%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 16 0 R ] /Count 3 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140818132211+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140818132211+01'00') /Title (Charitable Hatred: Tolerance and Intolerance in England, 1500?1700) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4000 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Charitable Hatred: Tolerance and Intolerance in England, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 593.937 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(1500?1700)] TJ ET BT 34.016 237.683 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(There is a traditional, whiggish, account of toleration in early-modern England that sees it as the polar )] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.427 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(opposite of persecution, and charts its gradual triumph over its evil antithesis. Over time, this story goes, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 209.171 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(enlightened notions of religious pluralism, personal freedom, and the humane treatment of other souls gained )] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.915 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(wider public acceptance, so that they first challenged the coercive imposition of a single faith?most notably )] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.659 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in the years of the mid-seventeenth century?and then finally overthrew it with the passage of the Toleration )] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.403 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Act 1689. In this vision, spiritual emancipation matched Parliamentary sovereignty as the crowning glories )] TJ ET BT 34.016 152.147 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of England?s escape from tyranny. Its achievement under the Tudors and Stuarts distanced the country from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 137.891 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(continental norms, and laid the foundations for her later championing of liberty around the world.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 111.635 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In this magisterial study of attitudes to persecution in England between 1500 and 1700, Alex Walsham )] TJ ET BT 34.016 97.379 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(challenges this whole tradition. Drawing on her own earlier researches \(as well as incorporating the findings )] TJ ET BT 34.016 83.123 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of a very wide range of other scholars who have studied real community relations as well as the history of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 68.867 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(thought?this book?s bibliography is a comprehensive catalogue of work in the field\), she argues that the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 54.611 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(relationship between tolerance and intolerance was far more complex, perhaps even interdependent, than )] TJ ET BT 34.016 563.315 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 549.059 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(568)] TJ ET BT 34.016 534.803 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 520.547 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Sunday, 31 December, 2006)] TJ ET BT 34.016 506.291 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 492.035 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Alexandra Walsham)] TJ ET BT 34.016 477.779 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 463.523 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9780719052392)] TJ ET BT 34.016 449.267 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 435.011 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2006)] TJ ET BT 34.016 420.755 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.499 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(60.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.243 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.987 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(304pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.731 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.475 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Manchester University Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.219 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher url:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.963 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.manchesteruniversitypress.co.uk/catalogue/book.asp?id=1136)] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.707 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.451 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Manchester)] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.195 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.939 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Tony Claydon)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 7519 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(polarity would imply. Few who opposed coercion believed in religious freedom per se; those who did )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(advocate greater liberty did not make any steady progress; and arguments for oppression and indulgence )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(frequently fed off each other. So, for example, Walsham demonstrates how deep-rooted and popular the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(arguments for coercion remained. Throughout the early-modern age, theorists, governments, and neighbours )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(all assumed that they had a duty to save heretical souls, or at least to rescue everyone else from the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(providential smiting that would result if the unorthodox were allowed to live unmolested. Similarly, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(religious forbearance rarely involved straight rejection of this logic. People failed to persecute, not out of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(concern for human liberty, but for a variety of reasons springing from a far less tolerant mindset. So, for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(example, they recognized the difficulty of searching the inner workings of conscience \(why punishment )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(tended to be reserved for outward, and especially politically-dangerous action, rather than mere belief\). They )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(also knew oppression could be counter productive \(suffering could bestow the appearance of virtuous )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(martyrdom and gain supporters for the heretical cause\). They objected to cruelty because they themselves )] TJ ET BT 34.016 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were being persecuted \(episcopalians under the puritan lash in the 1650s were not the first to complain that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 611.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(advocates of restraint had changed their tune when they gained the upper hand\). They realized that the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 596.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(heterodox could be more easily identified if toleration meant they did not have to hide \(a logic which may )] TJ ET BT 34.016 582.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(have lain behind 1689\). And they weighed the demands of spiritual purity against the sometimes opposed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 568.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(considerations of social order, neighbourliness, and kinship \(a calculation explaining the persistent )] TJ ET BT 34.016 554.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reluctance of local magistrates and populations to proceed against those at the heart of settled communities\). )] TJ ET BT 34.016 539.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In other paradoxes, Walsham shows that tolerance of individuals may have ramped up bigoted language )] TJ ET BT 34.016 525.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(?others? had to be delineated and denounced more vigorously in rhetoric when they were not attacked )] TJ ET BT 34.016 511.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(directly\), or that attempts to relax strictures by authorities could spark intolerance among people who were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 497.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(concerned that rulers were failing in their roles as godly magistrates \(note, for example, the attacks on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 482.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(catholics at moments in Charles II or James II?s reigns\). In all these ways, tolerance was not the triumphing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 468.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(enemy of intolerance; it shared its assumptions and frequently channeled its displaced energies.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Very much of this is salutary. Looking at broad trends in elite thought, it is easy to write a whiggish history )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of toleration, and Walsham?s is an impressive warning against this. It corrects the tendency to concentrate )] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(on supposed heroes of liberalism, such as John Locke or John Milton, with a wealth of social history, and it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(also makes useful and extensive international comparisons to suggest England may not have been diverging )] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(so far from European patterns of behaviour. Yet this reviewer wonders if babies have not gone missing in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 371.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(bathwater. As the author from time to time admits, there were trends towards greater tolerance over the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(period: fewer and fewer people were executed for heresy; arguments for indulgence became more common; )] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and official persecution became more sporadic. These shifts need explaining. Of course, it is important to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(point out that any explanation must be subtle, and that the processes involved may be counter-intuitive. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 314.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(approach adopted here, however, may make it harder to formulate a positive alternative to whiggery. Very )] TJ ET BT 34.016 299.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(clear chapters cover every aspect of the field \(official and popular intolerance; responses by the persecuted; )] TJ ET BT 34.016 285.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(community forebearance; and conceptualizations of religious pluralism\), but most examine attitudes and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 271.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(practices that they tend to assume spread across the whole period, and draw their examples promiscuously )] TJ ET BT 34.016 256.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from different decades. This muddies any sense of change over time, and permits only sporadic \(though )] TJ ET BT 34.016 242.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(often insightful\) ideas about why it might have occurred.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This is a shame because Walsham may actually have assembled the material for a new formulation. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Embracing her ambiguities and paradoxes \(and making systematic a case which she hints at but does not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(really lay out explicitly\) we might argue that toleration made headway precisely because there was still such )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(widespread commitment to promoting a single, correct version of Christianity. Far from accepting )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(individuals? liberty to seek God in their own ways, the English may have left them unmolested because )] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(steadily-mounting evidence in the centuries after a unity-shattering reformation proved coercion aided non-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 130.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conformity. It encouraged heretics by turning them into martyrs, or made them harder to identify and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 116.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(stigmatize because they hid from its effects, or created instruments of oppression which could be turned )] TJ ET BT 34.016 102.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(against true faith when it lost political control. A toleration born from the theoretical legitimacy, but )] TJ ET BT 34.016 88.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(practical disadvantages, of persecution would suit Walsham?s world view well. 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