%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 17 0 R 25 0 R 33 0 R 56 0 R 86 0 R ] /Count 6 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140917102439+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140917102439+01'00') /Title (The Gentleman's Daughter. Women's Lives in Georgian England.) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R 15 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4802 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(The Gentleman's Daughter. Women's Lives in Georgian England.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.115 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Amanda Vickery's new book is largely based on several rich collections of women's letters and diaries, most )] TJ ET BT 34.016 358.859 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(notably those of Elizabeth Parker Shackleton, whose family belonged to the lesser gentry and mercantile )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.603 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(elite of Lancashire in the eighteenth century. These women's voices -- in turns passionate, pious, sentimental )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.347 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and sardonic, resentful and resigned -- vividly emerge in Vickery's narrative, who herself writes in a witty )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.091 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and colourful manner.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 289.835 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Gentleman's Daughter)] TJ ET BT 163.904 289.835 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( is, however, two different sorts of books struggling to coexist within one )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.579 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(binding: a potentially popular history, and an historiographical intervention of mixed success. It could be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(seen as a colourful recounting of eighteenth century women's lives which might appeal to the same audience )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as Stella Tillyard's)] TJ ET BT 122.840 247.067 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [( Aristocrats.)] TJ ET BT 182.180 247.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Vickery is at her best when she analyses these eighteenth-century women's )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(diaries and letters from their own point of view, stressing the values they held most dear: prudence and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(propriety, politeness, gentility, economy, and motherhood.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Vickery provides a useful modification to the late 1970s hypotheses of Lawrence Stone and Randolph )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Trumbach that the eighteenth century witnessed the rise of the affective family and an increasing emphasis )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(on equality, affection, and romance in marriage.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 264.956 163.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 264.956 162.393 m 278.948 162.393 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 278.948 163.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( While acknowledging that parents were less likely to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(force unwanted spouses on their children, Vickery asserts that fortune and rank still predominated as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(considerations in choosing a spouse, although she also points out prudence and passion were not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.019 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(incompatible. Vickery subtly untangles the complicated nexus of "power, duty, and honour" in the letters )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from the long courtship of Elizabeth and Robert Parker, which took seven years to overcome her father's )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.507 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(disapproval, demonstrating that these missives both evinced intense, spontaneous emotion, and drew upon )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.251 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contemporary epistolary and literary genres of romance.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 51.995 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Once couples were married, Vickery finds, they often enjoyed a genuine companionship and affection for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.699 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(57)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.187 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.931 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Tuesday, 1 September, 1998)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.675 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.419 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Amanda Vickery)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.163 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.907 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1998)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.651 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.395 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Yale University Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.139 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.883 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(New Haven, CT)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.627 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.371 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Anna Clark)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj [6 0 R /Fit] endobj 15 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 16 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 264.9557 162.7075 278.9477 174.5875 ] >> endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 20 0 R 23 0 R ] /Contents 18 0 R >> endobj 18 0 obj << /Length 7734 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(many years. She juxtaposes the earthy "delights and drolleries" of the mid-eighteenth century Ramsdens )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with the sentimental dependence of the early nineteenth-century Whitakers, although she does not ask )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(whether they represent changing times. As she demonstrates, contra Stone and Trumbach, while literature )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(increasingly celebrated romantic marriage, companionship and affection did not require equality; couples )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(assumed that husbands should be masters. Marriages worked best, however, when husbands tempered their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(prerogatives with kindness instead of constantly asserting dominance. And a few marriages, she reveals, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were very unhappy and violent indeed, such as those of Elizabeth Shackleton Parker and Ellen Weeton )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Stock. Even in less extreme cases, she eloquently and perceptively notes, a wife's "superficial deference" to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(her husband's mastery could "mask a contemptuous heart," citing E.P. Thompson's insight that the same man )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(who tugged his forelock to the squire by day might write a threatening anonymous letter to him at night. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This is an insight into the deferential nature of eighteenth century society that might have been further )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(developed.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Unfortunately, Vickery does not extensively discuss the problem of married women's control or lack thereof )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(over their property, not only in terms of separation but in terms of marriage settlements and dower rights, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which was a vexed and controversial issue in the eighteenth century. She neglects to consider the argument )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of Susan Staves, who asserts that by the late eighteenth century, courts became more reluctant to cede )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(women's control over their property in marriage settlements and separation agreements.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 454.424 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 454.424 554.979 m 468.416 554.979 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In one of her best chapters, she combines astute historiographical analysis with an empathetic and often )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(harrowing description of the pains and joys of motherhood. Vickery follows Linda Pollard and other )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historians who some years ago refuted Aris's thesis that early modern parents did not care about their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(children in an era of high infant mortality, but she also asserts that childbirth was difficult and dangerous for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(women in the face of medical historians who claim that maternal mortality was "only" 6-7%. She also )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(counters the valorization of midwives with the information that these genteel women often preferred highly-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(skilled male accoucheurs to untrained women.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Vickery begins the book by drawing upon her well-known article which critiques what she sees as the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(central concepts of women's history: a decline from a golden age, the public private division, the notion of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(separate spheres.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 115.316 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 115.316 388.419 m 129.308 388.419 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 129.308 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( She adroitly refutes the notion of a 'golden age' in which women enjoyed greater )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(autonomy in the seventeenth century which they lost by the eighteenth by pointing out that this pattern of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(decline and fall is seen in most centuries studied by women's historians. When it comes to intervening in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(more current historiographical debates about separate spheres and the public and private, however, Vickery )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is less convincing. She critiques what she sees as the orthodoxy of women's history: that during the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(eighteenth century women were forced into a passive, feminine role in a secluded domestic private sphere, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(helpless and deprived of any public place. To argue against this notion, Vickery makes two somewhat )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contradictory claims. She asserts that the idea that the confinement of women to the domestic sphere and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(their exclusion from the public was nothing new, going back to Aristotle and the bible. But she also wants to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(argue that eighteenth century women were not passively secluded in the home, but active agents, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(increasingly venturing out into public spaces.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The first problem with Vickery's argument is that this alleged feminist orthodoxy wildly caricatures the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(women's history of the last ten years, which becomes clear when the reader glances at the notes for this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(assertion. Most of Vickery's sources for this orthodoxy come, not from current feminist historiography, but )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from old chestnuts of Victorian studies published in the 1940s and 1950s, plus a few sources from the early )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(days of women's history in the late 1970s. Martha Vicinus' edited volume, )] TJ ET BT 392.972 163.973 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Suffer and Be Still )] TJ ET BT 483.644 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1972\)is cited, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(but not her )] TJ ET BT 89.012 149.717 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(A Widening Sphere:)] TJ ET BT 185.660 149.717 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [( Changing Roles of Victorian Women )] TJ ET BT 368.324 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1977\). She does include more current )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(work on the ideology of late Victorian education, but this cannot illustrate the feminist historiography about )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 94.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Vickery's chief target, however, seems to be a more recent work, Leonore Davidoff?s and Catherine Hall's )] TJ ET BT 34.016 80.693 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Family Fortunes: Men and Women of the English Middle Class)] TJ ET BT 338.996 80.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1780-1850\(1987\). However, Davidoff and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 66.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Hall's argument is much more sophisticated than a crude dichotomy of passive femininity and active )] TJ ET BT 34.016 52.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(masculinity. They demonstrate that the definitions of "public" and "private" were not eternal, unchanged )] TJ ET endstream endobj 19 0 obj [17 0 R /Fit] endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 21 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 454.4237 555.2935 468.4157 567.1735 ] >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 22 0 obj [17 0 R /Fit] endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 24 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 115.3157 388.7335 129.3077 400.6135 ] >> endobj 24 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 25 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 28 0 R 31 0 R ] /Contents 26 0 R >> endobj 26 0 obj << /Length 7976 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(since Aristotle, but, as Leonore Davidoff has recently noted, unstable and mutable, "constantly shifting, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(being made and remade," especially in the eighteenth century.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 332.180 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 332.180 780.819 m 346.172 780.819 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 346.172 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Davidoff and Hall's central hypothesis is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that the ideology of domesticity unified a middle class divided by region, economic interests, politics, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(religion. This ideology, they stress, did not always correspond to public and private, masculine and feminine, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for middle-class men were intensely involved in home and family. While traditionalists may have always )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(told women to stay in the home, the very meaning and function of domesticity were dramatically changed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for the middling sort of people with commercialization, professionalisation, urbanisation, and the consumer )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(revolution. Similarly, the meaning of the "public" was transformed in the eighteenth century with the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(challenge to royal and aristocratic power and the rise of associational life. Furthermore, Davidoff and Hall )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(present a complex chronology of the evolution of separate spheres in which women's exclusion from work )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and politics occurred at different times in terms of ideology and actuality, as both the economy, and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(political worlds, were transformed. The reaction against women's political role came in the 1 790s, with the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(French revolution, as part of a wider crackdown on radicalism. Although the withdrawal of middle-class )] TJ ET BT 34.016 611.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(women from productive work took place very gradually over the course of a century, domestic ideologues )] TJ ET BT 34.016 596.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(did not widely denounce middle-class women's productive role until the 1830s and 1840s, when any gainful )] TJ ET BT 34.016 582.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(employment aside from teaching irrevocably damaged a lady's gentility.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Subsequent articles and books, of course, have modified the chronology and challenged some of the content )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of this hypothesis. How does Vickery's book compare? In her introduction, Vickery seems reluctant to place )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(her women within the historiography of the middle class, airily dismissing "the ever-emerging middle class" )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(along with "the insidious rise of capitalism, the collapse of community, [and] the nascent consumer society" )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as phenomenon to be found in "almost any century", and the industrial revolution as vastly exaggerated \(p. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(3\). Like "virtue" "the public" and "the private", the "middle class" is a term which obsessed eighteenth-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(century people, but upon whose definition they could not agree. But that is no excuse for historians to side-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(step the question. Vickery defines her people as belonging to "polite" society, the intermarried ranks of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(lesser gentry and wealthy professionals and merchants of rural Lancashire society. By demonstrating the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(lesser gentry's espousal of domestic practices and values, Vickery wants to undermine Davidoff and Hall's )] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(central hypothesis, that domesticity unified the middle class. However, during the mid eighteenth century, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(she notes, some sources )] TJ ET BT 151.664 399.557 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(did)] TJ ET BT 167.000 399.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( define these people as the middle class. And one of her major sources is the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(diary of Ellen Weeton Stock, a governess from the Preston area. Miss Weeton married Aaron Stock, who )] TJ ET BT 34.016 371.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [("leased a Wigan factory from [her brother's] mother-in-law." The couple first lived "at the back of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(factory" but "moved to polite Standishgate once Aaron Stock's enterprise, bolstered by his wife's modest )] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(capital, began to prosper"\(p. 77\). Surely this is a perfect example of Davidoff and Hall's hypothesis that as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(middle-class manufacturers became more wealthy they moved their families away from the workplace to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 314.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(suburbs; if not, it deserves more than a cursory discussion \(as on p. 35\) concerning the similarities and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 299.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(differences between manufacturing families and the mercantile/gentry elite. Letters and diaries are extremely )] TJ ET BT 34.016 285.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rich sources, but it might have been helpful in establishing the representativeness of these people to provide )] TJ ET BT 34.016 271.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(census material and more detailed accounts of the economy, and indeed, more on the lives of these women's )] TJ ET BT 34.016 256.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(husbands and male relatives.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(And in Vickery's account, these women's lives )] TJ ET BT 260.300 230.741 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(were)] TJ ET BT 283.628 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( more confined to the private domestic sphere than their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(counterparts in the greater gentry and nobility. Although Vickery's women occasionally handled estate )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(matters in their husband's absence, she notes that "denied access to the professions and public office, women )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(could not pass on the invisible mysteries of institutional power or professional expertise to their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(descendants." Instead, they generally concerned themselves with their domestic responsibilities, which were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(considerable: overseeing servants, not only on the house but the home farm in land-owning families, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sewing clothes and linens for the family. But interestingly, these women did not prepare food with their own )] TJ ET BT 34.016 130.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(hands. Domestic tasks could subtly differentiate rank.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 291.980 130.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(5\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 291.980 129.555 m 305.972 129.555 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 305.972 130.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Furthermore, genteel and land-owning women )] TJ ET BT 34.016 116.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(probably always had similar tasks in overseeing estates and accumulating and looking after fine things, but )] TJ ET BT 34.016 102.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the consumer revolution meant that women of the middling sort now lived in a new world of domestic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 88.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(possessions.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Vickery caricatures the work of Smail, Davidoff and Hall in which "a prudential bourgeoisie is perennially )] TJ ET endstream endobj 27 0 obj [25 0 R /Fit] endobj 28 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 29 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 332.1797 781.1335 346.1717 793.0135 ] >> endobj 29 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 30 0 obj [25 0 R /Fit] endobj 31 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 32 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 291.9797 129.8695 305.9717 141.7495 ] >> endobj 32 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 33 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 36 0 R 39 0 R 42 0 R 45 0 R 48 0 R 51 0 R 54 0 R ] /Contents 34 0 R >> endobj 34 0 obj << /Length 8761 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contrasted to an aristocracy that is mad, bad, and dangerous to know." As these historians, and I myself, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(have long pointed out, the image of the libertine aristocracy was an ideological trope constructed by middle-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(class and working-class activists to justify their own claims to superior virtue and political power, rather )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(than a description of the behaviour of all or even most aristocrats.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 349.292 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(6\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 349.292 752.307 m 363.284 752.307 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 363.284 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Libertinism cut through all ranks of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(eighteenth century society, from the plebeian to the middle class to the elite. Vickery's work shows Ellen )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Weeton and Elizabeth Shackleton terrorized by their libertine husbands. As Margaret Hunt points out, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(middle class families were terrified that their sons would fall prey to gambling, drinking, and womanizing.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 545.960 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(7\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 545.960 709.539 m 559.952 709.539 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(But while a libertine husband was disastrous to Elizabeth Shackleton, the consequences for a )] TJ ET BT 482.948 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(manufacturing, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(commercial, or professional family were even more severe than for a land-owning family, for their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(prosperity depended on their credit, which depended on their reputations, not just for public, but for private )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(probity. To be sure, many aristocratic and gentry families did espouse the virtues of chastity, sobriety, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(regularity, economy, and the rational use of time, but as Margaret Hunt and Gary Kelly argue, this can be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(seen as the "embourgeiosement" of the upper class, a defense against the middle class assertion of superior )] TJ ET BT 34.016 611.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(virtue, even as middle-class traders emulated gentry ideals as well. Whether or not this is true, it is an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 596.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(argument that needs to be dealt with, not dismissed out of hand.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 340.328 596.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(8\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 340.328 595.491 m 354.320 595.491 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In Vickery's conclusion, she does concede that significant changes occurred especially by the late eighteenth )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(century: the celebration of romantic marriage, the striking expansion of sociability through assemblies, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(pleasure gardens, and so on, the sentimentalization of motherhood, the rise of politeness, the expansion of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(women's literary culture. But she does not seem to have gone back and reintegrated these phenomena into )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(her earlier chapters, where she seems to want to argue that women's roles as wives and mothers did not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(change significantly over the centuries. By her conclusion, however, she echoes Linda Colley to suggest that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [("the well documented struggles of privileged Victorian women to participate more fully in institutional )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(public life represent less a reaction against irksome restrictions, recently imposed, than a drive to extend yet )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(further the gains made by their Georgian predecessors.")] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 301.508 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(9\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 301.508 455.187 m 315.500 455.187 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 315.500 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( This argument runs the danger of replacing the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(old assumption of decline from a golden age into a new Whiggish narrative of an ever-expanding feminine )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(role. Instead, we need a more nuanced analysis and more carefully delineated chronology of shifting and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(highly contested definitions of public and private, masculine and feminine, middle class and genteel, during )] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(this period.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Many "publics" expanded during the eighteenth-century, and women's access to them varied considerably )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(geographically and over time. The "public" could be defined as politics, whether local or national; public )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(social spaces; or the literary public, to name a few. In the 1770s and 1780s, aristocratic women were often )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(denigrated as abandoning domesticity for the "bon ton," the world of fashion. In a related work, Dror )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Wahrman suggests that divisions between a national culture of "Society" and local, provincial culture might )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(have been more relevant than those between the middle class and the aristocracy.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 423.584 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(10\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 423.584 300.627 m 443.576 300.627 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 443.576 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Vickery hints at the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(possibility that this might be the case, in the beginning of the book defining her people as those genteel )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(women who did not attend the London season. But when she wants to argue that women enjoyed wider )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(opportunities to participate in public, her focus moves to the court, opera, theatre, and pleasure gardens of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(London. Although her rural Lancashire women did enjoy provincial assemblies, they tended to retreat from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(society upon the birth of their children \(understandably mired in domesticity\), while their husbands )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(continued to hunt and enjoy the socializing connected with rural governance. To be sure, women's activity in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(local public assemblies \(balls and parties\), as Leonore Davidoff pointed out years ago in )] TJ ET BT 460.940 202.229 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Best Circles)] TJ ET BT 540.272 202.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cemented together political alliances and drew the lines of social distinction.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 400.964 187.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(11\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 400.964 186.579 m 420.956 186.579 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 420.956 187.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( But as John Smail asserts )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(out, middle-class men organized in all-male associations to gain control over local governance: a much more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(powerful "public" domain.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 162.128 159.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(12\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 162.128 158.067 m 182.120 158.067 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Vickery's women, in fact, seemed more domesticated than those of the ranks below them and just above )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(them. Lower down the social scale, plebeian and even lower-middling tradeswomen were extensively )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(organized in female friendly societies, but Vickery's ladies would only have been involved as patronnesses, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rather than members who would enjoy raucous monthly meetings in pubs. As Elaine Chalus's recent work )] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reveals, genteel women of the land-owning elite played an important role in the networks of patronage and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(deference which tied together eighteenth century rural society, entertaining voters in their great country )] TJ ET endstream endobj 35 0 obj [33 0 R /Fit] endobj 36 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 37 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 349.2917 752.6215 363.2837 764.5015 ] >> endobj 37 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 38 0 obj [33 0 R /Fit] endobj 39 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 40 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 545.9597 709.8535 559.9517 721.7335 ] >> endobj 40 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 41 0 obj [33 0 R /Fit] endobj 42 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 43 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 340.3277 595.8055 354.3197 607.6855 ] >> endobj 43 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 44 0 obj [33 0 R /Fit] endobj 45 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 46 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 301.5077 455.5015 315.4997 467.3815 ] >> endobj 46 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 47 0 obj [33 0 R /Fit] endobj 48 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 49 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 423.5837 300.9415 443.5757 312.8215 ] >> endobj 49 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 50 0 obj [33 0 R /Fit] endobj 51 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 52 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 400.9637 186.8935 420.9557 198.7735 ] >> endobj 52 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 53 0 obj [33 0 R /Fit] endobj 54 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 55 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 162.1277 158.3815 182.1197 170.2615 ] >> endobj 55 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 56 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 59 0 R 62 0 R 64 0 R 66 0 R 68 0 R 70 0 R 72 0 R 74 0 R 76 0 R 78 0 R 80 0 R 82 0 R 84 0 R ] /Contents 57 0 R >> endobj 57 0 obj << /Length 10785 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(houses, corresponding with their husband's allies, and, in the case of great ladies such as the Duchess of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Devonshire lobbying members of Parliament.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 252.992 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(13\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 252.992 780.819 m 272.984 780.819 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 272.984 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( But although some of their relatives belonged to these )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(higher circles, Vickery's ladies, perhaps because their husbands did not have such political clout, do not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(seem to have played such a role. What are the implications of this absence of female political influence on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the politics of Vickery's genteel folk? They were the sort of men who organized the Yorkshire Association )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(movement for parliamentary reform in the 1780s, attacking the aristocratic politics of place and patronage )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and asserting their own political manhood. If such gentry and middle-class people shared domestic values, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(does this help explain why the assertion of a separate middle class identity did not gain ground until the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1790s, if Dror Wahrman's hypothesis is correct?)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 265.796 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(14\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 265.796 681.027 m 285.788 681.027 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 285.788 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Did the early nineteenth century middle-class men who )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(asserted their superior domestic morality thus simply appropriate as their own values shared by the gentry )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and the bourgeoisie? It is possible that the adoption of domestic values by )] TJ ET BT 391.652 653.909 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(men,)] TJ ET BT 414.644 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( not only women, might be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(more significant here, as Davidoff and Hall have shown.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The hypothesis that women's political activity was repressed in the key decades of the 1790s through the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(early 1810s remains unrefuted. Colley's ladies' patriotic associations were ridiculed at the time, and do not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(represent a significant political force. To be sure, Vickery has unearthed some fascinated tidbits about early )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(nineteenth century genteel women's book clubs, and cites the work of Clare Midgeley to demonstrate that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(women engaged in associational life \(in this case, anti-slave trade associations\) by the 1830s and 1840s. \(l5\) )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(But feminist historians have long argued that women and even conservative men defined domesticity as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(including the tasks of visiting the poor, running charitable societies, and managing their own households )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with scientific efficiency: Hannah More reiterated that women must never step out of the bounds of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(charitable, the humanitarian, and the village into the wider world of masculine politics. While later women )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(such as Midgeley's anti-slave trade activists\) could manipulate domesticity into justifying a humanitarian )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(intervention, the limitations of this approach transformed many of them into feminists who challenged )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(separate spheres head on.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In sum, Amanda Vickery's book, )] TJ ET BT 195.152 430.325 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Gentleman's Daughter)] TJ ET BT 325.040 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, if read as a study of women's diaries and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(letters, reveals the sardonic, shrewd, compassionate, and humorous voices of these women and their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historian: but it does not succeed in giving us a new paradigm for women's history.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 366.915 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 336.298 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 336.293 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Lawrence Stone, )] TJ ET BT 147.656 336.293 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Family, Sex and Marriage in England, 1500-1800)] TJ ET BT 409.304 336.293 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(1977\) and Randolph )] TJ ET BT 64.016 322.037 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Trumbach, )] TJ ET BT 119.336 322.037 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Rise of the Egalitarian Family)] TJ ET BT 286.340 322.037 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(1978\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 324.332 322.037 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 324.332 320.643 m 378.320 320.643 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 307.786 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 307.781 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Susan Staves, )] TJ ET BT 133.016 307.781 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Married Women's Separate Property in England, 1660-1833)] TJ ET BT 424.556 307.781 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(1990\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 462.548 307.781 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 462.548 306.387 m 516.536 306.387 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 293.530 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(3.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 293.525 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Amanda J. Vickery, "Golden Age to Separate Spheres: a Review of the Categories and Chronology of )] TJ ET BT 64.016 279.269 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(English omen's History," )] TJ ET BT 187.076 279.269 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Historical Journal)] TJ ET BT 276.080 279.269 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( 36, 2 \(1993\) pp. 383-414.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 402.068 279.269 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 402.068 277.875 m 456.056 277.875 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 265.018 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(4.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 265.013 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Leonore Davidoff, "Regarding some old husband's Tales: Public and Private in Feminist History," in )] TJ ET BT 64.016 250.757 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(her )] TJ ET BT 82.340 250.757 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Worlds Between. Historical Perspectives on Gender and Class)] TJ ET BT 383.648 250.757 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(1995\) p. 228.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 454.640 250.757 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 454.640 249.363 m 508.628 249.363 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 236.506 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(5.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 236.501 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(For an example of the domestic education appropriate to each rank, see Sarah Scott, )] TJ ET BT 469.928 236.501 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(History of Sir )] TJ ET BT 64.016 222.245 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(George Ellison)] TJ ET BT 137.012 222.245 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. 766\) vol. 1 of 2, p. 263.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 256.340 222.245 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(5\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 256.340 220.851 m 310.328 220.851 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 207.994 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(6.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 207.989 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Anna Clark, )] TJ ET BT 125.672 207.989 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Women's Silence, Men's Violence: Sexual Assault in Britain, 1770-1845)] TJ ET BT 470.768 207.989 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(1987\); )] TJ ET BT 512.096 207.989 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The )] TJ ET BT 64.016 193.733 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Struggle for the Breeches: Gender and the Making of the British Working Class)] TJ ET BT 447.320 193.733 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(1995\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 485.312 193.733 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(6\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 485.312 192.339 m 539.300 192.339 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 179.482 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(7.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 179.477 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Margaret Hunt, )] TJ ET BT 140.996 179.477 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Middling Sort: Commerce Gender and the Family in England, 1680-1780)] TJ ET BT 516.632 179.477 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(1996\) )] TJ ET BT 64.016 165.221 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(pp. 31, 215.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 121.016 165.221 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(7\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 121.016 163.827 m 175.004 163.827 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 150.970 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(8.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 150.965 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Gary Kelly, )] TJ ET BT 123.668 150.965 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Women, Writing, and Revolution. 1790-1827)] TJ ET BT 339.320 150.965 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(1993\) p. 3.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 398.312 150.965 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(8\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 398.312 149.571 m 452.300 149.571 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 136.714 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 136.709 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Linda Colley's book is )] TJ ET BT 174.848 136.709 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Britons: Forging the Nation, 1707- 1837)] TJ ET BT 370.856 136.709 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(1992\) )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 408.848 136.709 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(9\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 408.848 135.315 m 462.836 135.315 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 42.816 122.458 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(10.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 122.453 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Dror Wahrman, "National Society, Communal Culture," )] TJ ET BT 337.448 122.453 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Social History)] TJ ET BT 406.448 122.453 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( 17, 1 \(Jan. 1992\) pp. 43-72.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 64.016 108.197 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(10\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 64.016 106.803 m 124.004 106.803 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 42.816 93.946 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(11.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 93.941 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Leonore Davidoff, )] TJ ET BT 156.320 93.941 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Best Circles. 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