%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 16 0 R 18 0 R 20 0 R 26 0 R ] /Count 6 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140721153802+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140721153802+01'00') /Title (The Almost Impossible Ally: Harold Macmillan and Charles de Gaulle) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 3877 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(The Almost Impossible Ally: Harold Macmillan and Charles de )] TJ ET BT 34.016 593.937 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Gaulle)] TJ ET BT 34.016 237.683 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Peter Mangold provides here a witty account of the relationship between two statesmen who at the apogee of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.427 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(their careers were respectively British prime minister and president of the French Fifth Republic. Mangold )] TJ ET BT 34.016 209.171 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(draws on French and British government documents and published documents from the United States, as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.915 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(well as on the private papers of several British ministers and officials, and those of the French diplomat )] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.659 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Olivier Wormser. The premise of the book is one of honour not repaid. De Gaulle and Macmillan were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.403 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(wartime allies, the former the obstinate, visionary leader of the Free French, the latter the outwardly able but )] TJ ET BT 34.016 152.147 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(inwardly anxious resident minister in Algiers. Macmillan assisted de Gaulle?s position in North Africa )] TJ ET BT 34.016 137.891 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(during the war, but when Macmillan needed France?s favour to implement Britain?s entry to the EEC in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 123.635 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1963, de Gaulle responded with a veto. Macmillan, Mangold concludes, was not only outwitted, but also )] TJ ET BT 34.016 109.379 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(outclassed by the general, whose hatred of all things American meant that he could never countenance )] TJ ET BT 34.016 95.123 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Macmillan?s promotion of Anglo-American ties.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 68.867 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The first part of the book is an account of Macmillan and de Gaulle?s early lives. Born in the 1890s, there )] TJ ET BT 34.016 54.611 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were little obvious similarities in their upbringings. De Gaulle?s mother was devoutly religious, his father a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 563.315 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 549.059 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(562)] TJ ET BT 34.016 534.803 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 520.547 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Monday, 1 January, 2007)] TJ ET BT 34.016 506.291 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 492.035 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Peter Mangold)] TJ ET BT 34.016 477.779 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 463.523 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9781850438007)] TJ ET BT 34.016 449.267 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 435.011 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2006)] TJ ET BT 34.016 420.755 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.499 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(20.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.243 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.987 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(288pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.731 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.475 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(I. B. Tauris)] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.219 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher url:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.963 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.ibtauris.com/display.asp?K=9781850438007)] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.707 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.451 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(London)] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.195 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.939 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Helen Parr)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 5852 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(minor aristocrat who instilled in his children tales of France?s greatness. At military school, the young de )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Gaulle was noted for his unwillingness to take subordination, as well as his arrogance. De Gaulle fathered )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(three children in an unremarkable marriage. His youngest child, Anne, had Downs Syndrome, but de Gaulle )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was devoted to her. By contrast, Macmillan?s American-born mother dominated him through his education )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(at Summerfields, Eton, and Oxford. Macmillan?s wife, more suited to the role of leader?s spouse than de )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Gaulle?s, conducted a life-long affair with Macmillan?s friend Robert Boothby. Both de Gaulle and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Macmillan, Mangold notes, had a tendency to depression, and both had contemplated suicide, but the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(differences in their characters were more striking. De Gaulle sought to impose his will on events; Macmillan )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(hoped to manipulate and to influence indirectly.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In part two, Mangold charts the roles of Macmillan and de Gaulle during the extremely difficult negotiations )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to establish the French Committee of National Liberation \(FCNL\) in North Africa during the war. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Macmillan was appointed resident minister in Algiers in 1943 after the victory of the Allied forces in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Operation Torch. At this time, de Gaulle was leader of the Fighting French in exile in London. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Americans wanted General Giraud to lead a new French authority, but Macmillan was instrumental in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(persuading President Roosevelt, as well as Prime Minister Winston Churchill, to accept de Gaulle as a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(potential leader. A junior player amongst some heavyweight politicians, he assisted in resolving the crisis of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(June 1943, helping to persuade de Gaulle against breaking with the French generals. This incident deepened )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Macmillan and de Gaulle?s relationship, moving Macmillan to venture to de Gaulle that their acquaintance )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(might be called ?friendship?, a sentiment de Gaulle reciprocated \(p. 55\). Thereafter, Macmillan helped to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(convince Churchill and Roosevelt to recognise the FCNL, making it an effective provisional government, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with de Gaulle as its prime minister.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Part three begins with a brief treatment of the 1955 Messina conference, the 1956 Suez crisis, and the 1958 )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Algerian crisis. The latter event was essential in de Gaulle?s return to power in France, but the previous two )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(feature mainly as scene-setters for Mangold?s subsequent narrative. Macmillan was initially amongst those )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(who misjudged the significance of Messina, in part because of his latent fear of German domination of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(continent. As for Suez, Macmillan failed to anticipate American anger at the Anglo-French invasion. In )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(short, Macmillan was out of step with the realities of Britain?s declining power position, and faced a rude )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(shock when he became premier after Eden?s resignation. Mangold then recounts ?the second act in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Macmillan-de Gaulle drama? \(p. 88\); Britain?s attempt to reconcile itself with the European Community. He )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(connects British efforts to establish a free trade area \(FTA\) around the EEC in 1956, and Britain?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(application to join the EEC under certain conditions in 1961?3, with a further story of Britain?s efforts to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sustain nuclear independence. Simultaneously, de Gaulle sought to pursue greatness for France.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(He suggests that de Gaulle sought British assistance to develop the French force de frappe, shortly after the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(British had decided with the US in 1957 against advancing French nuclear ambitions \(p. 101\). De Gaulle )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(went on to propose a reorganization of NATO to promote France?s position within it, but Macmillan had )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(effectively wasted the only possibility he might have had of bargaining with the general. Consequently, de )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Gaulle torpedoed British plans for the FTA. Mangold moves on to a discussion of the Berlin crisis and of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Macmillan?s desire to press for a superpower summit. The Paris summit was Macmillan?s personal tragedy, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(revealing to him that Britain ?counted for nothing?. By contrast, de Gaulle emerged from the affair ?with his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reputation enhanced? \(p. 137\).)] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 17 0 R >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Length 7224 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The fourth part deals with Britain?s EEC application. De Gaulle, Mangold shows, was progressing in his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(desire to create a ?European Europe?, free from Atlantic influence, while Macmillan was moving Britain )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(towards acceptance of a conditional application. Macmillan promoted a ?Grand Design?, which, with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(American agreement, could offer support for France?s nuclear weapons programme. However, nobody knew )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(whether the French would consent to admit Britain on the terms Britain demanded. As Wormser put it, this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was the ?$64,000 question? \(p. 152\). Mangold surmises that the British did not adequately address the issue )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as to whether or not de Gaulle would veto. Macmillan was resting his strategy on the improbable eventuality )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of hooking de Gaulle with a nuclear offer. Their meeting at Birch Grove in November 1961 did not yield any )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(results, Macmillan remarking that de Gaulle ?goes back to his distrust and dislike, like a dog to his vomit? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(p. 166\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 629.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(At Chteau de Champs in June 1962, Macmillan made a more earnest attempt to secure future Anglo-French )] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(nuclear cooperation. While his presentation made more of an impression on the French general, he was still )] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(no further forward in his attempt to convince de Gaulle to admit Britain to the EEC. In December, at Nassau, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Macmillan persuaded President Kennedy to provide Britain with a successor nuclear system to Skybolt. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Americans agreed to supply Polaris, and hoped to create a multilateral force in NATO. Kennedy also )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conceded to offer Polaris to France, but it was never probable that de Gaulle, wedded to the genuine )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(independence of the French force, would accept. Macmillan went as far as to suggest collaboration in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(warhead development, but de Gaulle rejected both Britain and the multilateral force. Part of his justification )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for the rebuttal of Britain was Macmillan?s failure systematically to propose defence arrangements that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(would consolidate Europe against the United States \(p. 202\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 475.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In conclusion, Mangold explores the failings in Macmillan?s policy. Macmillan did not fully understand the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 461.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(general. Flattered by his successes during the Second World War, Macmillan overestimated his capacity to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(deal with de Gaulle. He failed comprehensively to read de Gaulle as a politician, failing to register his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(capacity to evade compromises, and the ?intensity of emotional drives? in de Gaulle?s foreign policy \(p. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(216\). Macmillan never fully appreciated that British entry, because of Britain?s connections with the USA, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(would endanger France?s position in the EEC, and therefore could only be unpalatable to de Gaulle. Thus, in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the last instance, Mangold suggests that the impact of de Gaulle?s first veto was ?personal? rather than )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(political \(p. 219\), the final nail in the coffin of a diminishing prime minister. Macmillan, ultimately, was a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(second-rank premier, unable to outwit a first-rate leader of Britain?s ally and rival.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This book provides an assessment of Macmillan?s private thinking towards de Gaulle. In 1944, in his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(valedictory despatch from Algiers, Macmillan observed that the general was beset with ?a terrible mixture of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(inferiority complex and spiritual pride?characteristic of the sad situation into which France has fallen. I have )] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(often felt that the solutions here could not be dealt with by politicians. They are rather problems for the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(professional psychiatrist? \(p. 69\). Drawing on Macmillan?s memoirs and diaries, Mangold illuminates some )] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(aspects of the complex question of why Macmillan chose to negotiate with de Gaulle when he was always )] TJ ET BT 34.016 249.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(likely to obstruct British accession to the EEC. To do so, Mangold highlights the strands of Macmillan?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(personality that made his failure more likely. He was vain and inwardly feeble, he was unable to take charge )] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of events and had to rely on underhand tactics, and he was falsely impressed by his formative experience in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Algiers. Moreover, Mangold adds to our understanding of the personal diplomacy between the two men. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Discussing Germany in 1959, Macmillan and de Gaulle held the following exchange: ?[Macmillan said] he )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(liked some Germans. Dr Adenauer for example was a good man. President de Gaulle agreed that Dr )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Adenauer was good. The prime minister said that with some other Germans one could not be quite sure. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(President de Gaulle agreed that one could never be sure with the Germans? \(p. 120\). He also includes some )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(amusing anecdotes. The image of Macmillan bathing naked while de Gaulle sat rigidly in his military )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(uniform is striking \(p. 1\). When de Gaulle visited Birch Grove, the French delegation clashed with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Macmillan?s cook because they wanted to store de Gaulle?s blood supplies in the fridge, and Macmillan?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(gamekeeper was incensed that de Gaulle?s security men kept disturbing the pheasants \(p. 163\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 66.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(However, the focus of the book raises some fundamental problems. Mangold has eschewed traditional )] TJ ET BT 34.016 52.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(biography. Given the number of biographical works, particularly concerning de Gaulle, this is )] TJ ET endstream endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 19 0 R >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Length 7344 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(understandable, but a biography would provide the space to explore individual motivation within the context )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in which decisions were taken. Instead, he has chosen a dual-character study, which confines him to an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(investigation of the moments at which the two lives intersected. His justification for this approach is that the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Anglo-American ?special relationship? is often considered in terms of the friendships between the two )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(leaders \(p. 2\). Indeed, personal dynamics do go some way to explaining the complexities of inter-state )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(relations, but Mangold does not reference any works that weave together the lives of a British and American )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(leader in the way he has attempted. De Gaulle and Macmillan were no Hitler and Stalin. Neither man )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(radically changed the course of history \(p. 213\). The question is why he has chosen to investigate the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(political lives of de Gaulle and Macmillan from the wartime onwards, rather than a study of both as leaders )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(together. The consequence of the twin-biography emphasis is to bring together otherwise unconnected )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(events: the creation of a Provisional French government in Algiers in 1943?4 and Britain?s first failure to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(enter the EEC between 1961 and 1963.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This slant creates difficulties. Despite his stated intention to explore the relations between Britain and France )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in the manner in which the ?the special relationship? has been studied, Mangold reaches few wider )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conclusions as to the Anglo-French dynamic. His work is informed by the view that 1940 and 1963 represent )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(two moments at which the differentials in British and French power were evident. The war was Britain?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?finest hour? and France?s ?lowest ebb? \(p. 26\). Following the war, Britain?s global status was in question, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(while the French struggled to recover from their humiliation; ?the spectre of decline stalked Macmillan and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(de Gaulle? \(p. 92\). Nuclear weaponry created a tangible measure of each country?s worth, as each )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?increasingly jostled for primacy at the top of the second league? \(p. 94\). By mid-1962, ?the erosion of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Britain?s international position was visibly accelerating? \(p. 179\). At the December 1962 Rambouillet )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(meeting, de Gaulle told Peyrefitte that ?England?s back is broken? \(p. 186\). At the time of his veto at the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(January 1963 press conference, Britain sustained ?by far the most serious damage? \(p. 200\), leading to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?injured national pride? \(p. 205\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This preoccupation with the shifting power positions of both countries is the subtext to Mangold?s twin-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(biography focus. Macmillan and de Gaulle are, to some extent, metaphors for their countries? fortunes. In )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1943, Macmillan was a junior minister on the up, lending his support to de Gaulle against Giraud in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(negotiations about the FCNL. By 1963, Macmillan was a tired prime minister, acknowledging that France?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(veto had shattered his hopes; ?all our policies at home and abroad are in ruins?. Part of Macmillan?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(impotent strategy with the general was his expectation that de Gaulle should repay Macmillan, and, by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(corollary, that France should repay Britain, for the favours conferred during the war. ?De Gaulle recalled )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Churchill?s alleged comment on the eve of D-Day, that if forced to choose between Europe and the open )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sea, he would always opt for the latter?. Slightly startled, Macmillan noted the necessity Britain had been )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(under at the time, pointedly adding that when Britain had had the choice in the Second World War, she had )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(stood alone to defend the independence of Europe. This, Macmillan records de Gaulle acknowledged ?rather )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ungraciously? \(p. 185\). Instead, de Gaulle outfoxed his British counterpart. As such, Mangold adds little to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(widespread popular presumptions about Anglo-French relations. Britain and France were friends, but also )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(enemies, and Britain?s relative decline led her to become a demandeur to the nation she had saved during the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(war.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Although Mangold has used sources from both Britain and France, and published documents from the USA )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(published documents from the Federal Republic of Germany also feature in his bibliography\), the narrative )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of his story rests largely with Britain. He does not, therefore, engage with many recent debates concerning )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(de Gaulle?s policy. Any scholar of French foreign policy in the 1960s is faced with the challenge that de )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Gaulle?s hand is largely absent from the archival documents, a gap that is particularly striking in contrast to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(British government documents. Even the papers of the presidency in the Archives Nationales, 5AG, contain )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(only fleeting glimpses of de Gaulle?s contribution. Small surprise, then, that Mangold is largely reliant on de )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Gaulle?s memoirs to explain his dealings with the British prime minister. This is understandable, but )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Mangold does not engage with scholarly attempts to come to terms with the uneven documentary coverage )] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of de Gaulle?s position. In particular, distinguished commentators such as Andrew Moravcsik and Alan )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Milward, amongst others, have emphasized the importance of economic factors in determining de Gaulle?s )] TJ ET endstream endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 22 0 R 24 0 R ] /Contents 21 0 R >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Length 7757 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(attitude towards enlargement of the EEC \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 236.648 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 236.648 795.075 m 242.648 795.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 242.648 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\). Their approach reveals the significance of the emerging )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Common Agricultural Policy to de Gaulle, which in turn adds greater complexity to de Gaulle?s observation )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that Britain would always prefer the ?open sea? to Europe. Moreover, Mangold accepts that visceral anti-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Atlanticism motivated de Gaulle, eliding debates as to the more constructive nature of France?s desire to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(create a ?European Europe?. Of course, de Gaulle wanted to lead Europe, and of course he knew that British )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(entry would encourage the Five to look towards the Atlantic ideals against which he strove. The point is that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to ignore the economic and Community contexts of de Gaulle?s policy is to elevate the significance of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(personal diplomacy between the two men. Put like this, the mistakes were all Macmillan?s to make. With de )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Gaulle?s attitude set, it could only be left to Macmillan, his pro-American credentials in his blood, to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(misunderstand it.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Mangold?s concentration on high-level diplomacy further leads him to take out of context critical moments )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(on the British side. For example, his discussion of the Cabinet?s decision to apply for EEC membership )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(focuses on the fact that the British did not adequately discuss the prospect of a Gaullist veto. He does )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mention that one cause of this was the extreme national importance of the decision as Britain?s options )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(narrowed \(pp. 155?8\). However, Mangold places undue weight on Macmillan?s private judgement regarding )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the likelihood of de Gaulle?s reaction, and thus on Macmillan?s nuclear strategies to overcome him. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Comprehension of the domestic scene makes clear that ministers could not permit the prospect of de )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Gaulle?s obstruction to prevent them from advancing towards the EEC. Opposition to the initiative at home, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(not to mention in the Commonwealth, meant that Macmillan had to tread a very fine line in winning support )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for the application. To do so whilst acknowledging a certain veto would have been inconceivable. In fact, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Mangold does his subject a disservice. Although Macmillan was over-optimistic, even deluded, about the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(prospects of swaying the general through a nuclear deal, one has to ask what choice had he? Macmillan )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(resolved, it could be said bravely, to lead Britain down the path to EEC membership. With de Gaulle )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(opposed to the initiative, it would scarcely have been credible for the prime minister not even to attempt to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(woo him with a personal meeting. When placed within the confines of politics at home, Macmillan?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(approach can be more fairly measured.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Finally, Mangold does not engage with the debate as to the relative importance of the nuclear question both )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in Britain?s strategy to attain EEC entry, and in France?s ability to reject them. Viewed through the lens of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Macmillan?s diary and de Gaulle?s memoirs, the nuclear question looms large. Both were politicians )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(attracted to the ?grand design? and neither were engaged in the day-to-day dealings of the Brussels )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(negotiations at which Britain?s accession was being discussed. Macmillan may have felt that the outcome of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the talks rested exclusively on his own ability to provide de Gaulle an offer he could not refuse. However, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for sixteen months delegates from the Six, the Commission, and Britain debated whether the burgeoning )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Community could meet Britain?s demands for safeguards in advance of entry. Piers Ludlow?s research, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conducted in the archives of member states and the European Commission, shows that the argument for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(British accession was fought and lost in these debates \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 298.316 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 298.316 272.115 m 304.316 272.115 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 304.316 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\). This does not suggest that de Gaulle ever felt )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(inclined to admit Britain, but that de Gaulle and France?s power rested on the willingness or otherwise of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(France?s five partners to accept a unilateral judgement. De Gaulle had to couch his rejection in terms )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(acceptable to opinion within the Community, and Britain?s inflexibility regarding the terms of entry gave )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(him the possibility to do so. Thus, Macmillan?s mistakes may have been less in his fantasy in dealing with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the general, than in his unwillingness to persuade the Cabinet to accept a compromise from the Six. More )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(decisive and earlier concessions from Britain could have forced the general?s hand. Mangold adds little to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(what is already known about a potential nuclear deal. By ignoring recent research, he also misses the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(opportunity for a more rounded critique of Macmillan?s position.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(On a technical level, the book is simply written, with chapters of a well-judged length. However, the clarity )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is marred by a tendency to place together several citations in one footnote. Unfortunately, this leads to some )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(confusion as to the derivation of particular information. For example, the papers of Olivier Wormser are )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mentioned directly as evidence that Wormser was ?anything but well disposed to the British bid?. Although )] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Wormser?s papers are cited in the bibliography \(they are in the Quai d?Orsay for the time at which he was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Secretary-General of the Quai\), the footnote points us to Sir Eric Roll?s memoirs and a Foreign Office )] TJ ET endstream endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 23 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 236.6477 795.3895 242.6477 807.2695 ] >> endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 24 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 25 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 298.3157 272.4295 304.3157 284.3095 ] >> endobj 25 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 26 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 28 0 R 30 0 R 32 0 R ] /Contents 27 0 R >> endobj 27 0 obj << /Length 3306 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(document \(p. 152\). After an excellent quote from de Gaulle, a footnote refers us to a page in Piers Ludlow?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(book \(a quick check revealed the de Gaulle quote does not reside there\), and another Foreign Office )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(document \(p. 161\). A further paragraph discusses a British intelligence report that claimed that de Gaulle )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was certain to veto, a de Gaulle interview with Pierson Dixon, Macmillan?s reaction in his diary, and some )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(speculation from Dixon as to the general?s mood \(pp. 182?3\). The single footnote at the end of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(paragraph references a de Zulueta memo, several Foreign Office telegrams, Macmillan?s diary, and an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(article. It would take some determination to search these references for the source of each piece of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(information. Such uncertain footnoting occurs sufficiently regularly to mar at least this readers? appreciation )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the text.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 647.523 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 616.906 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 616.901 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(A. Milward, )] TJ ET BT 126.008 616.901 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The United Kingdom and the European Community, volume 1: The Rise and Fall of )] TJ ET BT 64.016 602.645 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(National Strategy 1945?63)] TJ ET BT 194.024 602.645 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(London, 2002\); A. Moravcsik, )] TJ ET BT 350.672 602.645 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Choice for Europe: Social Purpose )] TJ ET BT 64.016 588.389 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(and State Power from Messina to Maastricht)] TJ ET BT 280.016 588.389 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Ithaca, 1998\). )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 356.324 588.389 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 356.324 586.995 m 410.312 586.995 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 574.138 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 574.133 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(N. P. Ludlow, )] TJ ET BT 134.684 574.133 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Dealing with Britain: the Six and the First UK Application to the EEC)] TJ ET BT 472.700 574.133 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Cambridge )] TJ ET BT 64.016 559.877 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1997\). )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 98.012 559.877 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 98.012 558.483 m 152.000 558.483 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 533.621 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 519.365 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 514.639 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 496.859 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 496.859 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/562)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 495.465 m 322.316 495.465 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 470.488 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.088 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/3861)] TJ ET BT 34.016 441.688 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET endstream endobj 28 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 29 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 356.3237 587.3095 410.3117 599.1895 ] >> endobj 29 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 30 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 31 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 98.0117 558.7975 151.9997 570.6775 ] >> endobj 31 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 32 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 33 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 495.7795 322.3157 507.6595 ] >> endobj 33 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/562) >> endobj xref 0 34 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000356 00000 n 0000000393 00000 n 0000000583 00000 n 0000000665 00000 n 0000004594 00000 n 0000004703 00000 n 0000004813 00000 n 0000004922 00000 n 0000008483 00000 n 0000008611 00000 n 0000008695 00000 n 0000008760 00000 n 0000014665 00000 n 0000014730 00000 n 0000022007 00000 n 0000022072 00000 n 0000029469 00000 n 0000029560 00000 n 0000037370 00000 n 0000037498 00000 n 0000037534 00000 n 0000037662 00000 n 0000037698 00000 n 0000037796 00000 n 0000041155 00000 n 0000041283 00000 n 0000041319 00000 n 0000041446 00000 n 0000041482 00000 n 0000041610 00000 n trailer << /Size 34 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 41705 %%EOF