%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 16 0 R 18 0 R 20 0 R 22 0 R ] /Count 6 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140721035610+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140721035610+01'00') /Title (Writing Under Tyranny English Literature and the Henrician Reformation) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4444 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Writing Under Tyranny English Literature and the Henrician )] TJ ET BT 34.016 593.937 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Reformation)] TJ ET BT 34.016 266.195 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(A new book by Greg Walker, Professor of Early Modern Literature and Culture at the University of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 251.939 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Leicester, is a major event. He has already published four book-length studies of Henrician literature and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 237.683 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(politics, all with distinguished academic presses: )] TJ ET BT 271.004 237.683 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(John Skelton and the Politics of the 1520s)] TJ ET BT 472.664 237.683 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Cambridge, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.427 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1988\); )] TJ ET BT 68.348 223.427 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Plays of Persuasion: Drama and Politics at the Court of Henry VIII)] TJ ET BT 394.664 223.427 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Cambridge, 1991\); )] TJ ET BT 495.320 223.427 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Persuasive )] TJ ET BT 34.016 209.171 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Fictions: Faction, Faith and Political Culture in the Reign of Henry VIII)] TJ ET BT 383.336 209.171 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Scolar Press, 1996\); and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.915 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Politics of Performance in Early Renaissance Drama)] TJ ET BT 311.660 194.915 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Cambridge, 1998\). This new book, )] TJ ET BT 489.308 194.915 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Writing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.659 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Under Tyranny: English Literature and the Henrician Reformation)] TJ ET BT 356.336 180.659 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, builds on these earlier achievements in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.403 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(carefully relating rhetoric and politics in early Tudor literature, and continues the development of these )] TJ ET BT 34.016 152.147 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(themes into the later decades of Henry VIII's reign. Taken together, these five books provide historians and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 137.891 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(literary scholars with detailed expositions of a wide range of dramatic and non-dramatic writing in English )] TJ ET BT 34.016 123.635 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to 1547, with some important new readings of political drama beyond that date. As with each of the earlier )] TJ ET BT 34.016 109.379 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(books, this one contains frequent and generous acknowledgements to the author's former research )] TJ ET BT 34.016 95.123 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(supervisor, Professor G. W. Bernard.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 68.867 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The present book has three main subjects of discussion, but one overarching thesis, which, like a strand of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 54.611 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(gold, is stretched ever finer and thinner. The premise, inferred in the title, is that after 'the explosion of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 563.315 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 549.059 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(556)] TJ ET BT 34.016 534.803 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 520.547 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Friday, 1 December, 2006)] TJ ET BT 34.016 506.291 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 492.035 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Greg Walker)] TJ ET BT 34.016 477.779 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 463.523 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9780199283330)] TJ ET BT 34.016 449.267 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 435.011 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2005)] TJ ET BT 34.016 420.755 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.499 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(68.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.243 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.987 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(568pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.731 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.475 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Oxford University Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.219 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.963 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Oxford)] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.707 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.451 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Rivkah Zim)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 6981 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(divorce crisis of 1527?32' Henry Tudor became a 'tyrant'. By the time he died there was 'a widespread )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(perception that England had fallen under a despotic regime, and that Henry himself was a monster whose )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(death was a blessing to his subjects' \(p. 1\). The author's purpose is thus to examine how those 'at the heart of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the political nation', during the 1530s and 1540s, reacted 'to the growing realization that they were living )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(through something previously unthinkable: the slide into an English tyranny' \(p. 2\). All the literary texts )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(described and discussed in this book are read as 'responses to government policy' which especially )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(stimulated protests about 'the most sensitive issues of public policy and private emotion' \(p. 2\) by men )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(working in and around the court.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 658.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(For as long as they felt able they deployed all of the conventional forms: handbooks of moral, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 644.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(spiritual, or political counsel, hypothetical discussions, didactic and speculative writing of many )] TJ ET BT 64.016 629.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(kinds, to register their protests and offer alternative views of what they believed was in the best )] TJ ET BT 64.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(interests of the commonweal \(p. 3\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 577.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In section one, the publication of William Thynne's 1532 edition of the works of England's greatest poet to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 563.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(date, Geoffrey Chaucer \(d. 1400\), is roped into the delicate task of using poetry to offer counsel to the king. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 548.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The chief means to this end is Sir Brian Tuke, the pseudonymous author of the volume's dedication to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 534.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Henry. \(There is also one chapter in which John Heywood's 'Play of the Weather', formerly discussed in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 520.373 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Plays of Persuasion)] TJ ET BT 130.016 520.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(1991\) and )] TJ ET BT 188.336 520.373 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Politics of Performance)] TJ ET BT 302.996 520.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(1998\) is revisited.\))] TJ ET BT 34.016 494.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The claims made for the specific political purpose of the 1532 Chaucer seem to me to be the least persuasive )] TJ ET BT 34.016 479.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ones in the present book, but they are the most innovative. Tuke's claim to have written the dedicatory )] TJ ET BT 34.016 465.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('Preface' is well known from his holograph inscription, made before 1536, in the copy now at Clare College, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 451.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cambridge, which was reproduced in the Scolar Press facsimile edition of 1969. From Tuke's impersonation )] TJ ET BT 34.016 437.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of Thynne, named as the editor in the printed 'Preface', Professor Walker assumes not only that Thynne and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 422.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Tuke were joint editors of the 1532 Chaucer, but also that they were of a single mind: 'One imagines that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 408.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thynne and Tuke would have approved' \(p. 98\), for example. Constant repetition of 'Thynne and Tuke', as if )] TJ ET BT 34.016 394.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(they were proven co-editors who thought alike, looks like a rhetorical ploy to convince us of what must )] TJ ET BT 34.016 380.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(remain, on present knowledge, speculation. However, the larger involvement of Tuke, here regarded as a full )] TJ ET BT 34.016 365.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(partner in the selection and preparation of Chaucer's \(and other, named and unattributed Middle English )] TJ ET BT 34.016 351.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(poets'\) works, is vital to the present political reading of the 1532 edition taken as a whole. As the author )] TJ ET BT 34.016 337.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(points out, only someone in Tuke's position at court could provide the link between the inclusion of John )] TJ ET BT 34.016 323.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Gower's 'Balade to kyng Henry the fourth', for example, and the claim that in choosing this 'ballad in praise )] TJ ET BT 34.016 308.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of peace ... the editors were reflecting a significant theme in governmental thinking, a theme evident in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 294.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(pronouncements of both the king and his ministers throughout 1531?2' \(p. 95\). I am not persuaded by this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 280.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(inductive method; here, it seems to me, we find an idea in search of evidence. Tuke becomes a co-editor )] TJ ET BT 34.016 266.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(because Thynne, a chief clerk of the kitchen, is considered unlikely to have had the kinds of contact with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 251.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('governmental thinking' required to see the 1532 edition of Chaucer's Works as an attempt to counsel Henry )] TJ ET BT 34.016 237.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(VIII. But is it credible that the editor\(s\) of the 1532 Chaucer should expect Henry to find, and then take to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(heart, the message of a relatively short poem, printed on five pages, towards the end of a folio volume )] TJ ET BT 34.016 208.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(containing 383 leaves, or 766 pages, in all? If Tuke, impersonating Thynne, is the real author of the Preface )] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(addressed to Henry, as he claimed at the time, and which seems entirely plausible, then his exposition of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(avowed purpose of Thynne's edition, printed for a wider English readership, must also be given its due. This )] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(express purpose was revolutionary, assertive, and political enough in its literal sense without straining after )] TJ ET BT 34.016 151.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dubious historical contexts. The Preface states its editor's intention to restore \(under royal protection\) )] TJ ET BT 34.016 137.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(knowledge of Chaucer's greatness of learning, eloquence, metrical felicity, freshness of subject matter, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 123.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(compendious style, and his exemplary status \(in explicit comparison with such political literary personalities )] TJ ET BT 34.016 109.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as Demosthenes and Cicero\). This was to be achieved by restoring Chaucer's texts, thereby,)] TJ ET BT 64.016 70.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reducynge vnto lyght this so precious and necessary ... ornament of the [English] tonge ... So )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 17 0 R >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Length 5031 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 64.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that vnder ... royall protectyon and defence it may go forthe in publyke/ & preuayle ouer those )] TJ ET BT 64.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that wolde blemysshe/ deface/ and ... abolyssh the laude/ renoume/ and glorie hertofore )] TJ ET BT 64.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(compared/ and meritoriously adquired by dyuers princes/ and other of this said most noble yle/ )] TJ ET BT 64.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(whervnto nat onely straungers ... but also some of your owne subiectes ... do with great study )] TJ ET BT 64.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contende. \(Sig. A3r, my reading from the Scolar facsimile edition\))] TJ ET BT 34.016 701.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(While Professor Walker quotes and describes this passage, his argument nevertheless passes over its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 686.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(message that Tuke thought it was Thynne's purpose to spearhead a revival of English literary culture and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 672.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(language, a purpose the present book might have argued?but does not?came to fruition in the poetry of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 658.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Henry Howard, earl of Surrey. The printing of Chaucer's works not only provided Italianate models, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 644.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(methods of composition, and standards of eloquence for court poets, it also familiarized readers of English )] TJ ET BT 34.016 629.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(poetry with the highest standards and greatest range of English humanist verse then available. The earlier )] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(production of copies of Chaucer's poetry in manuscript and print testifies to a long and vigorous tradition of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(interest in, and value added to, his work: literary, moral and political, or public. The intellectual revolution )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(manifested in the 1532 Chaucer \(and one of its best selling points\) was the editorial claims made in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(preface that Thynne had compared and collated source texts in search of 'very trewe copies of those workes )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of Geffray Chaucer/ whiche before had ben put in printe/ but also to dyuers other neuer tyll nowe imprinted' )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(A2v\). These were the methods of textual production applied to classical and biblical texts rather than to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(English vernacular poetry. While it would have been easier, quicker, and less expensive, Henry VIII is told, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(not to have made such 'dilygent sertch' and 'collacion', the author of the Preface, writing in the persona of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thynne, says he)] TJ ET BT 64.016 463.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(thought it in maner appertenant vnto my dewtie/ and that of very honesty and loue to my )] TJ ET BT 64.016 449.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(countrey I ought no lesse to do/ than to put my helpyng hande to the restauracion and bringynge )] TJ ET BT 64.016 434.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(agayne to lyght of the said workes/ after the trewe copies and exemplaries aforesaid \(A3r\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 396.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thynne's range of manuscript sources?many of which have not survived?mean that this edition still has )] TJ ET BT 34.016 382.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(relevance for Chaucer's editors.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(A good poet always had the reputation of a moral authority, but according to Professor Walker, 'Thynne and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 341.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Tuke constructed their Chaucer as a political as well as a moral authority, and stressed his function as a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 327.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(guide to princes in troubled times'.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 289.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Theirs was a Chaucer who not only offered sound advice on questions of personal conduct and )] TJ ET BT 64.016 275.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(morality, but counselled his readers consistently on the responsibilities of kings, on the )] TJ ET BT 64.016 260.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(regulation of religion, and even ... on the conduct of what one might call an ethical foreign )] TJ ET BT 64.016 246.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(policy. Hence the placement of those texts, both Chaucerian and non-Chaucerian, that are )] TJ ET BT 64.016 232.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(explicitly addressed to princes and governors in prominent positions at the beginning and end of )] TJ ET BT 64.016 218.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the edition, and hence the fact that the majority of the self-evidently non-Chaucerian material is )] TJ ET BT 64.016 203.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(drawn from the speculum principis tradition ... [T]he advice they offer is implicitly to suppress )] TJ ET BT 64.016 189.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(anticlerical dissention [sic] and reconsider current policies \(pp. 81-2\).)] TJ ET endstream endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 19 0 R >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Length 7872 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(At some point in the later-sixteenth century it became a liability to be reputed a prince-pleaser. As we are )] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(told, the 'literary community, under the pressure of political events, was beginning to reconfigure itself as an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(alternative forum for the discussion of moral and political values, a court in the legal rather than the regal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sense' \(p. 418\). Strangely, however, the author attributes these changes to negative political pressure and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(even repression, rather than to the positive example of Chaucerian verse. Chaucer, it may be argued, wrote )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(under more traumatic political conditions of despotism and tyranny than Henry VIII could create, especially )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(during the reign of Richard II \(which saw the Peasants' Revolt\), and received renewed favours from the son )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of his early patron, John of Gaunt, after the deposition of a famously badly-advised king.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 658.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The five chapters in section two describe and discuss the works of Sir Thomas Elyot within the context of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 644.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the King's 'Great Matter', and the repeated frustrations of Elyot's desire for public office. Elyot's literary )] TJ ET BT 34.016 629.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(career apparently tracked his political one as he moved from the early optimism of his prescriptive work, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Book Named the Governor)] TJ ET BT 183.992 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(1530?31\), to the later reworking of classical Roman history in )] TJ ET BT 491.948 615.653 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Image of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Governance)] TJ ET BT 92.660 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(1540?41\), which is read here, alongside Uwe Baumann's arguments from 1998?9 \(for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(example\), as a satire on contemporary life. Elyot's preface to this later book only paid lip-service to 'a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(measured defence of the Henrician via media' \(p. 160\), as Professor Walker, following George Bernard, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(describes Henry's 'chosen' religious policy of these years.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 532.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Elyot's fruitless search for a job at the centre of government, in particular a place on the privy council, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 518.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(his real or imagined sense of grievance against Thomas Cranmer who succeeded where Elyot failed, is a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 503.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(familiar story. Its poignancy and its impact on his writing have also been discussed by Elyot's several )] TJ ET BT 34.016 489.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(biographers and by Professor Walker, briefly, in another book, but the detail and the clarity of its exposition )] TJ ET BT 34.016 475.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(here are to be welcomed. This section has a good narrative structure, and gives Elyot's story a satisfying )] TJ ET BT 34.016 461.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(emotional, as well as intellectual, coherence.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 434.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In the third and final section, )] TJ ET BT 175.664 434.837 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Writing Under Tyranny)] TJ ET BT 288.992 434.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( turns to the introspective, lyrical, and humanist poetry )] TJ ET BT 34.016 420.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the elder Sir Thomas Wyatt and of Henry Howard, earl of Surrey. Too often these writers are lumped )] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(together and their very distinct literary voices, their different social status, and, hence, their political )] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(significance and opportunities are elided. The transmission of their poetry in print, from 1557 onwards, in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Richard Tottel's miscellany of )] TJ ET BT 181.496 377.813 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Songes and Sonettes)] TJ ET BT 279.488 377.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( began a tradition of biographical readings. However, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(while the titles added to their poems in Tottel's anthology invite readers to understand their verse in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(context of the poets' mostly unhappy love affairs, Professor Walker's book invites readers to substitute the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(context of the Act of Supremacy and tyranny. Each poet wrote occasional verses reflecting on his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(imprisonment at various times, and, as we are reminded, only Wyatt survived to die of natural causes in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(king's service. However, the author strains his material too far when he argues that the literary tactics )] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(revealed in these poets' treatments of their biblical and classical sources initiated 'a revolution in English )] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(poetry' which can be directly attributed to their contemporary political situations. He assumes that Henry's )] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(tyranny during the last decade of his life was so repressive that court poets could only express and comfort )] TJ ET BT 34.016 249.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(themselves using the indirect voices of different poetic personae who are nevertheless to be read, then and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(since, as synonymous with the actual, historic personalities of these courtiers.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 208.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Literary scholars will recognize and welcome the citations of the work on these poets by, for example, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Elizabeth Heale, Colin Burrow, and Surrey's biographer, William Sessions, but they may feel some disquiet )] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that the largest number of references to a single critical source is to H.A. Mason's )] TJ ET BT 427.760 180.485 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Thomas Wyatt: A Literary )] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.229 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Portrait)] TJ ET BT 72.692 166.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Bristol, 1986\), which has also been relied upon for quotation and translation from other primary )] TJ ET BT 34.016 151.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sources?for example, from Petrarch's poetry. This section of )] TJ ET BT 326.108 151.973 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Writing Under Tyranny)] TJ ET BT 439.436 151.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( deals with material )] TJ ET BT 34.016 137.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which will be better known to most denizens of English departments than that in the other sections of this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 123.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(book, and I think that they will be disappointed, as I was, not to find a more original treatment of this lyric )] TJ ET BT 34.016 109.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(poetry and its relationships to conventional topics of religious devotion and anti-court satire. That Henry's )] TJ ET BT 34.016 94.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(divorce caused much aggravation for many people, and that there was a practical, humanist tradition of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 80.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(learned men offering their counsel to the prince in various literary genres \(as the first two sections of this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 66.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(book argue\), are unexceptional truisms. But that the poetic arts of 'inwardness', the subtleties of poetic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 52.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(imitation of humanist models, and the lively representation of conscience, ambition, frustration, or self )] TJ ET endstream endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 21 0 R >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Length 4372 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(criticism are the explicit consequences of Henrician repression?writing under tyranny?is stretching a simple )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(idea too far in my opinion. There is a danger that this conclusion will seem reductive or simply romantic. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(For all the talk of politics, this book reflects a very old-fashioned approach to the relationship between life )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and literature which is clearly enjoying a revival. For example, in a subsection headed 'Surrey's Life in his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Verse', Professor Walker not only assumes that Surrey's verse presents direct evidence for his life, but also )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(then questions why at Surrey's trial, in 1546, no one alluded to his poetry as 'evidence'.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 686.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Details of his conversations, his actions, his use of heraldic devices and his commissioning of )] TJ ET BT 64.016 672.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(portraits were all cited against him and subjected to detailed scrutiny in order to provide )] TJ ET BT 64.016 658.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(evidence of his attitudes and intentions. But the most explicit and extended statements of his )] TJ ET BT 64.016 644.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(attitudes, his resentments, his hopes and aspirations were never exposed to examination \(p. 386\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 605.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(He goes on to affirm that had Surrey's poetry been considered the prosecution could have found ample )] TJ ET BT 34.016 591.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('evidence' of the charges against him. Perhaps the late-Henrician regime was less of a tyranny than this book )] TJ ET BT 34.016 577.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(assumes. Perhaps the law officers of the Henrician regime realized that poetry is fiction, which may be read )] TJ ET BT 34.016 563.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and interpreted differently by different readers. Professor Walker has kindly acknowledged my own work on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 548.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the subject of Wyatt's devotional poetry and noted its 'more sceptical' approach \(p. 521, n.3\) to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 534.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(autobiographical readings to which he subscribes; but I remain sceptical in the absence of external evidence.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 508.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(There is no attempt in this last section of the book to connect the new beginning for English humanist )] TJ ET BT 34.016 494.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(poetry, effected by Wyatt and Surrey in particular, with the impact of Chaucer's poetry and the aspirations )] TJ ET BT 34.016 479.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(expressed, for example, by Tuke's Preface of 1532 on behalf of William Thynne. The 'clear disjunction' )] TJ ET BT 34.016 465.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(described between Wyatt's and Surrey's work 'and that of previous generations of writers' \(p.430\) does not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 451.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(take account of a long enough historical view of English poetry. It could well be argued, as the structure of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 437.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(this book implies but does not articulate, that the continuity between Chaucer and Surrey is both stronger )] TJ ET BT 34.016 422.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and clearer than the disjunction between Wyatt or Surrey and their immediate predecessors such as Skelton )] TJ ET BT 34.016 408.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and Hawes.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 382.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(With respect to the smaller, technical but substantive business of reviewers, it should be pointed out for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 368.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historians especially that the primary documentary evidence is almost entirely quoted and cited from printed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 353.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(calendars of state papers, which are of various quality and consistency. For example, the role of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 339.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(definition of praemunire by Chapuy, quoted in translation from the Spanish Calendar, is unclear \(see p. 471, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 325.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(n.56.\) It is also odd to find references to the PRO rather than the National Archives in a book with a 2005 )] TJ ET BT 34.016 311.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(imprint.)] TJ ET endstream endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 24 0 R ] /Contents 23 0 R >> endobj 23 0 obj << /Length 4884 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(There is no bibliography or list of sources included. As few of the references within 105 dense pages of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(endnotes are indexed, it is often very inconvenient to find a full reference to a work. This is especially so )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(when even the first reference in a chapter is not given in full, or, bizarrely, where the first full reference to a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(specific work appears after its first use in short form within the same chapter. There are several other signs )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of incomplete copy-editing, although only a few substantive errors can be mentioned here. Patricia )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thomson, co-editor of the Liverpool University Press edition of Wyatt's poetry, editor of )] TJ ET BT 463.796 713.189 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Wyatt The Critical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Heritage)] TJ ET BT 76.676 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(1974, 1985\), and author of )] TJ ET BT 214.652 698.933 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Sir Thomas Wyatt and his Background)] TJ ET BT 400.316 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(1964\) is repeatedly, but not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(consistently, referred to as Thompson in text and notes?something which obscures her identity as author and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(editor of all the books mentioned above. Other inconsistencies include the standard abbreviation STC varied )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to RSTC in some chapters; the use, without explanation, of Susan Brigden's first, 1989, edition of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(London and the Reformation)] TJ ET BT 172.352 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( in, for example, ch. 6, n. 5, but the second edition, of 1991, in, for example, ch. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(3, n. 5. \(The short form in ch. 10, n. 1, does not indicate which edition has been used.\) Something has gone )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(wrong with the reference to Brigden's first edition in ch. 9, n. 20; presumably, 'pp. 1?215' should read ?pp. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(12?15?. Similarly, I suggest that 'Wyatt's best work' \(p. 532, n. 32, third line up\) should read ?Surrey's best )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(work?. There are 150 biblical psalms, not 151 \(as at p. 523, n. 29\). I have not listed other literal errors in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(common words that do not materially affect the reader's comprehension. While no book of 556 pages can be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(free from such slips, Oxford University Press should have tried harder to capture and eliminate them.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Overall, this is a long book, and a well written one, but I find its historical premises about the Henrician )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(regime tendentious; its single political argument about the increasing difficulty of offering counsel strained; )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and its literary cohesion forced. Its discrete sections read like a series of appendices to Professor Walker's )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(earlier, and, to my mind, more valuable, books on Henrician literature and politics. Nevertheless, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(summaries of critical opinions on individual works and the narratives of historic events and interactions of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(personalities are very detailed. The literary evidence from texts of several kinds is quoted fully \(prose texts )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(are modernized, but verse texts are wisely given in original spelling to preserve metrical forms\). The end )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(notes are so exhaustive, they often resemble miniature essays. So, despite the reservations discussed above )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(about some of its conclusions, this could prove a useful book.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 370.831 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 353.051 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 353.051 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/556)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 351.657 m 322.316 351.657 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 326.680 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 312.280 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/2993)] TJ ET BT 34.016 297.880 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET endstream endobj 24 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 25 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 351.9715 322.3157 363.8515 ] >> endobj 25 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/556) >> endobj xref 0 26 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000356 00000 n 0000000393 00000 n 0000000587 00000 n 0000000669 00000 n 0000005165 00000 n 0000005274 00000 n 0000005384 00000 n 0000005493 00000 n 0000009054 00000 n 0000009182 00000 n 0000009266 00000 n 0000009331 00000 n 0000016365 00000 n 0000016430 00000 n 0000021514 00000 n 0000021579 00000 n 0000029504 00000 n 0000029569 00000 n 0000033994 00000 n 0000034078 00000 n 0000039015 00000 n 0000039143 00000 n trailer << /Size 26 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 39238 %%EOF