%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 20 0 R 24 0 R 26 0 R ] /Count 4 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140819004601+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140819004601+01'00') /Title (The Narrative Sources from the Medieval Low Countries) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R 14 0 R 16 0 R 18 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 5418 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(The Narrative Sources from the Medieval Low Countries)] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.115 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(How does one find information about an author, an anonymous text, or a genre of writing from a particular )] TJ ET BT 34.016 358.859 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(region in the middle ages? Where does one search for writers of saints? lives, authors of diaries or letters, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.603 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historians, and chroniclers? Before the advance of the digital age, medievalists relied \(and of course still do\) )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.347 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(on the printed bibliographies and source collections, organized by modern country, and compiled from the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.091 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(nineteenth century onwards. So, for Germany we have the Wattenbach-Holtzmann series of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 301.835 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Geschichtsquellen)] TJ ET BT 122.000 301.835 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, for France it is still Molinier, even though a new project initiated by Fawtier has begun, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.579 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(while England?s sources have been opened up by Hardy and most recently by Sharpe. Some are inclusive )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and list narrative and documentary sources \(Wattenbach-Holtzmann\), others include only narrative ones )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Molinier\), while some are restricted to Latin authors \(Sharpe\). There are also supra-national projects that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(encompass most of the Christian middle ages starting with the work of Chevalier and now in the process of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(being replaced by the ongoing )] TJ ET BT 182.324 230.555 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Repertorium Fontium Historiae Medii Aevi)] TJ ET BT 390.308 230.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, a printed list in alphabetical order )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of all known authors, in Latin, compiled by an international committee based in Rome. The volume of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(medieval authors whose name begins with ?P? is now in preparation.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(For the Medieval Low Countries we are fortunate to have an up-to-date electronic database, )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 477.572 175.787 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Narrative )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 477.572 174.567 m 527.240 174.567 l S BT 34.016 161.531 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Sources)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 160.311 m 72.008 160.311 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 75.008 161.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET BT 89.000 161.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, that is available free on the Internet. In geographical terms it covers the present countries of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Netherlands and Belgium and a large chunk of what is now northern France, including French Flanders and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.019 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(French Hainault, as well as parts of Germany, such as Eastern Friesland and Northern Rhineland. It also )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(includes Lige, even though strictly speaking it never formed part of the Low Countries. The database )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.507 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contains 2,141 entries for all narrative texts \(chronicles, histories, saints? lives, miracle stories, letters, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.251 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(diaries\) written in that area between c. 500 and c. 1550. It is not restricted to Latin texts, but also includes )] TJ ET BT 34.016 75.995 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(those in vernacular languages such as Middle Dutch, Frisian, Old and Middle French, and Middle German. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.739 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(As a compilation it is, therefore, larger than M. Carasso-Kok?s )] TJ ET BT 338.960 61.739 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Repertorium van de verhalende historische )] TJ ET BT 34.016 47.483 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(bronnen uit de Middeleeuwen)] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.699 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(569)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.187 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.931 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Sunday, 31 December, 2006)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.675 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.419 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2004)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.163 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.907 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Universities of Ghent, Leuven, and Groningen)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.651 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher url:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.395 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.narrative-sources.be)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.139 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.883 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Universities of Ghent, Leuven, and Groningen)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.627 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.371 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Elisabeth van Houts)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 15 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 477.5717 187.1923 477.5717 187.1923 ] >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.portahistorica.eu/review-of-digital-source-editions/narrative-sources-from-the-medieval-low-countries) >> endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 17 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 477.5717 174.7075 527.2397 186.5875 ] >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.portahistorica.eu/review-of-digital-source-editions/narrative-sources-from-the-medieval-low-countries) >> endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 19 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 160.4515 72.0077 172.3315 ] >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.portahistorica.eu/review-of-digital-source-editions/narrative-sources-from-the-medieval-low-countries) >> endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 22 0 R ] /Contents 21 0 R >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Length 8401 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(The Hague, 1981\) which is restricted to the Netherlands, or L. Genicot and P. )] TJ ET BT 413.276 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Tombeur?s )] TJ ET BT 470.264 796.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Index scriptorum )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(operumque Latino-Belgicorum Medii Aevi)] TJ ET BT 237.656 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Brussels, 1973?9\) which covers Belgium. In the period )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1996?2004, as part of a collaborative project, scholars from the universities of Ghent, Leuven, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Groningen compiled the database. Regular updates are published on an annual basis. An extremely useful )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Narrative Sources User?s Guide)] TJ ET BT 191.000 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( by Professor Jeroen Deploige from Ghent University was published in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2003. Its electronic version can be downloaded, free, from the )] TJ ET BT 334.940 725.189 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Narrative Sources)] TJ ET BT 422.600 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( website.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The content of the database?a list of all medieval narrative sources, totalling 2,141 entries, across a region )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(stretching from Friesland in the north to French Flanders in the south, and from Holland and Flemish )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Flanders in the west to the northern Rhineland and Lige in the east?is in itself a superbly valuable resource. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(It is particularly valuable because it crosses modern-day political boundaries and allows access to men and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(women who wrote in a political landscape that was culturally and socially much more coherent than it is in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(our own days. We find famous authors like Lambert of Saint-Omer \(fl. c. 1120\), creator of the first medieval )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(encyclopedia, who lived and worked at Saint-Omer, one of the wealthiest towns of \(French\) Flanders, or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Lambert of Ardres \(d. after 1220\), the author of a hugely important dynastic chronicle of the relatively minor )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(comital families of Gunes and Ardres from the area north of Boulogne, or Galbert of Bruges, the first clerk-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(journalist who recounted, with horror, the murder of Count Charles the Good in 1127. But we also have )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(many less well-known authors. One of them is Emo of Huizinge \(d.1237\), abbot of Bloemhof, a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Premonstratensian monastery at Wittewierum in the northern province of Groningen. Although he features )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in the database because he wrote an invaluable chronicle of his monastery with lots of contemporary detail )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from across Europe \(thanks to his rapportage of the 1217 crusade\), he is also important for another reason, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(particularly in England. Together with his brother Azzo he was one of the first attested students of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(university of Oxford, where he went for its expertise in Canon Law. In his Bloemhof chronicle he harks back )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to his youth when he toured Western Europe in pursuit of teachers, thirsty for an education that was only )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(scarcely available at home. It is for these reasons that I shall take Emo as an example to assess the value and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(user-friendliness of the )] TJ ET BT 147.656 442.325 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Narrative Sources)] TJ ET BT 235.316 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( database. How, then, do we set about finding him?)] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Once you have typed in the URL for the )] TJ ET BT 230.312 416.069 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Narrative Sources)] TJ ET BT 317.972 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( database \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 369.284 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.narrative-sources.be)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 369.284 414.675 m 523.916 414.675 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 526.916 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([3])] TJ ET BT 540.908 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\) )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(you are directed to its home page where you are invited to choose between the two languages in which the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(database may be interrogated \(Dutch or English\). Once you have made your choice, you are taken to a menu )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(screen. This gives you a choice of seven options. The database itself is the second on the list; the others link )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to a note on presentation, tools, related websites, and recent publications. Although you can freely choose )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(any of these options, you will be required to enter your name, email address, and affiliation before you are )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(actually given access to the database. The users? email addresses are collected by the owners of the database )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for follow-up information about new or updated entries.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The database itself is the raison d?tre of the website. If you know the name of the author you are interested )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in, you type his first name into the search field. In our case, this is Emo. Non-medievalists may note that in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(medieval studies the use of the first, rather than the last, name is standard practice. If known, you can also )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(add the author?s last name and/or his geographical origin. However, nowhere does it tell you, unless you )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(have read the presentation section first, that you have to use the language in which the author wrote when )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(entering this information. Emo wrote in Latin, but because his name is unusual and has no modern )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(equivalent this need not concern us here. Moreover he is the only person of that name in the database, so his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(first name alone suffices. But if you had tried to find Lambert of Saint-Omer or Lambert of Ardres you )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(would have needed to type the surname or geographical origin such as Lambertus-de-S. Audomaro or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Lambertus-presbiter-Ardensis. Otherwise it is a question of ploughing through the twenty-one results )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(achieved when searching for ?Lambertus? using only the ?author? field. These examples highlight the need )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for users to have some knowledge of the career of the person they are searching for and some Latin \(or at )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(least access to a source like )] TJ ET BT 168.644 118.949 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Orbis Latinus)] TJ ET BT 234.992 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\), as does the fact that if more search terms were required to find )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Emo, a searcher would need to know that Emo?s ?surname?, Bloemhof, becomes Floridus Hortus. This )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(classical language requirement, then, is a huge threshold to overcome, and especially tricky in this day and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(age when even amongst medieval scholars the knowledge of Latin is increasingly rare. On the other hand, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(there is perhaps no reason to criticize the )] TJ ET BT 233.300 61.925 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Narrative Sources)] TJ ET BT 320.960 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( database compilers so long as the grand )] TJ ET endstream endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 23 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 369.2837 414.9895 523.9157 426.8695 ] >> endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.narrative-sources.be) >> endobj 24 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 25 0 R >> endobj 25 0 obj << /Length 7569 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(enterprise of the )] TJ ET BT 114.992 796.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Repertorium Fontium Historiae Medii Aevi)] TJ ET BT 322.976 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( remains entirely written in Latin with no )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(concession to modern languages! But let me return to our quest to find Emo.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(If you type in ?Emo? without changing any other search option \(so that, for example, the language remains )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?Allemand?\), you will be offered eight entries on Emo. This is also the case if the searcher proceeds by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(using the index. Of the eight hits for ?Emo?, the first three are relatively unimportant. They all concern )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(another twelfth-century author, Guibert of Gembloux, secretary of the great mystic abbess Hildegard of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Bingen, who is mentioned by our Emo in his chronicle. The main entry on Emo of Bloemhof is the fourth )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(one labelled ?Emo? while the remainder concern his successor Menko \(see below\). Making changes to some )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the search options can reduce the number of hits. Typing ?Emo? and also limiting the language to ?Latin?, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for example, produces just the one result?the main entry on Emo that was the fourth hit when using the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(original search and index search.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Emo?s entry offers a typical range of search fields; some twenty-four of them in total, each identified by a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(two-letter abbreviation in the left-hand margin. They begin with the identification number \(NL0365\), type of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(source \(annals or chronicle\), language \(Latin\), author \(Emo\), and Status \(Premonstratensian monk\). This last )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(section contains a potted history of the author in Dutch and English?although at first sight it may seem that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(everything is in Dutch as the text changes to English half way through the single paragraph for this field )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(without any visual marker to indicate that it has done so. Other search fields follow which give the title \()] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Cronica Floridi Horti)] TJ ET BT 139.364 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\), the incipit or first few words of the text, the explicit or last few words \(useful in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(order to make sure that the reader can identify a potentially new mansucript text with this one\), and the size )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the work indicated by the number of chapters in the text. There then follow several more fields that give )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(information about the number of manuscripts known \(in Emo?s case there is only one contemporary )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(manuscript kept in the University Library at Groningen\), all known editions of the text \(five complete ones )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(published between 1699 and 1991, plus several abridged ones\), and all known translations \(three of them, all )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in Dutch\). Thereafter is listed the ?literature? field which contains a bibliography of all substantial )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(discussions of Emo?s work. All entries have such a bibliography, setting out the most important modern )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(studies of the authors, or anonymous narratives, in any modern language. Although all the bibliographies are )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ambitious and pretty comprehensive, many have not been updated beyond 2004; the last time a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(comprehensive editorial update took place.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The last few fields are technical references that allow the searcher to navigate further within the database. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(All of these fields can be searched and lead to other texts of the same genre, the same language, area, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(monastic order, etc. Thus the example of Emo can lead us to other thirteenth-century chroniclers in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(northern and southern Low countries, and it allows us to differentiate between them by monastic order )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Benedictine, Cistercian, Premonstatensian\) or by more specific regions, for example Groningen, Gelre, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Flanders, or Hainault, or to find the various monasteries in Emo?s homeland where chronicles were written, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Wittewierum being one of them. Since the number of early-thirteenth-century chronicles in the northern Low )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Countries is rather limited, you might wish to compare this historiographical genre with other types of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(writing such as saints? lives, miracle stories, or translation narratives \(which tell the story of the transfer of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(saints? relics from one place to another\). Searches involving any of these fields produce rich and exciting )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(yields that no conventionally printed collection of the sort described above can offer.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The information about the manuscripts of an authors? work is particularly invaluable. In the Middle Ages, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(all texts were handwritten and had to be painstakingly copied, one by one, for a story to be circulated. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(During the process of copying a chronicle or saint?s life, the scribes regularly inserted unique pieces of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(information into the original text. Hence modern historians often have to check each of the individual )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(manuscripts of a text, particularly if it has not been properly edited, to make sure that they have all the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(available information about, and variants of, that particular narrative. The database includes all known )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(manuscripts and editions of each of the narratives included. This makes it an invaluable tool for a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(comparison of writing workshops and medieval libraries across the Low Countries. In Emo?s case, as we )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(have already noted, we only have one medieval manuscript of his chronicle. But even though we have only )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the one copy, it is an extremely important manuscript because it was copied by Emo?s successor as abbot, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Menko, who continued the chronicle during his life. Hence we have in fact two authors for one chronicle in )] TJ ET endstream endobj 26 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 28 0 R ] /Contents 27 0 R >> endobj 27 0 obj << /Length 6928 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the autograph \(that is, a manuscript written in the author?s own hand\) of the second author. Emo and Menko )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(between them represent a form of historical writing that was quite common in the Middle Ages, when )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(institutional histories?whether of a monastery, bishopric, or noble family?were often continued sometimes )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(over several generations by a series of authors who kept the story alive and up-to-date. The fact that only one )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(medieval copy has survived of their chronicle illustrates another feature of medieval historical writing. As I )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(have already highlighted above, Emo?s chronicle is a valuable historical source because it contains )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(otherwise-unknown details about the history of the crusade of 1217. For present-day historians, then, a local )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(chronicle from a distant monastery in the north of the Netherlands turns out to be of utmost value, whereas )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(its medieval audience was confined to the monks of Bloemhof at Wittewierum.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The authority of the database is uncontested. It has been compiled by a group of distinguished medievalists )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from Gent, Leuven, and Groningen whose procedures have been rigorous. However, fully conscious of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fact that whatever checking mechanisms one has in place, errors can slip in, the compilers offer users the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(opportunity to submit revisions, additions, or corrections to existing database entries. This does not mean )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that the database has been ?wikified? in the sense that any user can offer uncensored revisions to any entry. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Instead corrections and additions are gathered from its readers and users and are then collated and entered )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(into the database on an annual basis.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The website contains useful sections on the presentation of the database and the tools available to access it, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and for the computer literate it has much technical information that allows the specialist to learn about the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(technical procedures that surround the compilation of the material found within it. The website also allows )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(users to link up with related websites?a technical tool that is invaluable. There are links to the hagiographical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(database of the )] TJ ET BT 108.992 487.349 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Bibliotheca Hagiographica Latina Manuscripta)] TJ ET BT 339.332 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, which lists all known manuscript of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(hagiographical texts, including those concerning the Low Countries. For readers interested in the Dutch )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(language there is an indispensable link to the )] TJ ET BT 252.656 458.837 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Bibliotheca Neerlandica Manuscripta)] TJ ET BT 434.648 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, which gathers all )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(information about manuscripts containing texts written in Dutch anywhere in the world. The most )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(comprehensive and prestigious guide to medieval narrative sources is the )] TJ ET BT 387.956 430.325 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Repertorium Fontium Historiae )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Medii Aevi)] TJ ET BT 86.336 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, based in Rome, which I referred to in my introductory paragraph. Finally, there is a link to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Labyrinth: Resources for Medieval Studies)] TJ ET BT 260.996 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( sponsored by Georgetown University \(USA\), which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(provides organized access to electronic resources in medieval studies. It seems churlish to complain about )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(any negative aspects of the opportunity to link to related websites. However, I have to say that it is a bit of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(an irritant that one is prevented from flicking between the )] TJ ET BT 313.964 359.045 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Narrative Sources)] TJ ET BT 401.624 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( database and any of its linked )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(websites without having to go through the name/email/affiliation entry procedure \(although at least it is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(enough simply to retype your name\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(All in all the )] TJ ET BT 97.352 304.277 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Narrative Sources)] TJ ET BT 185.012 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( website is an immensely valuable tool for any medievalist with an interest in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Medieval Low Countries. I use it frequently, and find that it usually supplies the information that I am )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(looking for quickly, efficiently, and correctly. But you have to allow yourself time to get used to its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(idiosyncracies, and the database still relies a little too much on the assumption that its audience is Latin )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(literate. Increasingly, sadly, this is not the case and the database compilers should note this. I recommend the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(database strongly as an extremely useful an authoritative resource for anyone interested in medieval studies.)] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 216.271 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 198.491 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 198.491 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/569)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 197.097 m 322.316 197.097 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 172.120 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 157.720 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/3879)] TJ ET BT 34.016 143.435 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://www.portahistorica.eu/review-of-digital-source-editions/narrative-sources-from-the-medieval-low-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 129.064 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(countries)] TJ ET BT 34.016 114.664 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([3] http://www.narrative-sources.be)] TJ ET endstream endobj 28 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 29 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 197.4115 322.3157 209.2915 ] >> endobj 29 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/569) >> endobj xref 0 30 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000342 00000 n 0000000379 00000 n 0000000556 00000 n 0000000659 00000 n 0000006129 00000 n 0000006238 00000 n 0000006348 00000 n 0000006457 00000 n 0000010018 00000 n 0000010146 00000 n 0000010230 00000 n 0000010358 00000 n 0000010522 00000 n 0000010650 00000 n 0000010814 00000 n 0000010940 00000 n 0000011104 00000 n 0000011188 00000 n 0000019642 00000 n 0000019770 00000 n 0000019853 00000 n 0000019918 00000 n 0000027540 00000 n 0000027624 00000 n 0000034605 00000 n 0000034733 00000 n trailer << /Size 30 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 34828 %%EOF