%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 16 0 R 18 0 R 24 0 R ] /Count 5 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140922072627+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140922072627+01'00') /Title (Framing the Early Middle Ages: Europe and the Mediterranean, 400?800) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 3910 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Framing the Early Middle Ages: Europe and the Mediterranean, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 593.937 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(400?800)] TJ ET BT 34.016 237.683 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(For an outsider contemplating historiography on the early middle ages, it is a tribute to the subject?s vitality )] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.427 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that a book of over nine-hundred pages of text should claim to be less than a definitive statement and aims )] TJ ET BT 34.016 209.171 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?only to provide the raw material for a better synthesis to do so in the future?. The rather appealing modesty )] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.915 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is misplaced. This is no less than a comparative study over four centuries of an area stretching from Ireland )] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.659 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and Denmark in the north west to Palestine and Egypt in the south east. The author succeeds convincingly in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.403 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(gathering a vast amount of evidence while maintaining an informed critical discussion. The debate )] TJ ET BT 34.016 152.147 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(concerning how the late-classical era became the ?middle ages? is far from over, but this is a magisterial )] TJ ET BT 34.016 137.891 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(presentation of the state of play.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 111.635 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In analysing the period, Wickham selects four specific issues as crucial: the form of the state \(especially its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 97.379 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fiscal apparatus\); the aristocracy; the peasantry; and, finally, networks of exchange, in which he includes )] TJ ET BT 34.016 83.123 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(urban life and the economy. Something of the scope of this work should now be becoming clear. After )] TJ ET BT 34.016 68.867 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(considering the historiography from Dopsch and Pirenne onwards, and providing a brief discussion of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 54.611 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(source material available, Wickham surveys the political developments and geography of the area from the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 563.315 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 549.059 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(567)] TJ ET BT 34.016 534.803 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 520.547 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Sunday, 31 December, 2006)] TJ ET BT 34.016 506.291 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 492.035 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Chris Wickham)] TJ ET BT 34.016 477.779 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 463.523 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9780199264490)] TJ ET BT 34.016 449.267 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 435.011 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2005)] TJ ET BT 34.016 420.755 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.499 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(85.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.243 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.987 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1024pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.731 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.475 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Oxford University Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.219 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher url:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.963 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://ukcatalogue.oup.com/product/9780199264490.do)] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.707 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.451 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Oxford)] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.195 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.939 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Andrew Roach)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 7481 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Baltic to the Red Sea. He then looks at taxation in some detail. Late-Imperial taxation was locally collected, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(but often redistributed over vast distances to feed Rome and Constantinople or to pay distant armies. In )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contrast, in the west taxation systems became localized, before often collapsing altogether, and even in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(east where they survived in relatively good order, as in Byzantium or Egypt, they became centrally collected )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to be distributed across regions or sub-regions. This had a considerable effect on exchange patterns, with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(aristocratic demand becoming a scarcely-adequate motor for largely medium-range exchange.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(With the exception of the elites in France and Syria, post-Roman aristocrats were poorer than their Imperial )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(predecessors. Their holdings were more locally focused and peasants were liable to slip from their control. A )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(weaker state and a greater emphasis on clinging to power by force militarized the aristocracy and made war )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(its defining passion throughout the middle ages. By contrast, peasants did comparatively well from the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(weakening of systematic taxation until the aristocracy was able to reimpose its power towards the end of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(period. Wickham is able to show conclusively that although there were a number of ways in which peasant )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(society was structured, the pattern of the Ile de France was an exception. It was one of the few areas where )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the aristocracy remained strong enough to coerce. Finally, Wickham turns to ?Networks?, under which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(heading he includes a discussion of cities and the economy. Playing down traditional definitions of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(economic ?development?, he emphasizes the role of bulk exchange over long distances of ceramics and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(grain as purely an indicator of the concentration of wealth and of how effectively elites could squeeze wealth )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from peasants. Paradoxically, areas with wealthier or more autonomous peasantries might well rely on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(humbler domestic or local production \(p. 707\). Long-distance trade in luxuries was so small compared with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(bulk exchange as to be simply irrelevant.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Wickham argues that this period is one of strong regional autonomy. In this comparative study, no one area )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(can be taken as typical, or others neglected as exceptions. This underlies the impressive geographical sweep )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the work. Wickham looks at the British Isles \(except for Scotland\) and Denmark as non-Roman or thinly-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Romanized areas, northern and southern Gaul, the Iberian peninsula, North Africa, and Italy itself as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(examples of what happened to the western empire, while, Egypt, Syria- Palestine, and the Byzantine )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?heartland? of Anatolia and the Aegean coast represent the east. For Wickham, what happened when the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Roman empire ?broke up into its various pieces was that each piece took the surviving elements of Roman )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(social, economic, and political structures and developed them in its own way? \(p. 10\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(A comparative study of these regions allows the author to liberate the discussion from simplistic conclusions )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(while still providing a framework for understanding the period; and to a large extent the painstaking )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(methodology justifies the length of the work. Most readers will be aware of the debate between so-called )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?continuitists? and ?catastrophists?, regarding the transformation of the Roman world. Wickham recognizes )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(elements of both \(although to this reader he fights harder for continuity than catastrophe\), but is at his most )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(creative when he is able to sidestep the discussion?which he does at many points?by exploiting the vastness )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of his perspective. He takes in areas never under Roman control so that, judging from the amount of gold )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(found in sites such as Gudme on Fyn \(Denmark\), there is evidence that a few Danish aristocrats did rather )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(well from the end of the Imperial presence in the west; they were able to acquire Roman wealth either as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(gifts or booty. He is also able to make an authoritative analysis of the eastern Mediterranean. In Egypt, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(neither the state nor economic prosperity went away despite Arab invasion and conversion to Islam. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Constantinople itself remained the pre-eminent city in Europe, and, after a wobbly late-seventh and eighth )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(centuries, the Byzantine state was able to recover enough to resume collecting taxes.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(On the other hand, for Britain in the fifth century ?catastrophe? is not too strong a word \(p. 307\), particularly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in the south east which had wholeheartedly bought into the Roman cultural model of villas and cities. Again )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the strength of Wickham?s approach is demonstrated. He suggests that a patchwork of tiny kingdoms long )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(pre-dated the Anglo-Saxon invasions. The most thought-provoking parallel with the British experience )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(comes not from its nearest neighbour, northern Gaul, where a strong, less Romanized aristocracy provided )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the means to allow many local structures of political power to continue, but from Berber North Africa. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Wickham shows how the small scale familial and tribal structures there, which functioned alongside the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Roman state, eventually succeeded it by a kind of hollowing-out process in the fourth and fifth centuries. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The fact that non-Roman traditions were more central to political life there than in Britain meant that the )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 17 0 R >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Length 7448 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(process was not quite so traumatic, but, as Wickham points out, the similarities between the two areas are )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(greater than their differences. The comparison is both striking and subtle, because it removes the need to rely )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(on aristocracies ?surviving? the end of Roman rule, or the decisive impact of new settlers or invaders, to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(explain radical political change. Instead societies could become ?tribalized?, sometimes so unobtrusively )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that the historian might not notice the reality behind the ubiquitous Roman faade.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This analysis leads into one of the most impressive sections of the book where the author looks at the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(emergence of post-Roman states in northern Europe on the edge of the Roman empire. Wickham takes the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(examples of England, Wales, Ireland, and Denmark, creates a highly effectively synthesis of both his own )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and others? work, and proposes that very small-scale ?tribal? states gradually evolved into the one and two-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(county kingdoms of the early-seventh century \(pp. 313?14\). The obligations outlined around the year 700 by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the West-Saxon laws of Ine are, then, a late codification of the ?superiority? kings had over large tracts of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(land where they took produce from followers who themselves had rights in the land, so that their payments )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(represented an ill-defined combination of tribute, rent, and tax. In one of his most effective uses of modern )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(parallels, the author talks about the Mafia in Palermo, with its combination of ?military? experts and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(wider penumbra of the loyal and protected?as well as the exploited?from which it draws its loyalty. Extend )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that to the hypothetical withdrawal of not just the Italian state, but the city council as well, and one is left )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with the early-medieval ?tribal? state. Fifth-century British ?aristocrats? could have built loyalties from the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(attachments of kin, geography, and religion, but they would have ended up the poorer because they had too )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(many responsibilities to create a collectivity \(pp. 330?1\). It is an appealing vision to high medievalists )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(because the persistence of such structures, in however ghostly a form, might explain why, later, both kings )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and aristocrats had to spend so much time physically present in local centres of power when their economic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and legal status suggests that they might safely have left the extraction of wealth and manpower to local )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(agents.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The author makes no secret of the general intellectual underpinnings to this process, namely the transfer of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(resources from empire to ?feudalism?, a term which Wickham uses readily for all its problematic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(connotations, via the rise of the aristocracy. Once we are on this familiar ground, a high medievalist can )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(offer the following observations. First, Wickham places great emphasis on the state. He describes a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?Mediterranean world-system? fuelled, not so much by commercial enterprise, as by fiscal taxation and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(enormous demand for commodities such as wine, grain, and oil generated by Rome and Constantinople. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Meeting the demands of taxation either in cash or in kind was a major stimulus to agricultural production, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and the collection of that tax created a class of salaried official who represented central government within )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the locality. The persistence of this system, albeit increasingly regionalized under the Byzantines and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(successor states in the eastern Mediterranean, allowed a prosperity that the west lost. However, I wonder if )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the contrast is quite as great as Wickham makes out. It is certainly true that the Aegean had been greatly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(disturbed by the demise of the Mediterranean world-system and that ?the [Byzantine] state had more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(resources than anyone else by far? \(p. 791\). But to go on to attribute the economic revival of the ninth and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(tenth centuries to the ?growing revival and recentralization of state structures? is seriously to underplay the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(economic role of new arrivals such as Bulgarians and Slavs, and the growing commercial dynamism of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Byzantine provincial centres such as Thessalonika, a market for Slav traders, or Trebizond, where Byzantine )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(merchants tapped into caravan routes from Iran. In particular, for the Byzantines Cherson on the Crimea )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(seems to have grown up as a private enterprise where Christian and Muslim merchants could meet Khazar )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(nomads and Rus traders from the steppes. By the earlier-ninth century, it had grown to the extent that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Byzantine officials could levy a ten per cent tax on goods passing through the town?but the essential )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dynamism was independent of the state. The west also had new arrivals, latterly from Scandinavia. It also )] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(had emporia or wics such as Dorestad or Quentovic. While Wickham insists that these were ?standard north )] TJ ET BT 34.016 130.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Frankish new towns?, the sort of recurring urban development favoured by post-Roman aristocrats and later )] TJ ET BT 34.016 116.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(imitated by kings \(pp. 687?8\), it is not hard to conceive that such foundations may have been as self-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 102.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(generating as those further east, possibly even growing out of the disposal of local surpluses, suggesting that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 88.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the difference might, in fact, simply be one of scale.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The second feature that looks surprising to the high medievalist is the comparatively small weight given to )] TJ ET endstream endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 20 0 R 22 0 R ] /Contents 19 0 R >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Length 7566 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(changes brought about by conversion, first to Christianity and later, in parts, to Islam. The author has )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(promised a fully-fledged cultural history in the future in volume two of the )] TJ ET BT 396.308 782.213 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Penguin History of Europe)] TJ ET BT 525.968 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. Even )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(at a very material level religion could bring about changes. Archaeological investigations at Whithorn, in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(south-west Galloway, have revealed that between 600 and 800 ceramics originating in Ireland, continental )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Europe and even the Byzantine empire were brought to the site. This trade in conspicuous consumption had )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(virtually ceased by 800. Scholars have suggested a straightforward reason for this change. The Whithorn of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(600 had primarily been a secular site. Two hundred years later it was a major Christian cult centre presided )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(over by an influential monastery. Doubtless the monks were still drawn from the aristocracy, but their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(priorities had turned to investing their wealth in buildings and church plate. The only discoveries from this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(period have been a few pieces of silver work and window glass \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 344.600 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 344.600 666.771 m 350.600 666.771 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 350.600 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Finally, one of the most impressive aspects of this volume is the attention paid to the vast amount of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(archaeological work that has taken place in the last twenty years. Analysis is built on the surviving evidence )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of olive and grain production, and, above all, ceramics. This may mislead, however. For example, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Wickham?s reading of the situation in Sbeitla \(Sufetula\) in North Africa, where famously an olive press )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(encroached on one of the main routes out of town, seems optimistic. We are encouraged to believe that ?the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(city probably had not weakened economically by 800, or indeed 900? \(p. 640\), yet the fact that wealthy )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(residents had built large fortified houses in the south east of the city, not far from where the olive press )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(blocked the main road to the coast, at the very least suggests insecurity and isolation, and indicates that the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(booming olive trade does not tell the whole story. In preferring evidence for the exchange of bulk utilitarian )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(goods over that concerning high-value luxuries, Wickham rightly states that the latter are usually ?marginal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to any economic system, taken as a whole, precisely because they are restricted prestige goods? \(p. 696\). )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This is true, but they can act as a sensitive barometer of market confidence \(a modern parallel might be the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(close attention economic forecasters pay to the volume of sales of champagne in various wine bars in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(City of London\), and precisely because they ?represent prestige? their availability or otherwise is often )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(recorded in medieval sources. Again, this may be a high-medievalist?s prejudice, but when bulk trade ceases )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(I would have preferred a fuller explanation as to why this was the case, even if speculative, drawn from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(written sources concerning politics or luxury trade, rather than the author?s frequent use of the ?catastrophe-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(flip?. This is a mathematical concept that is at the same time deeply human; ?the modelling of when slow )] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(change finally reaches a situation where previous patterns cannot be sustained and trends flip over into often )] TJ ET BT 34.016 371.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(precipitous crisis. Such patterns do not need external disasters to act as the catalyst? \(p. 13\). This well )] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(describes the difficulty we all have of )] TJ ET BT 217.640 356.789 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(explaining)] TJ ET BT 268.304 356.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( why something happened, in our own lives as much as in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historical discourse. Yet there usually )] TJ ET BT 217.988 342.533 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(is)] TJ ET BT 225.992 342.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( a specific reason or concatenation of events to unleash the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(avalanche, so for historians the ?catastrophe-flip? theory of change should surely be something of a last )] TJ ET BT 34.016 314.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(resort.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Such minor reservations apart, this is a very fine book. Wickham writes entertainingly and informatively )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(about national traditions of historiography, and his extensive bibliography and sensitive awareness of each )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(tradition suggests an enviably wide cultural grasp. What is also significant is the growing realization as one )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reads this that the inclusion of Denmark, North Africa, Egypt, Palestine, Syria, and Anatolia is not an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(intellectual luxury, nor even just an acknowledgement of the reach of Roman imperial culture, but an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(integral part of the story. Moreover, the growth of scholarship in the last three decades means that both )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(primary and secondary material are now available in unprecedented quantities. This book is not just a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(meaningful contribution to the history of its period, but also a challenging attempt to widen the geographical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(horizons of western-European historians. Wickham begins by paying homage to Dopsch and Pirenne, with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(this book he moves to something of the same stature.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 124.563 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 93.946 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 93.941 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(W. Davies, )] TJ ET BT 120.668 93.941 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Whithorn and the World)] TJ ET BT 237.668 93.941 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, sixth Whithorn Lecture, 16 September 1997 \(Whithorn, 1998\). )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 64.016 79.685 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 64.016 78.291 m 118.004 78.291 l S 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 62.959 526.499 1.500 re S endstream endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 21 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 344.5997 667.0855 350.5997 678.9655 ] >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 23 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 64.0157 78.6055 118.0037 90.4855 ] >> endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 24 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 26 0 R ] /Contents 25 0 R >> endobj 25 0 obj << /Length 491 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/567)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 795.075 m 322.316 795.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 770.098 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.698 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/3877)] TJ ET endstream endobj 26 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 27 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 795.3895 322.3157 807.2695 ] >> endobj 27 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/567) >> endobj xref 0 28 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000349 00000 n 0000000386 00000 n 0000000578 00000 n 0000000660 00000 n 0000004622 00000 n 0000004731 00000 n 0000004841 00000 n 0000004950 00000 n 0000008511 00000 n 0000008639 00000 n 0000008723 00000 n 0000008788 00000 n 0000016322 00000 n 0000016387 00000 n 0000023888 00000 n 0000023979 00000 n 0000031598 00000 n 0000031726 00000 n 0000031762 00000 n 0000031887 00000 n 0000031923 00000 n 0000032007 00000 n 0000032550 00000 n 0000032678 00000 n trailer << /Size 28 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 32773 %%EOF