%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 16 0 R ] /Count 3 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140818080925+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140818080925+01'00') /Title (The Church of England and the Holocaust: Christianity, Memory and Nazism) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4195 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(The Church of England and the Holocaust: Christianity, Memory )] TJ ET BT 34.016 593.937 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(and Nazism)] TJ ET BT 34.016 266.195 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(For the first fifteen years after the end of the Second World War, the Nazi persecution and mass murder of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 251.939 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Jews of Europe was rarely the subject of public debate or historical analysis. Only after the Eichmann )] TJ ET BT 34.016 237.683 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(trial did the term ?Holocaust? gain widespread acceptance. Even then, this tragedy was largely considered as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.427 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a matter for the Jewish people alone. Not until after an increasing volume of criticism arose in the 1960s and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 209.171 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1970s did the Christian churches begin to acknowledge that their role as bystanders needed to be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.915 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reexamined. In more recent years, a large number of books, usually written with a moralistic tone, have )] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.659 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(focused attention on the specific role of individual churches and church authorities. Tom Lawson?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.403 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(examination of the Church of England?s attitudes is an expansion of an earlier article in )] TJ ET BT 458.276 166.403 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Twentieth Century )] TJ ET BT 34.016 152.147 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(British History)] TJ ET BT 105.692 152.147 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 14.2 \(2003\), and an addition both to the history and the historiography of Holocaust studies.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 125.891 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Lawson rightly challenges the view that the avoidance of any discussion in the immediate postwar years of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 111.635 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Nazis? persecution of the Jews was the result of the preoccupation with Cold War crises and polemics. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 97.379 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Instead he suggests that we need to understand the responses of the Church of England, throughout the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 83.123 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(whole period from 1933 onwards, from within its own earlier mentalities and preconceptions. He shows )] TJ ET BT 34.016 68.867 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(clearly that, in the 1930s, the Anglican perception of Nazism as an evil ideology, and the support given to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 54.611 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the persecuted German churches, were primary factors in interpreting the fate of the Jews. It was perhaps )] TJ ET BT 34.016 563.315 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 549.059 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(559)] TJ ET BT 34.016 534.803 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 520.547 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Friday, 1 December, 2006)] TJ ET BT 34.016 506.291 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 492.035 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Tom Lawson)] TJ ET BT 34.016 477.779 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 463.523 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(978184383219)] TJ ET BT 34.016 449.267 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 435.011 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2006)] TJ ET BT 34.016 420.755 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.499 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(45.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.243 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.987 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(220pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.731 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.475 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Boydell and Brewer)] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.219 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.963 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Woodbridge)] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.707 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.451 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(John Conway)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 7353 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(understandable that churchmen should come to regard Nazi totalitarianism as an anti-Christian relic of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Teutonic barbarism. Such views were useful after 1939 to strengthen the moral justification for war. Secular )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(British propaganda did the same. But leading members of the Church of England, especially Bishop George )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Bell of Chichester, made a distinction. They did not condemn all Germans as warmongers or racial )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(murderers, but sought to preserve the image of the German churches, especially the Protestants, as being the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(victims of Nazi anti-Christian violence and oppression. Bishop Bell led the way in claiming that there were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(other Germans who were resisting Nazi totalitarian ambitions, and on whom the task of rebuilding Germany )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(would fall once Nazism was overthrown. The persecution of the Jews was thus first seen as part of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Nazis? demonic destructiveness. There was every sympathy for these victims of the Nazi system, especially )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(after Kristallnacht. And whereas the British government played down the Jewish persecution out of fear that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(they would be obliged to do something to assist them, such as opening Palestine as a haven of refuge, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Church of England led a vigorous and continuous campaign, especially in 1942 and 1943, against its own )] TJ ET BT 34.016 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(government?s narrow-mindedness.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(But Lawson?s point is well taken. The Church of England was persuaded of Nazism?s evil character because )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Hitler had first persecuted the churches. When the most prominent Protestant pastor, Martin Niemller, was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(imprisoned in 1937, he was seen by all the British churches as the symbol of Nazi oppression, and was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(prayed for and remembered in Anglican and other parishes across the land. The Church of England?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(leaders, especially Archbishop William Temple, backed by Bell, were convinced that their vocal and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(repeated protests against the Nazi excesses, and their support for the Confessing Church?s stand against )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(totalitarian control, were their contribution to rescuing Christian civilization from disaster. They were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(encouraged when they found at least one German theologian, Dietrich Bonhoeffer, agreeing with them. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(From their perspective, the fate of the Jews was not sui generic, but only a culmination of Nazi iniquity. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Church of England had a moral duty to support all these victims and did so to the best of its ability.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Before 1939 the Church had led the way in seeking support for refugees from Nazi tyranny. After the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(outbreak of war, the focus became more on the need to provide asylum in Britain or its empire for those few )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(who could escape, despite the severe restrictions placed on all aliens. But by 1942 the Church?s remarkable )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(flood of indictments and protests got nowhere, and only revealed its impotence in the face of the British )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(government?s obduracy. Even in 1945, the revelations of the horrors of the concentration camps only )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reinforced this interpretation of Nazi barbarity, but did not lead to a realization that the genocide of the Jews )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(had been something special. Instead the church leaders were determined to lead a crusade to re-Christianize )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Europe and thus purge their civilization of Nazism?s demonic forces. This campaign, however, had no place )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for Jews, except as potential converts.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The overthrow of Nazi totalitarianism aroused optimistic hopes, not only in the Church of England, but also )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in other churches, for a renewal of Christian civilization. The longed-for peace, disarmament, and prosperity )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(would surely follow. But very soon the dark clouds of a new totalitarian and anti-Christian threat from the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Soviet Union became apparent. The Churches were once again called to mobilize themselves for an armed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(defence of their heritage. And in such circumstances, the need was obvious to enlist in this new cause those )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Germans, especially in the Wehrmacht, who were presumed to have been anti-Nazi all along. Thus a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(continuity between the interpretations of the 1930s and those of the 1950s could easily be established and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(maintained. Nazi tyranny was seen as a temporary sickness that had afflicted only a section of the German )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(population. But this understanding of Nazism gave no priority to its antisemitic imperative, and certainly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(would not have agreed that all Germans were ?antisemitic eliminationists?. The end of the war in 1945 and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the onset of the Cold War?s antagonisms only confirmed this view, and led to the downplaying of Jewish )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(suffering and its full implications.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Lawson corrects those interpretations which minimize the importance of church opinion, or suggest that a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(pessimistic and self-doubting community existed in those years. To the contrary, he praises the confidence )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the Church of England leaders, but does suggest that their concern for German Protestantism as a bastion )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of anti-Nazi resistance left no room for a closer regard for Jewish concerns. And Bishop Bell, like his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(colleagues throughout the Anglican hierarchy, was far removed from even considering the consequences of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Christian antisemitism itself, or the extent to which the majority of German churchmen had \(willingly )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 18 0 R ] /Contents 17 0 R >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Length 2525 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(enough\) supported it. Such a self-critical examination, though promoted at the time by a maverick Church of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(England clergyman, James Parkes, got nowhere. Parkes?s pleas for a recasting of Christian-Jewish relations )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(had to wait for another forty years.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Lawson?s point of view is, of course, drawn from the perspective of the twenty-first century. Like others, he )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(engages in wishful thinking in writing history as it should have happened. Hence his verdict that Bishop Bell )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was myopic about the Jewish fate is itself a distortion. He appears to be promoting a more pluralistic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(viewpoint than was prevailing in the 1930s and 1940s. Perhaps he would have been wiser to have avoided )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(such post-hoc moralisms. Instead he might well have shown how similar the Anglican attitudes on the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Jewish question were to those of the British Catholics, or indeed to the very similar views held by Pope Pius )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(XII. He nowhere discusses the attitudes of the British Jewish community. Nor does he make any mention of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the extent to which Anglican attitudes towards the Holocaust were affected by what was happening in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Palestine/Israel. This could perhaps be the subject of a sequel, and thus make use of his commendable skills )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(at research and analysis.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 568.159 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 550.379 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 550.379 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/559)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 548.985 m 322.316 548.985 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 524.008 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 509.608 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/2999)] TJ ET BT 34.016 495.208 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET endstream endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 19 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 549.2995 322.3157 561.1795 ] >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/559) >> endobj xref 0 20 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000335 00000 n 0000000372 00000 n 0000000568 00000 n 0000000650 00000 n 0000004897 00000 n 0000005006 00000 n 0000005116 00000 n 0000005225 00000 n 0000008786 00000 n 0000008914 00000 n 0000008998 00000 n 0000009063 00000 n 0000016469 00000 n 0000016553 00000 n 0000019131 00000 n 0000019259 00000 n trailer << /Size 20 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 19354 %%EOF