%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 16 0 R 18 0 R 20 0 R ] /Count 5 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20150725204918+01'00') /ModDate (D:20150725204918+01'00') /Title (Scottish Women...) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 2863 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Scottish Women...)] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.699 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(563)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.187 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.931 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Monday, 1 January, 2007)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.675 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Editor:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.419 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Elizabeth L. Ewan)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.163 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.907 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9780748617135)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.651 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.395 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2006)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.139 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.883 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(70.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.627 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.371 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(403pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.115 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.859 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Edinburgh University Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.603 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher url:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.347 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.euppublishing.com/book/978-0-7486-1713-5)] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.091 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 313.835 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Edinburgh)] TJ ET BT 34.016 299.579 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 285.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(W. W. J. Knox)] TJ ET BT 34.016 271.067 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 256.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9780748624096)] TJ ET BT 34.016 242.555 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 228.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2006)] TJ ET BT 34.016 214.043 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 199.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(60.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 185.531 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 171.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(240pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 157.019 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 142.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Edinburgh University Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 128.507 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher url:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 114.251 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.euppublishing.com/book/978-0-7486-2409-6)] TJ ET BT 34.016 99.995 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 85.739 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Edinburgh)] TJ ET BT 34.016 71.483 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 57.227 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Valerie Wright)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 6691 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Until relatively recently the in-depth historical analysis of Scottish women?s lives has been the preserve of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dedicated gender historians. Although it is fair to say that Scottish historians have recently begun to include )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the lives of women in their research, this is by no means extensive. Indeed it could be argued that although )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(not ignored by historians, women?s experience in Scottish life is generalized and women do not appear as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?complex individuals? \()] TJ ET BT 149.336 727.445 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Biographical Dictionary)] TJ ET BT 267.668 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, p. xxvii\). However, increasing interest in women?s roles in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Scotland?s history, both from the general public and in academic history, has culminated in the recent )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(publication of several important texts. This began in January of this year with the publication of )] TJ ET BT 496.964 698.933 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Gender in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Scottish History Since 1700)] TJ ET BT 167.012 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( edited by Lynn Abrams, Eleanor Gordon, Deborah Simonton, and Eileen Janes )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Yeo. This was closely followed by the publication of )] TJ ET BT 291.320 670.421 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Lives of Scottish Women)] TJ ET BT 429.980 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( and )] TJ ET BT 453.308 670.421 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Biographical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Dictionary of Scottish Women)] TJ ET BT 178.340 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( within days of each other. Consequently it has been an important year for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(gender history in Scotland.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Biographical Dictionary of Scottish Women)] TJ ET BT 265.676 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( is an initiative of Women?s History Scotland, an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(organization for the promotion of study and research in women?s and gender history. It provides both a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(forum for discussion and a support network for women working in historical studies in Scotland. It was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(through such activities that the idea for the dictionary was conceived, and it is a testament to the hard work )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and enthusiasm of all involved with this organization that their objective has been realized. The dictionary )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(considers the lives of 820 women and 200 or more cited co-subjects. Over 280 historians, both professional )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and amateur, contributed entries. The lives of women from medieval and early modern times to the present )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(are represented, as are women from all backgrounds. The editors have also tried to ensure that the whole of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Scotland is considered, including both urban and rural areas. Therefore it is truly inclusive of a range of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(women?s experiences from throughout Scotland?s history. More importantly the dictionary does not simply )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(offer information on individuals, it presents its subjects in narrative terms, telling the full story of their lives. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The editors also argue that the dictionary has the broader aim of contributing to ?a statement of national )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(identity? by actively including women in Scotland?s history and recording the many achievements of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Scottish women \(p. xxv\). Consequently, ideas of what forms ?Scottish national identity?, which the editors )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(suggest is largely based upon the recorded achievements of men, are challenged through the inclusion of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(women?s lives.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The entries in the dictionary are divided into several broad categories which include, among others: ?famous, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(eminent and celebrated? women; ?eminent and elite? women; ?tradition-bearers? such as singers and poets; )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?women of achievement?; and ?political campaigners?. There are, however, many women in the dictionary )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(who do not fit easily into any of the broad categories. It is difficult to ?pigeonhole? individuals, and this is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(not the intention of the dictionary. In a volume of its size, there is a limit to how many women could be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(included, and it is worth noting that those who were omitted for this reason are listed on )] TJ ET BT 459.308 304.277 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Biographical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Dictionary of Scottish Women)] TJ ET BT 178.340 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( page on the Edinburgh University Press website, where limited )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(bibliographical information is recorded.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 249.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The overall aim of the dictionary is to provide ?accurate, readable and stimulating information, not readily )] TJ ET BT 34.016 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(available elsewhere? and this it achieves admirably \(p. xxv\). Indeed the dictionary provides biographical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(data, which is essential for any researcher or student of both Scottish women and Scottish, or British, society )] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in any historical period. The dictionary is also easily accessible and user friendly, as no specialist knowledge )] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is required to decipher the entries. Consequently, this volume should also appeal to a broader audience, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(although admittedly the price of 60 is prohibitive in this respect, and is likely to restrict sales to libraries )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and enthusiasts. The forthcoming issue of a paperback edition, however, should remedy this situation.)] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 17 0 R >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Length 7300 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The dictionary also contains a thematic index, which is a particularly useful tool. This allows the reader to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(search for entries by theme, for example ?politics?, ?religion?, ?education?, etc., with individuals being )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(present in more than one category. In order to assist researchers, the entries also include full dates and places )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of birth and death, as well as parents? names, where the information exists. Each entry is also accompanied )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(by a list of accessible source materials including primary sources and archive collections as well as recent )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(secondary material. Consequently, genealogists, local historians, and academic researchers will all benefit )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from the dictionary.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 672.677 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Biographical Dictionary of Scottish Women)] TJ ET BT 265.676 672.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( is a unique and important contribution to Scottish History )] TJ ET BT 34.016 658.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and the history of women. By illuminating or recovering the real lives of Scottish women, this dictionary not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 644.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(only fills a gap in Scotland?s historical past but forces historians to reassess the definition of Scottish )] TJ ET BT 34.016 629.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(identity to encompass the experiences of women.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 603.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Knox?s )] TJ ET BT 73.676 603.653 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Lives of Scottish Women)] TJ ET BT 212.336 603.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( is another recent publication with the aim of recovering women?s lives )] TJ ET BT 34.016 589.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in Scottish history. Unlike the )] TJ ET BT 180.692 589.397 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Biographical Dictionary)] TJ ET BT 299.024 589.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, Knox limits his text to ten women and provides an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 575.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(analysis of their lives in terms of their beliefs and actions. He describes the book as a series of ?essays in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 560.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(interpretation?, each having the main objective of ?exploring the dynamic relationship between individual )] TJ ET BT 34.016 546.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(women and the patriarchal society they inhabited in nineteenth- and twentieth-century Scotland? \(p. 2\). By )] TJ ET BT 34.016 532.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(placing each woman in her historical context and critiquing the views and ideologies prevalent in society )] TJ ET BT 34.016 518.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that may have influenced her behaviour, Knox provides an insightful account, not only of individual lives, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 503.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(but also the society in which these women lived.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 477.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Individuals were selected on the basis of their own life stories, as well as for the insights that their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 463.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(experience provided, which Knox uses to discuss women?s experiences more generally. For example )] TJ ET BT 34.016 449.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Katherine Ramsay, the Duchess of Atholl, was included because of her political experiences as Scotland?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 434.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(first female MP and because she was the first woman to hold Cabinet rank in a Conservative Government. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 420.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Knox?s discussion of this individual also allows him to consider women?s experiences of representative )] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(participatory politics more broadly. Knox argues that, ?the personal is therefore hugely important in this set )] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of studies, but only in so far as it establishes a basis for a wider discourse on the nature of women?s private )] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and public lives in this period? \(p. 3\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 351.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Knox admits that his approach is open to criticism, given the exclusivity of the selection process. But he )] TJ ET BT 34.016 337.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(defends this on two grounds. First, it was his intention to avoid what he terms the ?usual suspects? of female )] TJ ET BT 34.016 323.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(biography in Scotland. He therefore made a conscious decision not to include Mary Queen of Scots, Flora )] TJ ET BT 34.016 308.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(MacDonald, Saint / Queen Margaret or any other woman who had lived before 1800. This was because he )] TJ ET BT 34.016 294.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(felt that a ?new set of female actors? was needed, whose activities, dilemmas, and problems were more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 280.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(immediately recognizable to women in contemporary Scotland. Indeed, figures such as those mentioned )] TJ ET BT 34.016 266.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(above have largely come to represent the history of Scottish women?s lives and have received, and continue )] TJ ET BT 34.016 251.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to receive, a comparatively large amount of attention in both academic and popular history. It is not Knox?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 237.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(intention to exclude such women or to claim that their lives are irrelevant, but merely to include other )] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(individuals and make them more visible in the history of Scotland. Many of his chosen subjects are well )] TJ ET BT 34.016 208.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(known in academic circles, indeed all are included in the )] TJ ET BT 309.620 208.997 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Biographical Dictionary)] TJ ET BT 427.952 208.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, but he argues that this is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(not the case for the general public. Consequently, a strength of Knox?s publication is that it brings the lives )] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of such women to the attention of popular history in Scotland. It is his opinion that these individuals are )] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(deserving of more recognition.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 139.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Knox?s second defence is that each of his chosen subjects in some way, either directly or indirectly, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 125.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(influenced or shaped modern Scotland, and consequently affected the lives of other women \(p. 4\). He argues )] TJ ET BT 34.016 111.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that through their political campaigning for different causes Jex-Blake, Lady Frances Balfour, and Eliza )] TJ ET BT 34.016 97.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Wigham all challenged or altered Scottish, and British, society. The exploration of Wigham?s involvement )] TJ ET BT 34.016 82.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in the anti-slavery campaign also highlights the extent of the public lives of women in the early- to mid-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 68.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Victorian period, as well as the development of the women?s movement in Scotland. Knox?s discussion of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 54.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Jex-Blake considers her campaign for women?s admission to the medical faculty of the University of )] TJ ET endstream endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 19 0 R >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Length 7467 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Edinburgh. The theme of campaigns for equality is continued in his consideration of Lady Frances Balfour?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(demands for the vote. In all cases Knox places the campaigns of these individuals within the context of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(broader demands for equality, women?s education, and suffrage, thus highlighting the important role played )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(by these women. Katherine Ramsay, on the other hand, was a lifelong opponent of women?s suffrage, but )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was ironically Scotland?s first female MP, as noted above. Discussion of her life allows Knox to provide an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(alternative picture of women?s involvement in politics in the period after 1918.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Knox also argues that some of the women featured changed perceptions through their writings or other )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(notoriety. Most obvious in this category is Madeline Smith, whose trial in 1857 for murdering her French )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(lover, Knox suggests, ?redefined the feminine in bourgeois society? \(p. 4\). He argues that the revelations )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(made during her trial, especially concerning her pre-marital sexual relationship with her victim, challenged )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(traditional views of female sexuality. Knox places Smith?s actions within the context of Victorian sexual )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(morality, thus explaining why her behaviour was viewed as morally scandalous. In contrast, Jane Welsh )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Carlyle outlined her discontent with the limitations of the ideology of middle-class domesticity, and gave )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(voice to her desires for a more socially meaningful life, through her prolific letters. Knox suggests that like )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(many middle-class women of her time, she perceived her own ambitions to have been stifled by marriage )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and the demands of running a home. Thus Knox uses her letters to uncover how such middle-class women )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(may have resented such restrictions. The writer Willa Muir, who like Jane was married to a perceived )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(genius, also critiqued the contemporary position of women in Scotland, as well as the history of women?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(subordination, in a series of influential novels and polemical pieces. Nonetheless, Willa, like Jane, often )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(placed her husband Edwin?s needs before her own. Where they had worked together on translations of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(literary works, Edwin was sometimes given full credit for the translation by the publishers. Although Willa )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(often complained about this in letters to friends, she never challenged it publicly. It is not surprising, then, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that in the chapter considering Muir, Knox explores the inconsistencies between feminism as an ideology )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and the reality of the lives of its practitioners.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Finally, other individuals were included because their experiences highlighted important aspects of women?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(lives. Knox?s discussion of Elsie Inglis?s establishment of field hospitals at the front in France and Serbia )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(during the First World War explores the moral issues surrounding women?s involvement with war. He )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(argues that her actions questioned traditional assumptions concerning femininity and ultimately opened the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(door for women?s involvement as combatants in warfare. The story of Mary Slessor and her rise from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(humble weaver to become the first female vice-consul in the British Empire is very well known in Scotland. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Knox explores the issues raised by her achievement of fame and power in Africa, especially regarding the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(imperial project. A particular strength of this chapter is his discussion of how women like Mary could )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(exploit loopholes in the ideology of patriarchy to empower themselves. He therefore argues that Mary?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(experience undermines the theory of separate spheres. Knox?s final chapter considers the life of Mary )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Brooksbank, a working-class weaver and poet from Dundee. He suggests that her early experiences of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(poverty radicalized her outlook; as a result of them she was one of the first women to join the British )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Communist Party. As well as discussing her illustrative poetry, that outlines what life was like for working-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(class women, Knox uses Brooksbank?s experience to discuss women?s relationship with the Left in Britain, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which, he argues, failed to mobilize large numbers of women in spite of its progressive policies.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The ten women chosen for inclusion in this publication, therefore, while similar in some ways, also represent )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a range of experiences. Knox acknowledges the fact that there is a danger in viewing women in terms of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(their gender alone. In contrast he suggests that men?s identities are free from such characterization, with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(men being seen instead in terms of their class, religion, race, or other concept. However, he argues that each )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the women discussed, in spite of differences in their personal wealth, power, or influence, experienced )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(subordination in socio-economic and political structures that were built upon male dominance. This is a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(theme that he explores in each chapter, which is a strength of the text.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(It is not Knox?s intention to produce a text that outlines the totality of female experience over the last two )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(hundred years in Scotland. Nor does he provide ?a basis for the construction of a theoretical model of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(subordination? \(p. 9\). Such grand claims are out with the scope of his collection of ?essays in interpretation?. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Indeed, when discussing concepts such as ?separate sphere? and ?patriarchy?, he does not include theoretical )] TJ ET endstream endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 22 0 R ] /Contents 21 0 R >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Length 6279 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(discussions but rather simple definitions. Instead it is his aim to offer an account, or insight, to the history of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(women?s struggle in Scotland for equal rights with men. This he does through the exploration of individual )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(lives and the different ways each woman tried to gain equality.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(It is probable that Knox will also achieve his aim of helping to make the women included in his volume )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(more visible in Scottish history, thus gaining the recognition he feels they deserve. Indeed, the format of this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(volume allows it to be more accessible to a general readership. Each chapter has a similar structure to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(others, which facilitates comparison between the individual lives?although this can also be monotonous. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Chapters begin with a clear introduction of who the individual was and why the reader might think she is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(important in Scotland?s history. This is followed by an in-depth analysis of her character, actions, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(relationships with others, notably those with significant others and parents. The effects that the discourses )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and ideologies present in contemporary society had on her actions and experience are then discussed. For )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(example, why could Jane Carlyle not realize her own ambitions? Why did Willa Muir put the professional )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(needs of her husband Edwin first? Why were the public so scandalized by Madeline Smith?s sexual )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(relationship with Emile? Knox concludes each chapter with a discussion of how that particular individual?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(experience may have affected others. He also outlines debates that are related to the issues that have been )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(raised by her experience.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Each chapter in Knox?s publication is based upon a variety of source material. This includes diaries, letters, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and autobiographies, but he also relies extensively on secondary sources such as published biographies and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(studies of the individuals concerned. It is Knox?s intention to challenge the existing historiography of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(figures such as Jane Welsh Carlyle, Mary Slessor, and Sophia Jex-Blake who have all received some )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(scholarly attention. He attempts to expel the myths and unsubstantiated assumptions about these individuals )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to discover and explore their real lives and the true motives for their actions. In the case of Mary Slessor, this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(involved debunking her own story of her awakening to a Christian life, which led to her iconic status as a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(missionary.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Knox does acknowledge that there were problems with the sources he consulted. For example, some of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(individuals studied, such as Sophia Jex-Blake, had instructed that primary materials such as diaries be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(destroyed after their death. In such circumstances Knox relies on the biographies published by others who )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(had been permitted to view material, which he admits is not an ideal situation. Similarly, many of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(quotations from diaries and letters are attributed to published studies by other authors. Consequently Knox )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(runs the risk of replicating mistakes in these secondary sources.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This publication uses individuals to provide a platform, which the author then uses to provide a basic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(critique the influence of societies? discourses and ideologies on the lives of women. Its main strength is in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(providing interesting accounts of extraordinary individuals, but the book also considers the restrictions )] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(placed on women, and why it was such an achievement that the subjects transcended such boundaries, each )] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in their own way. Another strength of the book is in bringing the lives of these women to the attention of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 249.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(general public. In fact the volume is more successful in this respect than as an academic text?even the author )] TJ ET BT 34.016 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(acknowledges the limitations of the volume?but this does not detract from the fact that Knox is attempting to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(make the ten women included in the volume more visible in the history of Scotland.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.741 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([3])] TJ ET 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 175.759 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 157.979 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 157.979 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/563)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 156.585 m 322.316 156.585 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 131.608 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 117.208 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/3864)] TJ ET BT 34.016 102.808 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/3865)] TJ ET BT 34.016 88.408 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([3] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET endstream endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 23 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 156.8995 322.3157 168.7795 ] >> endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/563) >> endobj xref 0 24 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000349 00000 n 0000000386 00000 n 0000000527 00000 n 0000000609 00000 n 0000003524 00000 n 0000003633 00000 n 0000003743 00000 n 0000003852 00000 n 0000007413 00000 n 0000007541 00000 n 0000007625 00000 n 0000007690 00000 n 0000014434 00000 n 0000014499 00000 n 0000021852 00000 n 0000021917 00000 n 0000029437 00000 n 0000029521 00000 n 0000035853 00000 n 0000035981 00000 n trailer << /Size 24 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 36076 %%EOF