%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 16 0 R ] /Count 3 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20150128213451+00'00') /ModDate (D:20150128213451+00'00') /Title (Imagining Contagion in Early Modern Europe) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 3954 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Imagining Contagion in Early Modern Europe)] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Early-modern Europe \(here covering the years from 1492 to 1750\) was constantly beset by plagues of all )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(kinds. Scarcely a year passed in western Europe until the 1720s without an outbreak of ?pestilence?, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(scarcely a decade without a major epidemic that killed ten, twenty, or even forty per cent of the community. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Expansion brought with it new dangers. Columbus and his men were credited with the introduction of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(syphilis from the New World, although at least until the 1550s most doctors believed that it had been spread )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(by French soldiers as they raped and pillaged their way back from a campaign in Naples. Neighbouring )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(nations agreed in blaming each other for recurrent epidemics. The ?French pox?, the ?English sweat?, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?Moravian plague? were only a few of the names used to define diseases that, it was thought, could not have )] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.019 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(had their origin in the local community. Scarcely noticed in this volume, European settlers brought with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 130.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(them to communities around the world new diseases that decimated many of the inhabitants, and gave to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 116.507 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Europeans the illusion that they were entering an empty land, or one populated by those too weak to put up )] TJ ET BT 34.016 102.251 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(resistance.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 75.995 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Some of these diseases, like ?pestilence? or the ?sweat?, were regarded as epidemics affecting whole towns )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.739 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(or regions, the result of changes in the ambient air that all could breathe. Responses were usually on a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.699 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(564)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.187 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.931 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Sunday, 31 December, 2006)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.675 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Editor:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.419 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Claire L. Carlin)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.163 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.907 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9781403939265)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.651 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.395 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2005)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.139 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.883 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(58.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.627 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.371 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(304pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.115 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.859 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Palgrave Macmillan)] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.603 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher url:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.347 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.palgrave.com/products/title.aspx?PID=270065)] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.091 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 313.835 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Basingstoke)] TJ ET BT 34.016 299.579 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 285.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Vivian Nutton)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 7876 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(communal scale, ranging in severity from street cleaning and removing dead animals from water courses, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(through the banning of assemblies, whether in church or theatre, and the closing down of brothels, to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(most dreaded of all administrative action, the imposition of a quarantine. Italian towns, administratively )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(more sophisticated than northern European ones, had by 1600 established a complex system of surveillance )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in the hope of forestalling the arrival of plague from elsewhere, a nuisance to travellers and merchants but )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(one that, as Montaigne found, could be mitigated or avoided entirely. But a quarantine imposed on a whole )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(town meant civic ruin, the suspension of economic activity, near-starvation for the poor, and, possibly, a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(financial burden for the town for a generation or more. No wonder that in 1576 two professors, called from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Padua to Venice to decide whether ?plague? had broken out, were for several months unwilling to concede )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that ?pestilential fever? had now been superseded by ?plague? and that strict quarantine measures should be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(imposed. Thousands of Venetians died in the ensuing epidemic, which was then blamed by the doctors on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the tardiness of the authorities in implementing the public-health provisions that they themselves had only )] TJ ET BT 34.016 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reluctantly ordered.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Two theories were advanced to explain these epidemics. The first, familiar since Antiquity, was a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(combination of bad air \(?mal'aria?\) and individual imbalance. The foulness of the air explained why many )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(people had the same symptoms of disease, individual susceptibility why not everyone caught it. In 1546 the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Veronese doctor Girolamo Fracastoro in his )] TJ ET BT 247.976 556.373 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(De morbis contagiosis)] TJ ET BT 355.976 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( developed another theory from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Antiquity, that of contagion, to explain plague. The notion of contagion was already well known, sometimes )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(referring to something transmitted by touch, but more loosely to diseases of propinquity. It explained the evil )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(eye as well as love, ophthalmia as well as phthisis. It was foolish, everyone knew, to stand near a sufferer )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from plague, or scabies; Venetian authorities banned certain sufferers from seeking alms on the Rialto bridge )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(lest their poisonous breath pollute the air by contagion. Fracastoro's achievement was to offer a new )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(explanation of what happened in contagion. ?Seeds of disease? were passed on directly from the sufferer into )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the atmosphere, where they multiplied and could infect others. Some seeds were passed on directly by touch, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(others, called ?fomites?, indirectly in clothing or carpets. His theory could thus be used to justify the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(quarantining practices of Health Boards, aimed at stopping contagion, and, as Girolamo Mercuriale argued )] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in his )] TJ ET BT 63.356 413.813 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(De peste)] TJ ET BT 105.008 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( of 1577, it was entirely compatible with the standard theory of ?bad air?. Indeed, far from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(being a revolutionary idea, it was easily assimilated by writers on plague; it explained why the air became )] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(bad. Only Simone Simoni, describing the Leipzig plague of 1574, took Fracastoro's views to their logical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 371.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conclusion. Each epidemic disease had its own type of seed, only those struck by a seed fell ill, and, at least )] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in plague, the seed was so poisonous that it made no distinction between individuals. Individual preventative )] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(measures, he argued, were irrelevant. Contagion, ?being touched? by the seed of disease, was enough by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(itself to explain the pattern of morbidity.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This is the background to the essays that make up this volume, the result of a 2003 conference in Canada. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(While all of the contributors have interesting points to make, the non-specialist may have difficulty in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(placing what they have to say into a proper context. Don Beecher, in his afterword, tries to bring the very )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(varied essays together, but even he fails to put them into the wider picture. Very often, as with Hammond on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(southern Germany or Pantin on Fracastoro, the author makes an excellent small point, examining in detail a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(particular idea or incident, but leaving it to the reader to explore its wider significance. Both Gagnon's and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Pantin's discussion of Fracastoro should now be compared with those of Concetta Pennuto and Hiroshi Hirai )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in )] TJ ET BT 46.352 202.229 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Gerolamo Fracastoro fra Medicina, Filosofia e Scienze della Natura)] TJ ET BT 378.008 202.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, ed. A. Pastore and E. Peruzzi )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Florence, 2006\). Other authors, Beecher and Frelick on love, Poirier on syphilis, Closson on demonic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(possession, offer fascinating perspectives on some diseases thought to have links with contagion, even if )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(they formed only a small part of the overall explanation.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The book's strength \(and also its weakness\) is its use of literary sources to explore contemporary )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(understanding of contagion. Cazes's discussion of Montaigne's ideas on smell in his Essais neatly explicates )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a variety of passages, yet oddly without reference to Corbin's )] TJ ET BT 330.452 104.693 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The foul and the fragrant)] TJ ET BT 451.796 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( or to Montaigne's )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(own experiences with plague and plague controls as described in his )] TJ ET BT 364.952 90.437 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Journal)] TJ ET BT 402.284 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. Shuttleton on smallpox takes )] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(us well into the ?Age of Inoculation?, which stretches the notion of Early-modern Europe somewhat. More )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(problematic are those essays in which contagion seems to offer at best a metaphorical starting point. Given )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 18 0 R ] /Contents 17 0 R >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Length 2681 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that, from at least the fourth century CE onwards, the religious beliefs of others could be stigmatized in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(terms of a dangerous and deadly contagion, it is wrong to place too much emphasis on the novelty of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contamination by heresy, whether in Naples, England, or Sweden. What is unclear is the extent to which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contemporaries adopted the language of recent medical debates in order to categorize the failings of their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(opponents. Much of the evidence presented here seems to me to fall under the heading of ?dead? metaphor, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and there is only an occasional nod towards linking the literary text with medical or social responses to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contagious diseases. The contagion of laughter had been a question since at least the time of Galen, although )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Laurent Joubert's treatise on laughter of 1579 ensured that medical debates on the subject reached a much )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(wider audience.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This volume illustrates the difficulties of cross-disciplinary investigation. While each contribution has )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(something new to offer, not least in revealing the considerable extent to which French authors drew on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(medical themes for their poetry and plays, the lack of a strong medical, institutional, or social context for the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ideas discussed robs them of utility for the medical historian. A strong editorial introduction would have )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(helped to set the agenda, as well as providing a basis for the non-specialist to appreciate what is new in this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(volume. 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