supposed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(network of heterodox printing workers that stretched from Salamanca to Granada and from Barcelona to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Lisbon, and started a cycle of persecution that shattered and dispersed a closely-knit community of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(expatriates. Griffin unravels the story of this ?dismantling of a network of immigrants working in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(printing industry in the Iberian Peninsula during the 1560s and 1570s? \(p. 25\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The records of the Inquisition allow Griffin to present the reader with a rich and closely-woven tapestry of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the individual lives that fell apart in the wake of the arrest of Dulcet and Herlin. He is only too well aware of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the limits and pitfalls of his sources. The papers of the Inquisition provide a distorted view of the opinions )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and mindsets of the defendants, not least because their experiences, customs, behaviour, and attitudes are at )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(best tangential to what the inquisitors saw as their main business. Griffin is far too familiar with the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mechanisms of inquisitional enquiry and interrogation to take accusations or confessions at face value. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Chapter Three is as astute an examination of the inquisitional procedures, the legalistic mindset of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(inquisitors, and the survival strategies of the defendants as one could wish for. He sets out in lucid detail the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cold rationale, the procedures and stratagems with which the inquisitors so often terrified their victims into )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(resignation and collaboration. Griffin concedes that the accused cannot speak but through the voice of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(secretaries who shared the inquisitors? preconceptions. Yet though we ?see their cases through a glass, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(darkly?, he pummels and teases recalcitrant records until they reveal the lives of these humble men in )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 17 0 R >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Length 7413 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(tantalizing detail. Each of the cases he retrieves from the archives of the Holy Office offers us additional )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(insight into the mentalit of foreign printing workers in early modern Iberia.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Griffin takes us through the story of the exposure, flight, and arrest of those print workers as well as their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(trials and execution. He introduces us to the terrifying odds they had to face defending their freedom and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(livelihoods, and, in some cases, their lives. Linguistic as well as intellectual difficulties marred their trials. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Interrogators and defendants commonly did not share the same language. Many of the prisoners of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Inquisition had an extremely poor comprehension of Castilian, far too primitive to understand the questions )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(put to them. Yet in the vast majority of cases, the records suggest that they conducted their defence in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(faultlessly bureaucratic Castilian. In the few cases where inquisitors appeared prepared to accept that mutual )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(incomprehension could lead to miscarriages of justice, they could not find competent interpreters. What is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(more, the inquisitors, as a matter of principle, shrouded their suspicions in secrecy. Exhaustion and panic on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the part of the prisoners played into their hands. Ordinary men and women with little or no real )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(understanding of the underlying theological issues were completely out of their depth. No wonder they )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(stumbled while trying to negotiate the perilous boundaries between orthodoxy and heterodoxy on their own. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Many, like Isabel Rgnier, bold and resourceful as she undoubtedly was, will have gone to the scaffold still )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(perplexed as to what their crime had been.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(What can we know about their personal beliefs, then? The investigation is full of potential pitfalls. When )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(confronted about their beliefs, the defendants lied to the inquisitors, the wholesale denial of all accusations )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(usually giving way to partial or complete confession in the course of the trial. Trying to escape, prisoners )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sought to divine what the inquisitors knew or wanted to hear. It is likely that the attention of the Inquisition )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(exaggerates the importance of religion in their lives, while the interrogators? streamlined notion of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(luteranismo is equally likely to have glossed over the nuances of individual beliefs and attitudes to religion. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Yet Griffin is able to gauge the importance these ordinary men and women attributed to religion. He lucidly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(describes the process of how their personal beliefs came to be concocted as a ?cocktail of argument, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(teaching, overheard conversations, church attendance, reading, and observation? \(p. 242\). Some of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(defendants had been born into Catholic families and may have inherited doubts about inherited practices )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(common among Catholics themselves. Travelling across Europe, they had attended Catholic as well as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Reformed services, had debated religion on the road, at the workplace, and in taverns, and had come into )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contact with a great variety of rival claims to religious truth. Their sources of information and medium of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(debate were mainly oral. They learned by word of mouth, through discussion, by hearing works read out )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(aloud or by singing psalms. Over many years of conversation and discussion unchecked by orthodox )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(authorities, they pieced together their own, often highly idiosyncratic spirituality. When pressed during )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(interrogation, they searched their memories, personal beliefs and practices in vain for what might pass as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(doctrinal orthodoxy. Neither inquisitors nor defendants were prepared for informed and sophisticated )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(discussion of complex theological matters. Griffin, however, is surefooted, finding his way among the lies, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(half-truths, denunciations, and confessions extracted under torture that make up his thorny path. The reader )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reaps rich rewards from his refusal to simplify and generalize the confused and confusing beliefs of these )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(individuals.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(What brought these workers before the Inquisition in the first place was their characteristic insouciance and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(their noticeable disregard for the authority and ceremonies of the Catholic Church. Lack of outwardly-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conformist behaviour could take many forms, and was by no means exclusive to foreigners. Doubts )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(concerning indulgences, the veneration of holy images, the existence of purgatory, and the necessity of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(auricular confession to a priest had long been subject to criticism from Catholic reformers in Spain. By the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1560s, however, articulating or practising such doubts had become very dangerous. The defendants )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(themselves found it difficult to distinguish between orthodox Catholicism, Lutheran and Calvinist doctrine, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and the superstition and sceptical attitudes widespread among ordinary Spaniards. A refusal to buy )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(indulgences, for instance, could simply be rooted in poverty. In the minds of inquisitors, however, it could )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(indicate a veiled attack on the Catholic notion of penance?certainly when a foreigner was involved. Many )] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(trials reveal practices and attitudes that add up to evidence of heterodox sympathies or convictions. Common )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(among foreign journeymen-printers is a propensity to work on religious feast days and reluctance to hear )] TJ ET endstream endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 19 0 R >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Length 7475 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Mass, to confess or to partake of the Eucharist. The Fleming Giles Duse and the Norman Pierre Pintamenan )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(considered the veneration of images idolatrous?one of the hallmarks of luteranismo. The singing of psalms )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in French, too, raised immediate suspicions of heresy. Entirely aware that they were risking their lives, many )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(print workers carried collections of the psalms translated into the French. Many went out into the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(countryside when they wanted to sing together, a convenient way of communing with God and asserting )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(their identity safe from the apprehensive ears of their Spanish fellow workers. Calvinist divines judged )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(singing of psalms in rhymed French translation as a particularly powerful tool for disseminating and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(maintaining allegiance to the Reformed faith, and so did the inquisitors in Toledo, Valladolid, and Lisbon.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Griffin provides ample evidence that the printing workers taken up by the Holy Office were fully aware that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(they would be under suspicion of heresy almost from the moment they crossed the borders into Spain. He )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(also tells us much about the reasons that made them go there nonetheless. Dulcet, Duse, Herlin, and their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(many compatriots went to Iberia because it offered the possibility of employment. The shortage of skilled )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(labour and high wages in Catalonia and Valencia attracted those who wanted to escape the Wars of Religion )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and economic decline at home. The absence of the regulations that prevented the semi-skilled from finding )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(regular work in the presses of Geneva and Lyon proved a particular draw to those who had not finished their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(apprenticeship. Some had chosen their profession; others had been given no choice. These were mostly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(young men, adventurous, enterprising, and violent. Many had a military background that stood them in good )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(stead during their itinerant life on the roads of Europe.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Once in Spain, foreign print workers tried to stick together, travelling, working, and spending their leisure )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(time as much in the company of compatriots as possible. They shared a perception that theirs was a craft )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(superior to others. Such pride was encouraged and sustained by their respect for the written word and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(widespread confidence in their own judgement. Journeymen-printers rarely integrated with the local )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(population, but mingled with foreigners working in other trades. The xenophobia characteristic of early )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(modern communities prevented Spaniards from welcoming those few apparently willing to integrate. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Antonio de la Bastida considered himself a Spaniard, but, as it turned out, was never accepted as such by his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Spanish colleagues who, on account of his strange accent, had considered him a heretic all along. The lack of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(even the most basic linguistic competence in men who, in some cases, had lived and worked in Spain for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(more than a decade, suggests that most had no intention or desire to integrate in the first place. When )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(possible, they consolidated communal bonds by actions and through a language that excluded orthodox )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Spaniards. Thus they might meet to share forbidden foodstuffs, such as pork pies during Lent, or engage in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(multi-layered banter that revealed and confirmed their religious persuasions and prejudices against the native )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(population. Griffin gives examples even of the jokes they made at the expense of Catholic beliefs and rituals. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Comparing the gaily dressed statue of the Virgin Mary carried through the streets of Salamanca with a young )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(woman of uncertain reputation back in Lyon, three French printing workers mocked the idolatrous naivety of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(orthodox Spanish Catholics and the mercenary nature of the papal church. Humorous innuendo provided )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mutual assurance of shared origins, experience, and religious persuasions.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Griffin?s meticulous research reveals a small world where time was passed in conversation. During the long )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(hours at work, in the tavern and on the road looking for work, talking about personal beliefs was a way of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(establishing and consolidating mutual trust. Pierre de Rinz told the inquisitors that his refusal to discuss )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(religious matters with his luterano compatriots working in the same press at Alcal repeatedly led to violent )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(clashes between them. Invariably, journeymen-printers knew a lot about one another?s lives and convictions. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Even those who had never met or had not seen one another for many years were kept abreast of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(developments in each others? lives by the grapevine. Once the Inquisition trained its sights on them, it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(turned out that they knew far too much. In some cases, bad feelings and personal animosity fuelled the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(denunciations. Yet, members of a tightly knit community, many did do their best to protect their fellow )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(workers from the inquisitors. Providing shelter for fugitives, warning those not yet aware that the Inquisition )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was looking for them, or retracting incriminating confessions, they often fatally incriminated themselves in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the process. Friendship became dangerous, often lethal when torture was employed to loosen the strong )] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(bonds between men who looked at one another as friends, compatriots, and co-religionists.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Many had kept up their guard for many years. Only a minority, like the journeyman-printer Isac de Ribera )] TJ ET endstream endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 22 0 R ] /Contents 21 0 R >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Length 5583 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and typecaster Pierre Pintamenan, can be regarded as proselytisers. Lack of caution, over-confidence, or the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(compulsion to discuss personal beliefs and thus assert their identity finally induced some to give themselves )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(away. Giles Duse told his interrogators about the anguish and physical pain caused by the inability to speak )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(openly about his religious convictions, mingled with the fear of exposure. Calvin?s utter condemnation of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Nicodemites would not have helped him assuage his pain. The relief and determination to come clean when )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(he was finally arrested is palpable in the records of his trial. For years on end, many foreign journeymen-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(printers suffered the stress of having to conceal their beliefs from ordinary Spaniards and of sharing them )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(only with those they trusted. On those occasions of shared identity, they tended to reveal much more than )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was wise.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Journeymen-Printers)] TJ ET BT 135.992 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( tells the stories of the lives of these men and women to their frequently bitter ends. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(tribunals that dismantled the network of supposed luterano journeymen-printers during the late 1560s and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(early 1570s were at the height of their power. Their intention was to deter miscreants, instruct the faithful )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and supply the galleys of Spain with urgently needed rowers. The elaborately staged auto de fe made an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(example of the guilty and spelled out the beliefs and behaviours the audience was to shun. Relatively few of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(those the Holy Office considered unrepentant went to the stake. Many more were given harsh sentences of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(years of service at the oar. Those who survived their sentence, few in any case, would not necessarily be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(released. At a time of continual naval conflict, the fleet was loathe to lose trained rowers. Those lucky )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(enough to escape the stake and the galley would still suffer serious economic deprivation as well as public )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(humiliation; public humiliation that was ongoing, and would affect them and their families for the time they )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(lived in Spain.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Griffin writes with great authority, subtlety, and command of the English language. He demonstrates that the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Iberian inquisitional archives are a mine of information on the geographical and social origins, educational )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and professional training, careers, standard of living, and, most strikingly, even the attitudes, beliefs, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ambitions of men and women ordinarily outside the historian?s grasp. He also offers us many insights on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(output, recruitment, wage levels, and working practices in the Iberian presses. Thus we now know that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?some Spanish presses must have been French- rather than Castilian-speaking? \(p. 262\)?a fact that does help )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to explain some of the flaws common in sixteenth-century Spanish books. His lively book provides a highly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(differentiated and rare perspective from below during a period of radical religious, economic, and political )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(change in European history. )] TJ ET BT 171.656 373.301 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Journeymen-Printers, Heresy, and the Inquisition in Sixteenth-Century Spain)] TJ ET BT 542.612 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(then, keeps its twofold promise: both to reconstruct ?the lives and fate of otherwise anonymous artisans?; )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and to provide ?a new perspective on the sixteenth century world of book production in Spain, and, by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(extension, in western Europe? \(p. 25\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The author is happy to accept this review and does not wish to comment further.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.021 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 259.039 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 241.259 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 241.259 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/554)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 239.865 m 322.316 239.865 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 214.888 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 200.488 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/2989)] TJ ET BT 34.016 186.088 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET endstream endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 23 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 240.1795 322.3157 252.0595 ] >> endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/554) >> endobj xref 0 24 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000349 00000 n 0000000386 00000 n 0000000585 00000 n 0000000667 00000 n 0000004794 00000 n 0000004903 00000 n 0000005013 00000 n 0000005122 00000 n 0000008683 00000 n 0000008811 00000 n 0000008895 00000 n 0000008960 00000 n 0000016317 00000 n 0000016382 00000 n 0000023848 00000 n 0000023913 00000 n 0000031441 00000 n 0000031525 00000 n 0000037161 00000 n 0000037289 00000 n trailer << /Size 24 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 37384 %%EOF