%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 16 0 R 18 0 R 20 0 R ] /Count 5 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140930021141+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140930021141+01'00') /Title (The Crisis of Conservatism: The Politics, Economics and Ideology of the British Conservative Party, 1880?1914; Trade and the Empire) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4853 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(The Crisis of Conservatism: The Politics, Economics and Ideology )] TJ ET BT 34.016 593.937 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(of the British Conservative Party, 1880?1914; Trade and the Empire)] TJ ET BT 34.016 323.219 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This is a very welcome paperback edition of Euan Green?s monograph originally published in 1995. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 308.963 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(enviable task confronting the author is to write a further book of a similar quality; expectations are certain to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 294.707 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(be high for )] TJ ET BT 89.672 294.707 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Crisis of Conservatism )] TJ ET BT 223.688 294.707 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is not simply an outstanding account but to use an overworked word, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 280.451 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a seminal book. In a well-written, clearly organised text he examines the context of British Conservatism )] TJ ET BT 34.016 266.195 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from the 1880s to 1914 and then in perceptive concluding remarks compares its position to that of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 251.939 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(European Right during the same period. Green argues that British Conservatism was beset by the paradigm )] TJ ET BT 34.016 237.683 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of adapting to fundamental changes in the economy when it was also adjusting to the demands of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.427 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(democracy. Political enfranchisement necessitated programmes, slogans and appeals to the mass audience. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 209.171 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(He describes the process succinctly, demonstrating that mainstream Conservatives responded rationally, if )] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.915 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(not very successfully, to their predicament. Within this context he assesses several interrelated questions, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.659 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(notably Conservative attitudes to class, to imperialism, to economics, to ownership of property and to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.403 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rise of socialism. His comments on the key role of tariff reform are integral to the case as well as being )] TJ ET BT 34.016 152.147 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(original and persuasive. Green suggests that tariff reform in particular offered a coherent answer to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 137.891 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Conservatives need to devise new strategies in the face of the economic crisis. Above all he demonstrates )] TJ ET BT 34.016 123.635 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that Conservatism possessed a vision, an ideology, to deal with the threat of Britain?s economic and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 109.379 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(international decline. For him Tories did not simply react )] TJ ET BT 311.996 109.379 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(ad hoc)] TJ ET BT 344.324 109.379 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, devising pragmatic solutions for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 95.123 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(immediate circumstances but took a hard-headed look at the situation. In this sense he does for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 80.867 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Conservatives what H. V. Emy, Michael Freeden, Colin Matthew and his mentor Peter Clarke did for the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 66.611 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Liberals though Green?s work now is an incremental step above these earlier works. It is a nice reminder )] TJ ET BT 34.016 52.355 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that the standard of modern scholarship continues to advance. Some of his ideas have been in the academic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 563.315 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 549.059 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(56)] TJ ET BT 34.016 534.803 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 520.547 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Saturday, 1 August, 1998)] TJ ET BT 34.016 506.291 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 492.035 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ewen Henry Harvey Green)] TJ ET BT 34.016 477.779 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 463.523 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1997)] TJ ET BT 34.016 449.267 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 435.011 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(426pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 420.755 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.499 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Routledge)] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.243 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.987 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(London)] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.731 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.475 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Alan O'Day)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 7473 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(arena through academic articles but the published book brings these into a coherent package. His concluding )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(chapter draws the various threads of the study together.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Green usefully observes that biographies of leading political figures of the period, especially of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Conservatives leaders, significantly exceed monograph?s about the party and institutions. In his opinion this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(has distorted and obscured understanding of Conservative ideology. Also, he notes that the approach tends to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(leave the reputation of Arthur Balfour tarnished, especially when his leadership is compared to that of Lord )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Salisbury and Andrew Bonar Law. Green proceeds to a major and generally convincingly rehabilitation of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Balfour?s performance. Pertinently, he queries whether the poor record of the Edwardian party can be laid at )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Balfour?s door, concluding that his problems as leader were the outcome of circumstances beyond his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(control. Comparisons with Salisbury and Law, Green maintains, are misconstrued. According to him, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Balfour continued to implement Salisbury?s successful techniques of party management and policy with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(skilful panache but they simply no longer worked for him as they had for his uncle, mainly, it seems, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(because the tensions with Conservatism had increased to breaking point. As Green asserts in defence of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Balfour, the Liberals were no longer the fissiparous grouping that Salisbury confronted between 1886 and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1902 when he resigned. Salisbury, he points out, avoided problems, leaving to his nephew a legacy of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(postponed questions along with an electoral strategy based on containing a divided and ineffectual )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(opposition. Balfour?s decision to resign in December 1905 rather than call an election is defended on the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(grounds that there was amply reason to believe, as the party leader did, that if the Liberals were obliged to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(take office, they would swiftly quarrel and splinter. In fact, this proved incorrect but the decision was, as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Green contends, made from sound motives. He concludes that neither Balfour?s nor the party?s problems )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were the consequence of poor leadership. His successor Bonar Law made little headway before 1914 in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(resolving the party?s dilemmas. According to Green, the party was running scared over the land campaign, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(divided over social reform, tariffs and split on how to deal with Ireland. It was, he points out, one of the rare )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(times in the past century when the Conservatives were opposed by a dynamic, well-led, thoroughly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(organised cohesive opposition. ?Rather than speaking of the failures of Conservatism in the Edwardian )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(period it is perhaps more accurate to speak of the success of Liberalism, the Progressive Alliance and Irish )] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(nationalism?. \(p. 310\))] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Green?s spirited championship of Balfour and the Tory party is commendable if a touch exaggerated. He )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(himself recognises that there were many contemporary Conservative critics of Balfour?s leadership and that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(his resignation in 1911 was greeted by nearly universal relief from mainstream Tories. He may also )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(underestimate the achievements of Salisbury and Law. This analysis raises a point examined more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(completely below, that the party was running scared. In fact, the electoral position was recovered in the two )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(general elections of 1910; Liberal?s found themselves mortgaged to the Irish party or to cite J. L. Garvin?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(memorable depiction of John Redmond, the ?dollar dictator?. Liberals were far from united on how to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reform the House of Lords; they were yet more seriously divided over Lloyd George?s land campaign; and, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(if Conservatives were of several minds on Ireland, Liberals were on the verge of open internal warfare over )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the issue. Green?s thesis for all its attractiveness necessarily under-plays the Conservative strategy of forcing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a general election or at least a referendum on Ulster, which both its leaders and the Liberals, believed they )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(would win and thereby bring the Asquith government down.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Butthe heart of Green?s analysis is in his delineation of Conservative ideology. As he points out, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Conservatives are usually treated as a non-ideological party. Green deftly overturns the commonly held )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(notion that, ?conservatism is not a political system, and certainly not an ideology? \(p. 311\) In contrast Green )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(insists that treating Conservatives as lacking an ideology is ?radically fallacious?. \(p. 312\) He rightly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(observes that ?Conservatives always possess a clearly definable frame of reference which informs their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(vision of and response to issues and events. Without such a frame of reference there would be nothing to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(indicate what made their views, arguments and activities )] TJ ET BT 308.972 118.949 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Conservative)] TJ ET BT 372.296 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?. \(p. 312\) Sensibility, he comments )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that there was no a single uniformly accepted view held by Conservatives in the Edwardian era but that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(disputes were about the direction policies took. In his opinion the difference in the years immediately )] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(preceding 1914 was the intensity of the debate, a factor that threatened to fracture the party. The radical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Conservative strategy stressed the organic structure of society, sought to prevent social conflict thereby )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 17 0 R >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Length 7591 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(safeguarding existing social relations, refused to countenance abstract social and economic reasoning, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was committed to the preservation of property and Empire. \(pp. 314?15\) A key element in the debate has )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(been the role of the state. With these principles in tact Green lucidly shows how adherents of a paternalist )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and libertarian view of the state though differing on particulars essentially have worked within the same )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(agenda, parting company on its implementation more than over ideology. It is in this framework that Green )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(places discussion of tariff reform, increasingly the touchstone issue in Edwardian Conservatism. His analysis )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is surely a )] TJ ET BT 85.676 710.933 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(tour de force)] TJ ET BT 147.668 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Tariff reform has been treated many times and in illuminating ways. Green, however, considers it in a fresh )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and important light. He observes that the debate over it has immense significance for the social history and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(transformation of Conservative politics, at the same time accepting that there is a link between this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(movement and the )] TJ ET BT 125.672 641.909 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(embourgeoisement)] TJ ET BT 216.320 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( of the party. After pointing out that tariff reform can not be treated in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(an instrumentalist or determinist fashion, Green notes that this was not an industrial-urban policy or an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(imperial motivated panacea but part of a broader picture. He also outlines how the proposal and the debate )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(on it shifted between 1903 and 1910. As he puts it, the tariff campaign was part of a fractured contribution to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the wider discussion about British economic and social development, an attempt to grasp the problems )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(facing the country. Though the decision to abandon food taxes in 1910 was, in his opinion, a step away from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the historic association of the party with the agricultural interest, it did not spell conversion to an urban )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(focus. The party may have re-oriented itself towards the towns but as yet there was uncertainly about which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sector of the urban community was the new target audience. His comments on why the Tories failed to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(convert this analysis into an electorally appealing programme merits close attention.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In a final insightful section Green sets British Conservatism, particularly radical Conservatism, along side its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Continental counter-parts. He cautions against facile comparisons, reminding readers that differences of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(experience and context are as important as similarities. Nevertheless, he locates useful parallels. Two )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(problems were at the forefront. Green comments that one issue was whether organisations and structures )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(created for elite politics could be adapted to mass democracy; second, whether these institutions could )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(survive the onslaught of socialism. He sees the two questions as forming the crux of )] TJ ET BT 440.636 416.069 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(vertical integration)] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?whether an effective top down appeal could be shaped that would secure mass asqiescence for existing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(power relationships. The crisis was that the economic slide in the late nineteenth century pitted separate )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(groups of property holders against one another in the quest for state support. This competition constituted )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(horizontal integration)] TJ ET BT 139.700 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, that is construction of an appeal that could pull together the middle and upper )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(echelons of society. In Green?s analysis the situation giving rise to these two types of integration was at the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(heart of the crisis of Conservatism across Europe. In response Conservatives posited a number of common )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(responses?imperialism, tariffs and nationalism. However, each contained the defect of generating tensions )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(within Conservatism. According to Green, European Conservatism between 1870 and 1914 was an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(increasingly unhappy conglomeration. This problem was highlighted by dissension over how to come to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(terms with the new mass democratic communities. Tariff reform in Britain appealed especially to groups )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(searching for a bridge to make the transition but it was no more successful than approaches tested out )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(elsewhere.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Green provides a lucid, compelling and largely persuasive analysis which gives to British Conservatism a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sustaining ideology while explaining its apparent limitations. It was not composed of a collection of ?die-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(hards? insistent upon retaining their privileged position as epitomised by the struggle over the House of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Lords or ready to continence violence as in the Ulster crisis. Conservatives were a diverse constituency, with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the greater part actively seeking to resolve the dilemma of where a centre-right political movement fit into )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the future of a democratic Britain plagued by severe economic competition. Imperialism and tariff reform )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(offered partial answers but these, as Green carefully outlines, created as many problems as they promised to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(solve.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This is a truly impressive synthesis but should it be endorsed unequivocally? Certainly not without some )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(caveats. It is not obvious that the institutional, structural and economic changes which in Green?s estimation )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(afflicted Conservatism impinged no less on British Liberals. He might be accused of something like tunnel )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(vision. In fact, it might be argued more convincingly that Liberals in the late Victorian years underwent far )] TJ ET endstream endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 19 0 R >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Length 7922 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(more trauma over them than did Conservatives. The issues of denominational education and free trade, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(surely old Liberalism, rather than an adoption of collectivism, underpinned the party?s revival after 1903 but )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(they did not answer the crucial questions faced by British society any more confidently than did )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Conservative responses. This did not auger greater adaptive powers on the part of Liberalism but precisely )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the reverse. Though the Conservatives lost three general elections on the trot, the two contests in 1910 saw )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the party fortunes revive and the Irish Nationalist representation, exaggerated in relation to population by not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(less than thirty seats, distorted the arithmetic of the House of Commons. In fact, the first past the post )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(electoral system inflated the pan-Liberal numbers just as it had the obverse effect in the 1980s. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Conservatives expected to win a general election in 1915 and were eager to force the Liberals to the polls )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(over the Ulster question. Green?s assertion that opposition to Irish Home Rule no longer united )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Conservatives is partially correct but the question splintered Liberals even more. If some Conservatives lost )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(their taste for outright rejection of Home Rule with a number increasingly drawn to federalist ideas as a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(means to settle the problem, few entertained doubts about the justice of the Ulster Protestant cause. The by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 611.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(no means inconsiderable difficulty was how best to meet this claim. Dissension arose over the methods of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 596.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(defending the Ulster claim, not about the intrinsic legitimacy of refusing to join an all-Ireland Parliament. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 582.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This portion of the Home Rule solution created far more havoc in the Liberal, Labour and Nationalist camps. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 568.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The Irish or Ulster case illustrates a limitation of this finely textured study. Green is excellent in dealing with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 554.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ideas and context, less assured when treating matters of party organisation, constituency affairs, electoral )] TJ ET BT 34.016 539.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(tactics and the mundane intrusions of personalities. It is the latter factors that previously dominated the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 525.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(literature; his invaluable contribution draws attention to the other side of political coin. Green?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 511.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(consideration of the Irish problem is perhaps the least assured portion of his case. He does not explain why it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 497.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(continued to occupy so central a place in Conservative politics nor how party leaders proposed to resolve it. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 482.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(It is over Ireland that Law?s undoubted qualities for leadership came to the fore. Law was not an ordinary )] TJ ET BT 34.016 468.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Conservative figure, especially where Ireland was concerned, but a determined figure who committed the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 454.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(party to defend Ulster Protestants in a way that Balfour would have found inconceivable. Law and Balfour )] TJ ET BT 34.016 440.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(held quite different views of on Ireland which deserve more careful attention. Neither man welcomed Home )] TJ ET BT 34.016 425.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Rule in any guise but whereas Balfour and traditional British Unionists saw the threat very much from a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 411.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(southern Protestant vantage-point, Law?s fundamental perspective aligned the Conservatives with the claims )] TJ ET BT 34.016 397.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of northern loyalists. In Green?s defence it must be said that Ireland is not his forte though more attention to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 383.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(it could bolster his contention that the Conservatives were an ideology party. Law and no doubt a majority of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 368.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Conservatives held views that were consistent and based on a clear, if not always admirable, conception of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 354.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Great Britain in which Ireland played an integral part. They may have been mistaken, as apparently they )] TJ ET BT 34.016 340.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were on other topics, but Green demonstrates that to be wrong is not irrational.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 314.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In the 1970s and early 1980s many historians, particularly younger members of the profession, were seduced )] TJ ET BT 34.016 299.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(by so-called ?high politics? analyses in which political action was governed not by ideology and principles )] TJ ET BT 34.016 285.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(but the quest for personal power. This has sometimes been called ?conservative? history if only because its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 271.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(proponents were often supporters of the modern-day Conservative party. This approach was a reaction )] TJ ET BT 34.016 256.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(against an older historiography that put emphasis upon ideals and selfless action. Green is not a disciple of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 242.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(either school but brings to his study a hard-headed, common-sense outlook that depends of thoughtful and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 228.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(usually convincing analysis not gimmicky. His book, so subtle and illuminating, is a response to the ?high )] TJ ET BT 34.016 214.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(politics? mania though he does not descend to a critique of it. No one can be unappreciative of his emphasis )] TJ ET BT 34.016 199.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(upon ideology or principle as the chief element in political discourse. If the Conservatives got it wrong, they )] TJ ET BT 34.016 185.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(did so out of genuine concern for the future of the nation. After Green?s study, they can not be put in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 171.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dock for indifference to the country?s fate. He might have explored in greater depth the reasons for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 157.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Conservatives failure to convince the country of their message, especially on tariff reform. It is by no means )] TJ ET BT 34.016 142.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(irrelevant to ask whether agricultural protection could have preserved the Union between Great Britain and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 128.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ireland. Ireland disproportionately suffered the consequences of cheap food imports. It was primarily an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 114.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(agricultural economy. Protectionism held the prospect of salvaging her economy, admittedly at the expense )] TJ ET BT 34.016 100.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the British working class, and tying the Irish to the Union. Curiously, few nationalists adopted this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 85.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(logically conclusion; it did not feature significantly in Conservative thinking either. If Green leaves some )] TJ ET BT 34.016 71.669 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(matters unresolved, he is to be congratulated on a job superbly executed. Discussion of Conservative )] TJ ET BT 34.016 57.413 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(politics, indeed, of political ideology in the late Victorian and Edwardian era must now take account of his )] TJ ET endstream endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 22 0 R ] /Contents 21 0 R >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Length 1132 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(book. This is political history but political history with a difference; it firmly roots politics in a world of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ideas contingent upon social and economic life. Green not merely makes the case for the study of political )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(culture but impressively advances an understanding of that culture.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 722.719 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 704.939 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 704.939 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/56)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 703.545 m 316.316 703.545 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 678.568 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 664.168 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/437)] TJ ET BT 34.016 649.768 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET endstream endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 23 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 703.8595 316.3157 715.7395 ] >> endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/56) >> endobj xref 0 24 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000349 00000 n 0000000386 00000 n 0000000641 00000 n 0000000723 00000 n 0000005628 00000 n 0000005737 00000 n 0000005847 00000 n 0000005956 00000 n 0000009517 00000 n 0000009645 00000 n 0000009729 00000 n 0000009794 00000 n 0000017320 00000 n 0000017385 00000 n 0000025029 00000 n 0000025094 00000 n 0000033069 00000 n 0000033153 00000 n 0000034338 00000 n 0000034466 00000 n trailer << /Size 24 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 34560 %%EOF