%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 16 0 R 18 0 R 20 0 R ] /Count 5 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140818083137+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140818083137+01'00') /Title (The Harem, Slavery and British Imperial Culture: Anglo-Muslim Relations in the Late-Nineteenth Century) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4218 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(The Harem, Slavery and British Imperial Culture: Anglo-Muslim )] TJ ET BT 34.016 593.937 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Relations in the Late-Nineteenth Century)] TJ ET BT 34.016 237.683 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This is a stimulating and engaging study that ticks a great many \(postcolonial scholars?\) ?boxes?. Based on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.427 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the author?s PhD, it draws together debates on gender, notions about race, processes of identity formation, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 209.171 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and discussions of ?Othering?, and considers them within the context of late-nineteenth-century British high )] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.915 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(imperialism in general, and the linkages between England and Egypt in particular. The prism through which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.659 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(all these issues are addressed is that of slavery, a practice that persisted?legitimately?within Egyptian society )] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.403 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(until the end of the nineteenth century, and which came to generate enormous anxiety for both British )] TJ ET BT 34.016 152.147 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(officials seeking to suppress the slave trade in the region and the English public back home. The fact that the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 137.891 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(majority of these slaves were women, destined for the domestic harem, or private quarters within Egyptian )] TJ ET BT 34.016 123.635 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(homes, meant that the campaign that developed to end the practice ?became a focal point for a number of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 109.379 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(gender tensions and concerns within the British imperial system? \(p. 16\). Race was also at stake, since slaves )] TJ ET BT 34.016 95.123 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in Egypt fell into different ?racial? categories according to skin colour, and the presence among them of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 80.867 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(white female slaves ?served as a powerful image that shocked English audiences and helped to highlight the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 66.611 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(connections between anti-slavery efforts abroad and gender politics? \(p. 17\) in the metropole itself. Indeed, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 52.355 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(one of the author?s main priorities is to demonstrate the broad extent of the ?connections? that were taking )] TJ ET BT 34.016 563.315 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 549.059 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(566)] TJ ET BT 34.016 534.803 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 520.547 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Sunday, 31 December, 2006)] TJ ET BT 34.016 506.291 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 492.035 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Diane Robinson-Dunn)] TJ ET BT 34.016 477.779 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 463.523 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9780719073281)] TJ ET BT 34.016 449.267 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 435.011 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2006)] TJ ET BT 34.016 420.755 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.499 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(55.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.243 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.987 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(256pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.731 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.475 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Manchester University Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.219 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher url:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.963 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.manchesteruniversitypress.co.uk/catalogue/book.asp?id=1380)] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.707 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.451 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Manchester)] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.195 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.939 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Sarah Ansari)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 6480 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(place at the time. Hence, Robinson-Dunn also explores the extent to which ideas about ?Englishness? in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(late-nineteenth century were influenced by contemporary perceptions about Islam drawn from the kinds of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(developments taking place in Egypt, though, according to her, identities that were)] TJ ET BT 64.016 729.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(informed by new understandings of the relationship between Englishness and Islam were not )] TJ ET BT 64.016 715.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(simply produced and then exchanged in a fixed and stable form like a product shipped from one )] TJ ET BT 64.016 701.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(imperial port to another. Rather their creation, re-creation and exchange were interdependent on )] TJ ET BT 64.016 686.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(one another, constituting one complex process \(pp. 3?4\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 648.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The combination of colonial interaction and circular processes of cultural exchange in practice created a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 634.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(complex ?borderland? that did not separate Britain from the empire in a neat, clear-cut fashion, but which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 620.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(existed everywhere that empire existed, and which meant as much in Britain itself as elsewhere in the world.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 593.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Following the introduction that sets out the theoretical bases and debates that underpin the study, chapter 2, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 579.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?From desert caravans to Red Sea coasts: the British anti-slavery campaign in Egypt?, addresses, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 565.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(thematically as well as chronologically, the way in which, from c.1870 to 1900, the British assumed an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 551.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(active role in suppressing slave traffic in Egypt and its surrounding regions. This was not, according to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 536.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Robinson-Dunn, simply an innocent activity spurred on by moral concerns, but was closely linked to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 522.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(wider imperialist project that produced the British occupation of Egypt from 1882. British officials, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 508.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(informed by notions of English gender roles and patriarchy, repeatedly defined ?Englishness and Islam in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 494.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(relation to each other, and did so in gendered terms? \(p. 31\). This in turn resulted in the creation of a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 479.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(hierarchy with things English at the top and those Muslim much lower down the scale: ?Englishness and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 465.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Islam were re-formed in relation to specific imperial political activities and developments? \(p. 32\). British )] TJ ET BT 34.016 451.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(abolitionist efforts pre-dated the occupation of Egypt, as, together with other European powers, Britain was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 437.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(putting pressure on the Ottoman government to limit slave-trading there from the mid-nineteenth century. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 422.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Later, in 1877, the British government signed a convention with the Egyptian authorities prohibiting the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 408.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(importation and transportation of slaves in Egypt, Egypt?s possessions in North Africa, and on the shores of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 394.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Red Sea, but, while this agreement had an almost immediate effect as far as black and Abyssinian slaves )] TJ ET BT 34.016 380.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were concerned, the banning of the sale of white and family slaves was postponed for a further seven years. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 365.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(And though British officials encountered conflict and difficulties, for instance in policing the steamships and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 351.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dhows of the Red Sea, it would seem that this did not lead them to question their activities. Rather, ?they ? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 337.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(became convinced further of the importance of their role in Egypt and that they were different in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 323.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fundamental ways from those around them, whether they referred to them as Egyptians, Muslims or Arabs? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 308.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(p. 36\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 282.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The real obstacle to progress, as Robinson-Dunn makes clear, was identified as the harem, a source of great )] TJ ET BT 34.016 268.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(frustration to many British officials who, as men, could not enter these private Egyptian worlds themselves )] TJ ET BT 34.016 254.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to search for slaves. Similarly, the practice of wearing the veil was viewed as a barrier to their determining )] TJ ET BT 34.016 239.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(whether a woman was or was not a slave. Occasionally, British officials even separated legitimate wives )] TJ ET BT 34.016 225.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from their husbands and detained them for months at a time when there was deemed to be insufficient proof )] TJ ET BT 34.016 211.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that they were legally married, since)] TJ ET BT 64.016 172.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in a society in which wives could become slaves and slaves could become wives, the very )] TJ ET BT 64.016 158.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(decision to suppress slavery ? necessitated the British involving themselves in the private lives )] TJ ET BT 64.016 144.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of Muslim families \(p. 43\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(But, as Robinson-Dunn points out, this reform was definitely not intended to undermine the authority of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 91.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Egyptian men. Accordingly, in practice, the suppression of the slave trade necessitated efforts to restrict )] TJ ET BT 34.016 77.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(female independence and autonomy. Likewise, much of the discussion about what to do with freed female )] TJ ET BT 34.016 63.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(slaves reflected assumptions that these women, presumed to be low-class, would drift into prostitution and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(other immoral activities. A further consequence of Britain?s anti-slavery activity in Egypt were efforts to )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 17 0 R >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Length 6661 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(influence and refashion the Islamic legal structures and procedures that operated there, moves that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(intensified following the 1882 occupation when British power increased, enabling an extensive British-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dominated administrative structure finally to suppress the slave trade, and slavery itself, by the end of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(century.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Having set the scene in Egypt, chapter 3, ?Networks of support: English activism and slavery redefined?, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(turns the spotlight on another, parallel, aspect of the anti-slavery campaign to underline the extent to which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(this campaign influenced the development of a conception of English national identity that was ?defined in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(gendered, moral and imperial terms, and in contrast to the harem and Islam? \(p. 70\). In all this, the British )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and Foreign Anti-Slavery Society \(BFASS\) played a key role, exploiting a supposedly widespread English )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(belief in the immorality of slavery and the responsibility of the English to eradicate the practice, in order to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(raise public support ?at home? for the government?s efforts abroad. Although the Society?s origins lay much )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(earlier in the nineteenth century when abolitionist attention was focused on the United States, following the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(emancipation of American slavery in 1863 its attention shifted to the Islamic world and particularly the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(plight of its female slaves. Islam was seen as the root cause of this ?evil? practice, and so anti-slavery )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(activists in their publications and speeches portrayed the Islamic world in this light, since)] TJ ET BT 64.016 546.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(understanding Islam in this way served specific political purposes: it generated support for the )] TJ ET BT 64.016 532.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(anti-slavery cause by presenting it as a struggle between good and evil; and it also helped to )] TJ ET BT 64.016 518.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(create, or actually recreate in a new context, a sense of English national identity closely )] TJ ET BT 64.016 503.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(associated with liberal Enlightenment ideas \(p. 74\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 465.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(BFASS ?propaganda? should therefore be seen as part of the wider vilification of Islam and Muslims that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 451.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(gained ground in late-nineteenth century Britain. While the extent of anti-Muslim sentiment that circulated )] TJ ET BT 34.016 437.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(at this time is well established, Robinson-Dunn draws on new evidence to show how far Islam became )] TJ ET BT 34.016 422.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(inscribed as the predominant ?Other?, a negative against which an English positive self-image could be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 408.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(developed and enlarged.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 382.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Gender, of course, remained central to the anti-slavery ideology created by the BFASS, and much of this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 368.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(third chapter is devoted to BFASS representations of the harem, which served ?to generate support for their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 353.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cause while at the same time defining )] TJ ET BT 217.652 353.813 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(proper)] TJ ET BT 250.316 353.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( gender relations both for themselves and for the Egyptians? \(p. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 339.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(84\). The establishment of the Cairo Home for Freed Women Slaves \(CHFWS\) in 1885, ostensibly a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 325.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(humanitarian undertaking, provided, on the one hand, an opportunity to advance ideas about appropriate )] TJ ET BT 34.016 311.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(feminine roles associated with English national identity, and, on the other, an issue that could galvanize )] TJ ET BT 34.016 296.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(support for the BFASS and reinforce its wider mission.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 270.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Chapter 4, ??The British Turk? and the ?Christian harem?: imperial ideology in English gender politics?, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 256.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(introduces another link in Robinson-Dunn?s chain of connections by exploring ?how beliefs about )] TJ ET BT 34.016 242.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Englishness, English gender roles and Islam ? were recreated and understood in very different ways in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 227.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(metropole? \(p. 2\). Drawing on a range of source materials, from feminist writings to those of Christian )] TJ ET BT 34.016 213.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(missionaries, it highlights how far debates in England on the ?woman question? were informed by the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 199.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(supposed plight of Muslim women, slaves or otherwise. In a similar vein to others who have examined how )] TJ ET BT 34.016 184.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the anti-slavery movement brought women into contact with imperial issues, Robinson-Dunn here illustrates )] TJ ET BT 34.016 170.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(how English feminists manipulated understandings about the harem and female slavery in the Islamic world )] TJ ET BT 34.016 156.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to draw attention to the injustices of womanhood closer to home: in effect, ?they evoked imperial images of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 142.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the harem and the Muslim woman to describe gender inequalities in English society? \(p. 123\). At the same )] TJ ET BT 34.016 127.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(time, defenders of the status quo assumed that ?patriarchal English gender relations elevated the women of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 113.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that country and would do the same for those of Egypt? \(p. 124\), and saw no incompatibility between )] TJ ET BT 34.016 99.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(promoting a conservative version of appropriate gender roles in England and the campaign to reform Muslim )] TJ ET BT 34.016 85.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(women?s lives in Egypt.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 58.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(One interesting dimension of the relationship between foreign policy and domestic gender debates that is )] TJ ET endstream endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 19 0 R >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Length 6554 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(raised here relates to prostitution. Inevitably perhaps, discussion of white slavery abroad connected with anti-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(vice activism in England, as those ?who tried to rescue and reform the English prostitute associated her with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the female slave of the Muslim harem? \(p. 132\). For the National Vigilance Association \(NVA\), the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rationale for ?treating English prostitution as something foreign or Islamic? made sense ?in the light of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(many contemporary discourses which depicted the East, or the Islamic world, as a place of licentiousness )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and moral depravity? \(p. 133\). But, as Robinson-Dunn points out, there was another side to this coin as)] TJ ET BT 64.016 686.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(some English people identified with the Muslim woman and used positive representations of her )] TJ ET BT 64.016 672.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in order to present alternative beliefs about femininity generally and English womanhood )] TJ ET BT 64.016 658.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(specifically \(p. 135\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 620.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In particular there were cultural feminists who placed great value on the preservation of separate feminine )] TJ ET BT 34.016 605.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(spaces, and for whom the harem was a prized centre of genteel and elegant femininity, shielding womanly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 591.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(purity from the outside world. Yet, either way,)] TJ ET BT 64.016 553.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(examining the use of the harem and ?white slavery? in English domestic debates [undoubtedly] )] TJ ET BT 64.016 539.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sheds light on how imperial identity politics functioned in English life, and served to construct )] TJ ET BT 64.016 524.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and maintain boundaries defining the nation within the metropole of the British Empire \(p. 145\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 486.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Chapter 5, ?Islam in Britain?, changes tack somewhat. Robinson-Dunn here shifts her focus away from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 472.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(policies and debates connected with slavery and slave traffic in Egypt, and their knock-on effect in England. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Instead, she considers how far the understandings of English national identity that they encouraged were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 443.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(challenged by the presence of Islam, in the form of established Muslim communities, within England itself, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 429.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(suggesting that there were ?alternative ways of understanding the relationship between Islam and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 415.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Englishness? which opened up ?opportunities for the creation of a place for that religion in England? \(p. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(155\). The chapter then provides an overview of the various Muslim communities that had taken root in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 386.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(different parts of England by the late-nineteenth century: working-class lascars \(seamen\) and ayahs )] TJ ET BT 34.016 372.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(nursemaids\) from the Empire, whose welfare, as Rozina Visram has already shown us, became a domestic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 358.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as well as an imperial concern: the group of Muslim converts in Liverpool, led by the Manx solicitor-convert )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(William Quilliam, who sought broader support by emphasizing the reasonableness of Islam as well as by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 329.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(tapping the temperance movement as a way of justifying the religion ?in terms culturally available to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 315.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(English? \(p. 166\); wealthier sojourners from different parts of the British empire who came to England for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 301.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(educational and professional reasons, and who sometimes stayed on, such as Sayyid Amir Ali who became )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the loyal face of British Islam and sought to foster Anglo-Muslim loyalty, stressing the compatibility of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 272.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Englishness and Islam; and, finally, the ?Orientalist? institutions that were set up in the small Surrey town of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 258.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Woking in the 1880s where they embedded themselves as a central feature of organized Muslim activity and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(publications in England for decades to come. Even Sir Richard Burton?s well-known narrative of his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(pilgrimage visit in disguise to Mecca is included as an example of how ?English Orientalist literature ? was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 215.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(able to foster an appreciation of Islam? \(p. 180\). What the examples in this chapter all reinforce is the notion )] TJ ET BT 34.016 201.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that identities, and the boundaries delineating them, were seldom firmly fixed. In other words, the border )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(between England and the Empire was constantly shifting, and ?the image of a unified, monolithic Islamic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 172.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(world?, which found its way so often into contemporary discourses, remained in reality a highly contested )] TJ ET BT 34.016 158.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(one \(p. 187\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 132.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Much of the content of this study is very stimulating, if not always unfamiliar. But it is the pulling together )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of different strands of a story that connects imperial activity and ambition in Egypt with contemporaneous )] TJ ET BT 34.016 103.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(developments back in England that produces a novel twist on the way in which the connections between )] TJ ET BT 34.016 89.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(metropole and empire during this period have usually been approached and discussed. And many of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 75.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(issues raised in it resonate with debates taking place elsewhere in relation to how empire needs to be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(studied?though it should be said that the last chapter does not seem quite as well-integrated as its three )] TJ ET endstream endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 22 0 R ] /Contents 21 0 R >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Length 2475 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(predecessors. Perhaps the most interesting aspect of )] TJ ET BT 285.968 796.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Harem, Slavery and British Imperial Culture)] TJ ET BT 522.956 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Robinson-Dunn?s attempt to separate ?Englishness? from ?Britishness?. The British Empire undoubtedly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(helped in the process of identity formation for the Scots, Welsh, and Irish, and it has become a well-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(established fact that ?imperial participation and accomplishments provided a means through which to assert )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Scottish and Welsh identities? \(p. 20\). But what is often overlooked, and consequently understudied, is how )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the English related to Empire, and how Englishness as an identity evolved in the context of the imperial )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(relationship. It is the distillation of this, and Robinson-Dunn?s discussion of how far the debates that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(revolved around Islam in some form or other contributed to this process, that makes this contribution to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(today?s ?)] TJ ET BT 79.004 682.421 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(interactive)] TJ ET BT 130.328 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( imperial historiography? \(p. xiv\) a valuable one. Indeed, the fact that relationships )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(between Englishness, Britishness, and Islam remain fraught, and are still being debated more than a century )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(after the events dissected here, testifies to this study?s relevance to a wider readership than simply those )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(pursuing another way of understanding what Empire used to mean.)] TJ ET 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 622.927 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 605.147 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 605.147 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/566)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 603.753 m 322.316 603.753 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 578.776 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 564.376 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/3874)] TJ ET endstream endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 23 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 604.0675 322.3157 615.9475 ] >> endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/566) >> endobj xref 0 24 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000349 00000 n 0000000386 00000 n 0000000612 00000 n 0000000694 00000 n 0000004964 00000 n 0000005073 00000 n 0000005183 00000 n 0000005292 00000 n 0000008853 00000 n 0000008981 00000 n 0000009065 00000 n 0000009130 00000 n 0000015663 00000 n 0000015728 00000 n 0000022442 00000 n 0000022507 00000 n 0000029114 00000 n 0000029198 00000 n 0000031726 00000 n 0000031854 00000 n trailer << /Size 24 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 31949 %%EOF