%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 16 0 R 18 0 R ] /Count 4 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140416220915+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140416220915+01'00') /Title (The Art of Domestic Life: Family Portraiture in Eighteenth-Century England) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4138 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(The Art of Domestic Life: Family Portraiture in Eighteenth-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 593.937 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Century England)] TJ ET BT 34.016 266.195 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Every picture tells a story. The story told by posed portraits of the family is one of change over time; family )] TJ ET BT 34.016 251.939 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(groups look different at different times. Thus the Victorian middle-class family is typically photographed in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 237.683 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(an indoor ?domestic? setting, its members unsmiling, connected to each other by the touch of a hand on a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.427 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(shoulder. Take a look at professional photographers? web pages today, however, and the modern family is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 209.171 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(often outdoors, caught in movement, grinning, and much more affectionate than its grim-faced, motionless )] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.915 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ancestors. What do these different pictorial narratives of the family mean? Most obviously, it is a story of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.659 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(developments in the technology for capturing images. Early cameras required their sitters to remain )] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.403 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(immobile for long periods of time. Yet, as the historiography of the family reveals, we seek deeper meanings )] TJ ET BT 34.016 152.147 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in such a development in representation. Does it illustrate a shift from a hierarchical family with weak )] TJ ET BT 34.016 137.891 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(emotional bonds to a more loving, closer, and, therefore, happier family? Does it indicate different kinds of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 123.635 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(power and gender relationships between family members? Is it, even, the fabled transition from the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 109.379 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?traditional? to ?modern? family?)] TJ ET BT 34.016 83.123 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This ?sentiments approach?, as Michael Anderson christened it, is problematic when applied to the visual )] TJ ET BT 34.016 68.867 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(depiction of the family since similar transformations in styles occurred at earlier periods. In her stunning )] TJ ET BT 34.016 54.611 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(book, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 54.611 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Art of Domestic Life)] TJ ET BT 182.684 54.611 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, Kate Retford shows that from the 1740s to 1790s the genre of family )] TJ ET BT 34.016 563.315 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 549.059 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(558)] TJ ET BT 34.016 534.803 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 520.547 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Friday, 1 December, 2006)] TJ ET BT 34.016 506.291 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 492.035 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Kate Retford)] TJ ET BT 34.016 477.779 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 463.523 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9780300110012)] TJ ET BT 34.016 449.267 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 435.011 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2006)] TJ ET BT 34.016 420.755 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.499 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(30.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.243 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.987 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(368pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.731 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.475 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Yale University Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.219 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.963 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(New Haven, CT)] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.707 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.451 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Joanne Bailey)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 7498 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(portraiture was transformed. In the early-eighteenth century, the family was self-aware and aware of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(viewer; it was formally posed against a dominating background, and often included members of the wider )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(family. By the later-eighteenth century, the ?nuclear? family was the centre of attention, dominating its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(surroundings and the canvas, ostensibly caught unaware by the viewer in a physically and emotionally )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(intimate moment in time. Retford?s analysis of the meaning of this shift is sophisticated, lively, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(beautifully illustrated, with sumptuous reproductions of all the closely-analysed art. Lawrence Stone used )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(this visual shift as evidence for his broad-brush picture of the transformation of family relationships from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(emotionally distant in the sixteenth century, to more acutely patriarchal in the seventeenth, to companionate )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and loving in the eighteenth century.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Stone?s controversial thesis is hardly at boiling level thirty years on, but it undoubtedly continues to simmer, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(setting the agenda for a number of scholars. Retford tips her hat to Stone?s controversial framework, but )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(goes beyond it to explore the family with some novelty. First she uses the expertise of her own discipline as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a historian of art to bring new insights, as well as making excellent use of family correspondence, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(prescriptive literature, and contemporary commentary on the portraits during their display in the Royal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Academy. She explains that historians of the family need not be so cautious of art as a source; a wariness )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that she sees as a reaction against earlier historians who used it clumsily. Art is a valuable source as long as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(it is fully contextualized. Thus portraits need to be read at several levels. They are aesthetic objects in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(themselves, and are, therefore, linked to stylistic influences within the art world. Nevertheless, they are also )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a historical record since they documented specific details about the sitters and their lives, therefore )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(preserving insights into the family from within the conventions of the form.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Secondly, Retford is at pains to point out that art also reflects broader changes in behavioural norms and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(practices. This is significant given the existence of the influential cults of ?sensibility? and ?domesticity? in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the later-eighteenth century. Clearly they made their mark upon domestic portraiture, offering, as Retford )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(describes it, ?a new language for conveying the possibilities of private life? \(p. 9\). For all the power of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sentimental form, however, Retford?s book insists that portraiture responded to new ways of representing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(feeling rather than depicting new feelings. Hence, earlier portraits of the family did not illustrate a lack of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(familial emotion, but conveyed gentility and polite posture as fashionable sensibilities demanded. Later )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(paintings deployed the concept of sentiment in order to prompt sentimental reflection in the viewer and to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(advertise artists? abilities to convey emotion, that would gain them further commissions.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thirdly, and most rewardingly for historians, )] TJ ET BT 253.328 347.045 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Art of Domestic Life)] TJ ET BT 371.996 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( focuses upon the role of the families )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(themselves in this visual shift. In doing so, Retford resolves the paradox that historians face when addressing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Stone?s thesis about emotional transformation in the second half of the eighteenth century, for literature, art, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and printed advice do reveal significant changes in sentiment. It is not enough to dismiss their tangible )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(impact on family life by arguing that reality is different to prescription. Retford contends that ?the normative )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and the actual were not, and are not, hermetically sealed entities? \(p. 37\). The two shaped each other and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(thus portraits display the more normative elements of people?s lives. This suited the sitters who )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(commissioned portraits to advertise the fact that their lives followed socially-approved ideals. Through this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(shift in focus, Retford rejects the discredited search for emotional transformations, and instead proposes that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the change in the depiction of the family reflects a cultural shift in the way that families portrayed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(themselves. Thus family portraits capture the essence of what each era thinks is the meaning of family life.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Finally, Retford shrugs off Stone?s straitjacket by moving beyond outmoded models of traditional and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(modern. She innovatively uses evidence about the intended location of the portraits in the aristocratic family )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(seats to argue convincingly that while fashionable ideas were taken up they did not oust more traditional )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(notions of family. Thus male authority and dynastic concerns were simply repackaged in a sentimental form.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 109.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Retford?s first two chapters examine depictions of married couples. In the first she analyses the ?pendant )] TJ ET BT 34.016 94.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(portrait?. In this, husbands and wives were depicted in separate portraits, but hung together as two halves of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 80.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a whole. Strongly gendered, both their hanging and composition emphasized male activity and female )] TJ ET BT 34.016 66.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(passivity. The husband?s portrait displayed his social position and primary activity from which the family )] TJ ET BT 34.016 52.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(derived its income, while his wife?s demonstrated her feminine qualities of tenderness and sundry domestic )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 17 0 R >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Length 7486 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(attributes. In other words, they fall broadly into a private/public dichotomy. The chapter goes on to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(demonstrate, through case studies, the artificiality of the notion of separate spheres, since many of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(women were involved in the public world of family politics or estate management. Perhaps a closer attention )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to recent scholarship that shows that ?private and public? had different meanings in the eighteenth century )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(would have been fruitful here. Overall, however, the book makes some useful contributions to the debate, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(particularly in the next chapter that explores the ?double portrait?. This highlighted companionship and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(emotion?particularly in the promenade picture, that showed the couple strolling arm in arm through a natural )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(landscape. This created a narrative of marital mutuality and an integration of separate male and female )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(worlds within marriage. This shift had three basic causes: artistic precedents; changing cultural fashions such )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as the vogue for public walks and modish forms of dance whose gestures denoted elegance; and new ways of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(defining the marital relationship in prescriptive material. The most valuable insight of this chapter is that the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(marital portrait conflated the private and the public and thus ?the image of the virtuous husband )] TJ ET BT 34.016 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(simultaneously became the image of the virtuous citizen? \(p. 74\). Thus this new vogue in portraiture did not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 611.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(demonstrate a new equality between husband and wife, but conferred benefits on men who used it to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 596.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(advertise their companionate relationship with their wives.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The next two chapters are particularly welcome since they focus on the portrayal of parenting, a subject ripe )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for reappraisal. Portraits of parents and their children became more intensely emotional from the mid-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(eighteenth century. Standing less on formalities, parents were shown cuddling their offspring, playing with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(them, and tenderly relating to them. Mothers had long been shown in devotional form, influenced by the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conventions of the Madonna and Child, but the sentimental form idealized motherhood still further. Though )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(new, relaxed forms of maternity were on display, Retford shows how these fashionable styles still conveyed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the aristocracy?s investment in the continuation of the family line. When placed in their planned location )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(they conveyed the crucial importance of male inheritance and the value of woman in securing it \(even, or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(particularly when, unbroken male succession was not the reality\). While focusing on mothers, the genre gave )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(them no extra authority, still positioning fathers as the guiding hand in child rearing and using devices to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(make the paternal presence explicit even in the bodily absence of the father in the portrait.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Although there was continuing emphasis on fathers? role in provisioning, educating, and disciplining their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(children, a significant change occurred in the visual depiction of fatherhood. In a fascinating chapter, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Retford describes the rise in family portraits of the devoted, caring father who tended his children?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(emotional, as well as material, wellbeing. Again, she detects the coexistence of new and traditional forms, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(since the portraits frequently conveyed the fathers? supervisory role by placing them at the summit of a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(triangular composition, as well as symbolizing the importance of lineage by the fathers? close proximity to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(their male heir. These images of fatherhood were not ?private? or ?domestic? as we are inclined to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(understand it. Demonstrating the fluidity of ?private? and ?public? yet again, Retford shows that men used )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(such tender devotion to advertise their civilized qualities; a factor that needs to be more fully explored by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historians of masculinity in this period. It would have been interesting to consider more fully whether )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mothers advertised their status in a similar way. The possibilities of this are suggested in a later chapter by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(an account of the duchess of Devonshire?s use of a portrait celebrating her maternal devotion to her daughter )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to restore her reputation, which was damaged by the criticism she endured while canvassing during the 1784 )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Westminster election.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Chapter five looks more closely at the role of family portraits in constructing a narrative of unbroken male )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(inheritance. Here Retford?s consideration of the final hanging of family portraiture reaps rewards. She )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(shows that, while following new fashions, these images were conceived as additions to existing collections )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and therefore intended as another brick in the dynastic wall. Earlier family portraits were also brought into )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(stylistic conformity by adapting inherited ancestral images to fit the narrative of unbroken succession. In )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(some cases, ancestors who were inconveniently absent in pictorial form were added through the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(commissioning of fictitious portraits. The portraits served to make national claims as well as dynastic ones, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(since the genealogical links that were emphasized were those to heroes, military campaigners, and statesmen )] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and in the process aristocratic families carefully advertised their alliances to political parties and devotion to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(royal houses. This finding in some ways helps to belie the book?s title since in these elite families )] TJ ET endstream endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 20 0 R ] /Contents 19 0 R >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Length 5637 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?domestic? simply did not carry the connotations of ?private? or separateness that we associate with it. After )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(all many of these elite homes had very public aspects, visited by the public as well as their peers, all of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(whom therefore were confronted with images intended to convey and therefore maintain the family?s status, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(authority, and wealth. Of course, the elevation of men?s role in sustaining the family line often required )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(much manipulation of the truth given that women contributed both titles and property through marriage and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(inheritance. The book would thus have benefited from a closer engagement with Elaine Chalus?s and Ingrid )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Tague?s work on aristocratic women?s participation in politics and power thanks to the familial nature of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(eighteenth-century politics. In turn, this would have added further dimensions to the families? concerns to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(display their lineage. While it is easy to assume that it was the male members of the family who secured )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(most from this manipulation of identity, the familial model of political life may have meant that some )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(women at least identified with this ?public? self promotion.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The manipulation of self image and family identity is developed further in chapter six which looks at the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ways in which members of aristocratic families used family portraits to restore their reputation when it came )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(under attack from an increasingly powerful print media. This demonstrates that the conventions of the genre )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were so well recognized that they could be used to re-establish moral reputations in an era when the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(aristocracy were coming under criticism for their immorality. Retford?s entertaining case studies show that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the most successful attempts to restore reputation occurred when the sitter had some positive attributes, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(otherwise the gap between behaviour and ideals was too great to bridge. By showing the pervasiveness of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the ?symbols? of ideal family life, the question is raised about the social origin of the concept of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?domesticity?. Often it is seen as a largely middle-class phenomenon, deployed to create an identity in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(opposition to aristocratic mores. In contrast, Retford concludes that the aristocracy adopted the sentimental )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(values of domesticity independently and not as self-defence against a middle class intent upon gaining the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?domestic? high ground. This is an intriguing proposal, that indicates that the terms ?sentimental? and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?domesticity? need further research to unravel how far they were used in different ways by different social )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(groups across the later-eighteenth and early-nineteenth centuries.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The )] TJ ET BT 55.676 416.069 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Art of Domestic Life)] TJ ET BT 153.344 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( must be essential reading for historians of the family as well as historians of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(developments in art. Retford adroitly integrates the individual within the family group and wider cultural )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(values, and shows how each influenced the other. Following current trends, she shows that the individual )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(could deviate from behavioural norms, but still be structured by them. Thus the story told by these pictures )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the family is one of adaptability and knowingness; where the image of the family is a vehicle to be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(consciously manipulated to achieve benefit to its members. All in all, Kate Retford illustrates that the field )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the history of the family remains exciting and innovative.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The author is happy to accept this review and does not wish to comment further.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.021 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 259.039 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 241.259 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 241.259 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/558)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 239.865 m 322.316 239.865 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 214.888 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 200.488 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/2997)] TJ ET BT 34.016 186.088 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET endstream endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 21 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 240.1795 322.3157 252.0595 ] >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/558) >> endobj xref 0 22 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000342 00000 n 0000000379 00000 n 0000000577 00000 n 0000000659 00000 n 0000004849 00000 n 0000004958 00000 n 0000005068 00000 n 0000005177 00000 n 0000008738 00000 n 0000008866 00000 n 0000008950 00000 n 0000009015 00000 n 0000016566 00000 n 0000016631 00000 n 0000024170 00000 n 0000024254 00000 n 0000029944 00000 n 0000030072 00000 n trailer << /Size 22 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 30167 %%EOF