%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 16 0 R 18 0 R 22 0 R ] /Count 4 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20141221035211+00'00') /ModDate (D:20141221035211+00'00') /Title (Blood and Violence in Early Modern France) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R 14 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4261 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Blood and Violence in Early Modern France)] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(France in the early-modern period presents us with a range of striking images, from its bloody civil wars to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(its fabulous court at Versailles, from its swashbuckling musketeers to its mistreated peasantry, all of which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(feature in the pages of this impressive monograph. For Stuart Carroll it is noble violence, especially in its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(vindicatory aspect, that ties together and explains these contrasts. Taking as his time-frame the fifteenth )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(through to the eighteenth centuries, and using evidence drawn from memoirs, court records, and letters of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(remission, he disentangles the changes and continuities in, and the myth and reality of, elite behaviour. In )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(particular, he sets out to challenge the prevailing historiography that associates the early-modern period with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a process of the ?civilization? and subjugation of the nobility. In part, he attributes previous )] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.019 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(misunderstandings to a lack of precision about the use of contemporary language, for instance, the failure to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 130.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(recognize the development of duelling in all but name over a much greater than usual timespan. It is often )] TJ ET BT 34.016 116.507 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(stated that early-modern French society was peculiarly violent; Stuart Carroll?s book confirms this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 102.251 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(hypothesis and goes much further than any previous work in explaining why this was so.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 75.995 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The subject matter treated here reminded this reader of a quotation regarding a quite different historical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.739 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(context: ?Aristocrats were brutal in all periods; it was one of the signs of aristocracy? \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 450.932 61.739 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 450.932 60.345 m 456.932 60.345 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 456.932 61.739 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\). Whilst this is a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.699 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(572)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.187 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.931 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thursday, 1 February, 2007)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.675 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.419 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Stuart Carroll)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.163 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.907 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9780199290451)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.651 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.395 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2006)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.139 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.883 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(60.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.627 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.371 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(384pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.115 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.859 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Oxford University Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.603 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher url:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.347 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://ukcatalogue.oup.com/product/9780199290451.do)] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.091 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 313.835 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Oxford)] TJ ET BT 34.016 299.579 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 285.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Penny Roberts)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 15 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 450.9317 60.6595 456.9317 72.5395 ] >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 17 0 R >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Length 7714 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(crude simplification of what this book is about, at the same time it is peculiarly apt since Carroll makes so )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(much of the continuity of the medieval inheritance of noble violence and the conventions of the blood feud )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in particular. The public defence of a kin group?s honour lay at the heart of many an episode as it had done )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for centuries. The concept also encapsulates the sheer nastiness of much of the violence perpetrated, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(although Carroll demonstrates that it was usually far from gratuitous and uncontrolled, or, indeed, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(preserve of the aristocracy. Whilst nobles continued to defend their right to seek satisfaction for the injuries )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(committed against them, social mores and public opinion demanded the careful observation of codes of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(behaviour which involved reconciliation as well as bloodshed. Like the more intensively-studied popular )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(violence of the French religious wars, Carroll instructs us, noble disputes were ritualized and symbolic, not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mindless and cynical. They encompassed obligation and exchange, calculated risk, and, at some point, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(resolution. Nevertheless, French nobles fell victim to, and perpetrated, a far higher rate of killing than even )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the most violent modern society. And, just as with popular religious violence, the symbolism of these acts )] TJ ET BT 34.016 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(could lead to excessive abuse of the victim?s corpse.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Part I of the book discusses the origins and common causes of feud between and within noble kin groups: )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(disputes over marriage; division of property and inheritance; status and precedence; and hunting rights. It )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(also dissects the conventional stages of a dispute and its escalation, from verbal insults or intimidation )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(through to attacks on an opponent?s property, animals, servants, and associates \(the cutting of ham-strings a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(speciality\). Killing, however, was not always, or even usually, the end result. The extent of the revenge to be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(undertaken had to be carefully judged against the seriousness of the offence, the relative status of the parties )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(involved, and the support they could attract, as well as the fortuitous opportunities which presented )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(themselves. Certain locations, such as the parish church, lent themselves to public confrontation, although )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(acts of revenge could, and did, take place anywhere. Ambush and disguise were common methods used to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(obtain the advantage, and Carroll is particularly good at demonstrating that all kinds of underhand methods )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were exploited to outmanoeuvre an opponent and were viewed as legitimate. Although cold-blooded killing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ran contrary to conceptions of chivalric fair play, it seems that such considerations were routinely flouted. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Often murders were presented in the courts as acts of unpremeditated self-defence. The routine carrying of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(an increasing range of lethal weaponry and the wearing of concealed mail armour, however, reveals how )] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ready the nobility were for combat and how easily incidents could turn bloody. As a result, more fatalities )] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(occurred, whilst magistrates became more adept at analysing wounds to confirm or negate a defendant?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 371.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(story. However, it was the rise of duelling from the 1520s, reaching its heyday a century later, which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(exacerbated this trend in French society. Indeed, Carroll argues that duelling was a ?peculiarly French )] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(disease? among all social groups, and far more brutal than elsewhere, which the authorities could do little to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(curb \(p. 153\). It is the evidence from post-mortems, he concludes, rather than conduct books, that are the real )] TJ ET BT 34.016 314.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(guide to the effects of duelling and its more unpleasant and destructive aspects.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In Part II, Carroll takes us away from the theatre of the duel to the drama of the courts and the notoriously )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(corrupt French judicial system. Nevertheless, justice was heavily weighted in favour of the social elite and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(nobles favoured litigation as another means of attacking rivals and deflecting condemnation of their own )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(behaviour. Many were skilled in manipulating the system of proliferating courts to suit their own ends, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to frustrate those of their adversaries, through flexing their financial muscle and exploiting patronage )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(networks. Even if convicted, nobles were rarely executed and other punishments were often evaded. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(legal process did not preclude resorting to violence; a duel could offer a cheaper and swifter resolution. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ideally neither the courts nor the duel should have been preferred to the path of reconciliation with an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(enemy, and it was the crown in particular that claimed its traditional right to mediate between the parties. At )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the highest level the king and his council could intervene, with pardons acting as a widespread form of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(crown patronage, but other bodies and individuals also oversaw the process. However, negotiations and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 130.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mediation could easily break down, especially at a time of political instability, and the reputation of the king )] TJ ET BT 34.016 116.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as dispenser of justice and peacemaker could suffer, as it did during the religious wars. Thus, peace could )] TJ ET BT 34.016 102.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(become as politicized as violence. Finally, in this section, Carroll discusses the role of women in the feud. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 88.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Control of female sexuality was paramount in defending the honour of a kin group and generated many )] TJ ET BT 34.016 73.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(disputes. He asserts, however, that women were not just passive victims but active participants in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 59.669 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(encouraging and restraining acts of bloodshed. Furthermore, despite the usually negative interpretation of )] TJ ET endstream endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 20 0 R ] /Contents 19 0 R >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Length 7543 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(edicts reinforcing patriarchy in the period, they often served to protect women?s interests by prohibiting )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(abduction and allowing legal separation in cases of domestic violence.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In Part III, the chronology of duelling is more closely scrutinized including what conclusions can be drawn )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from the rough-and-ready statistics provided by problematic and incomplete sources. Nevertheless, a pattern )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(does seem to emerge that suggests that traditional noble violence not only continued into the early-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(eighteenth century, but at certain times increased in intensity and fatality?particularly in the seventeenth )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(century. The religious wars added a further dimension to existing animosities, but the violence was checked )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to some degree by the crown up until 1589 \(after the assassination of the Guise brothers by order of Henri III )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in December 1588\). Each of these periods is treated in turn beginning with the wars.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 644.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Although the conflict did not initiate vindicatory violence, which also continued after the wars had finished, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 629.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(nevertheless it ?turned the feud into the blood feud; revenge killing into vendetta? \(p. 267\). The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(demobilization and return of French troops after the Italian Wars and the legitimating ideology of religion )] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(combined to devastating effect. Aristocratic involvement also increased and culminated in the ongoing feud )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(between the respective kin and clients of the Guise and Montmorency families. At first the Guise struggled )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to win support for their cause, but by 1572 popular and royal animosity toward the Calvinist noble )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(leadership coincided with the Guise obligation for revenge in the murder of Admiral Coligny. The constraint )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(exhibited by the duke of Guise during the ensuing St Bartholomew?s Day massacre underlines the personal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(nature of his actions. Under Henri III \(1574?89\) a lid was kept on animosities for a time, but they became )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(intensified as a result of the rise of the Catholic League, the king?s own vindicatory acts, and the increase of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(duelling. Here Carroll?s argument might have benefited from engagement with that of Xavier Le Person )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(regarding the tensions and dissimulation of Henri?s court which would reinforce many of the points he )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(makes \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 71.672 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 71.672 471.699 m 77.672 471.699 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 77.672 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\). Thereafter, Henri IV?s martial proclivities, and the instability of his widow?s regency after his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(own assassination, did nothing to improve the situation in the early-seventeenth century. The 1620s saw a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(peak in duelling, and, although Richelieu managed to rein in these activities for a time, they returned with a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(vengeance during the subsequent minority of Louis XIV. In addition, it was not just the sword nobility but )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(also that of the robe which adopted the duelling ethos. Despite this overlap in behaviour, however, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(antagonism between robe and sword remained. Fiscal officials in particular, as well as the intendants, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(attracted hostility from both provincial nobles and the people because of their encroachment on local )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sensibilities. The reinvigoration of royal authority under Louis XIV?s personal rule from the 1660s, and his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(more conciliatory approach and active opposition to duelling, did most to mitigate violence against his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(officials. Accompanied by a growing enthusiasm among the elite for a vigorous Catholic Reformation piety )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and a strong and stable monarchy, Carroll asserts, feud became more successfully conciliated and noble )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(violence channelled into, and legitimized through, service to the state in the army.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The overall thesis is well structured and coherent, the prose is assured and fluent, and the arguments are )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(carefully calibrated like the violence they describe. Although Carroll tries to bring some balance to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(unremitting tales of bloodshed supported by detailed examples drawn from his primary sources, the horror of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(life held so cheap remains. In particular, he wants to take to task the notion that the nobility became better )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(behaved from the Renaissance period on, weighing the pros and cons of Norbert Elias?s influential analysis )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of court culture. On the contrary, he demonstrates that political instability and the rise of duelling rendered )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(encounters and disputes more vicious and bloody than before. Furthermore, he argues that increased civility )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and brutality were able to coexist, especially at the court of Henri III. The myth of duelling as a polite )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(pastime for gentlemen in which respect and courtesy overrode vengeance and animosity is shattered. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Equally, the association of the rise of the state with teleological assumptions about the decline of the feud )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and noble autonomy is vigorously challenged. Noble codes of honour were so deeply entrenched in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(aristocratic psyche and understanding of who they were that official strictures could only go so far in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(inhibiting public displays of aggression and bravado that could, but did not always have to, lead to violence. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ultimately, the nobility are presented as victims as much of the obligations that the defence of honour placed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(upon them as of the vindictiveness of their neighbours and peers.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The immense coverage of this book rewards careful digestion, such as its revealing insights into many )] TJ ET endstream endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 21 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 71.6717 472.0135 77.6717 483.8935 ] >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 24 0 R 26 0 R 28 0 R ] /Contents 23 0 R >> endobj 23 0 obj << /Length 4280 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(aspects of noble culture \(not just its brutality\), and the vicissitudes of royal authority. It also challenges our )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(understanding of the social and political role and continuing relevance of violence, for instance that it can be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a sophisticated strategic device for establishing status and identity. It ranges widely, both in its chronological )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and historiographical awareness, providing thoughtful reflections on the changing notions of vengeance and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(civility, and the literary representation of elite violence. As befits any study of the French kingdom in this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(period, it also has a strong sense of provincial variation and local circumstances. Whilst drawing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(comparisons with the feuding culture of medieval Iceland or Renaissance Italy, at the same time this is a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(work that is specifically addressed to the peculiarities of the politics, in its widest sense, of early-modern )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(France. Carroll is keen to make some, usually well-judged, swipes, both at historians who focus only on high )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(politics and those who dismiss the value of any political approach. One of the book?s greatest strengths is its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(questioning of the neat generalizations that have coloured our understanding of this period of French history, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which makes the tidy conclusion that under Louis XIV the nobility finally realized how counterproductive )] TJ ET BT 34.016 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(its behaviour was, and its subsequent willingness to acquiesce to the admonishments of the sovereign, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 611.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(somehow less satisfying than the discussion that precedes it. Nevertheless, this is a minor quibble with a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 596.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(work that represents a significant scholarly achievement, the conclusions of which deserve wider )] TJ ET BT 34.016 582.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dissemination than among those early-modern French historians who will undoubtedly profit from its many )] TJ ET BT 34.016 568.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(insights and rethinking of the political culture of their period.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 533.475 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 502.858 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 502.853 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(C. Wickham, ?Debate: The ?Feudal Revolution??, )] TJ ET BT 308.972 502.853 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Past and Present)] TJ ET BT 390.968 502.853 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 155 \(1997\), 197. )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 479.960 502.853 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 479.960 501.459 m 533.948 501.459 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 488.602 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 488.597 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(X. Le Person, )] TJ ET BT 133.004 488.597 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Practiques? et ?practiqueurs?: La vie politique la fin du rgne de Henri III )] TJ ET BT 64.016 474.341 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(\(1584?1589\))] TJ ET BT 126.008 474.341 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Geneva, 2002\). )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 209.648 474.341 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 209.648 472.947 m 263.636 472.947 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 448.085 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 433.829 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 429.103 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 411.323 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 411.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/572)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 409.929 m 322.316 409.929 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 384.952 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.552 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/3914)] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.152 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET endstream endobj 24 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 25 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 479.9597 501.7735 533.9477 513.6535 ] >> endobj 25 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 26 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 27 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 209.6477 473.2615 263.6357 485.1415 ] >> endobj 27 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 28 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 29 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 410.2435 322.3157 422.1235 ] >> endobj 29 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/572) >> endobj xref 0 30 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000342 00000 n 0000000379 00000 n 0000000544 00000 n 0000000633 00000 n 0000004946 00000 n 0000005055 00000 n 0000005165 00000 n 0000005274 00000 n 0000008835 00000 n 0000008963 00000 n 0000009047 00000 n 0000009173 00000 n 0000009209 00000 n 0000009274 00000 n 0000017041 00000 n 0000017125 00000 n 0000024721 00000 n 0000024847 00000 n 0000024883 00000 n 0000024981 00000 n 0000029314 00000 n 0000029442 00000 n 0000029478 00000 n 0000029606 00000 n 0000029642 00000 n 0000029770 00000 n trailer << /Size 30 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 29865 %%EOF