%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 16 0 R ] /Count 3 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140818095706+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140818095706+01'00') /Title (Young Women, Work, and Family in England, 1918?1950) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 3955 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Young Women, Work, and Family in England, 1918?1950)] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Previous investigators, whom Todd scrupulously acknowledges, have focused, she argues, on London and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(on urban communities such as Preston and the Potteries with a strong tradition of working wives?or on the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(world beyond work. In pursuit of her own pioneering and ambitious project, Selina Todd has trawled a deep )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(pool of material, ranging from census data and official reports to recorded interviews with eighty-one )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(women held in museums, Record Offices, Local Studies Libraries, and the Lewes Branch of the University )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the Third Age. As she acknowledges, casual and seasonal workers, and women who made their livings as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(prostitutes or thieves, escape her net.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Todd tracks her subjects from their twelfth or fourteenth birthdays?transition from classroom to workplace )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.019 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was often shockingly abrupt?to twenty-four, the average age of the first-time bride. Between the end of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Great War and the Festival of Britain, the character of young women?s employment was transformed. In )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.507 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1918 a girl was most likely to go into service; by 1950 white-blouse jobs in shops and offices had taken the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.251 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(lead. This shift reflects profound, but uneven, changes in society, the economy, and the cultural climate of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 75.995 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(England. Todd contends that her young women were not victims but agents of change.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.739 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Todd explores the characteristics of women?s work. Conditions were often poor. In factories and workshops )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.699 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(574)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.187 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.931 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thursday, 1 February, 2007)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.675 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.419 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Selina Todd)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.163 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.907 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9780199282753)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.651 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.395 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2005)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.139 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.883 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(50.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.627 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.371 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(288pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.115 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.859 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Oxford University Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.603 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher url:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.347 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://ukcatalogue.oup.com/product/9780199282753.do)] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.091 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 313.835 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Oxford)] TJ ET BT 34.016 299.579 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 285.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Mary Abbott)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 6950 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(health and safety were at risk. Nor were high-tech enterprises exempt; in the 1920s operatives in the Ferranti )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(factory were spattered with bird droppings. Maids might have one afternoon a week to call their own. In the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(retail field the Co-op was a model employer. The Second World War, which emancipated domestic servants, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(brought factory girls music while they worked.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Todd next evaluates the contribution young women made to their families? budgets. She challenges the myth )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the male breadwinner. Young women shouldered an ?adult burden of responsibility? in families shattered )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(by the Great War or hit by unemployment?indeed the Means Test demonstrated official recognition of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(composite nature of many households? incomes. Big families could not get by on a single wage. Daughters )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(who ?put something back into the house? were rewarded. There were ?wee extras? on the table; their ?clout? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(increased. Todd underlines?and illustrates through case studies?dramatic regional variations in occupation )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and in young women?s participation in the workforce. In Leicester, nine out of ten went into employment. In )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Northumberland, only half left school for paid work. Miners, relatively well-paid, prided themselves on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?keeping [a] lass at home?. Mill workers? daughters learned to weave while still at school, running looms )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(while their mothers popped home to see to chores.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Between the wars the authorities displayed considerable interest in the strategies young people used to find )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(work. In contrast, youngsters and their parents had little time for Employment Bureaux. Family, friends, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(neighbourhood networks operated as careers advisers and employment agencies. Family traditions )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(determined many destinations: ?I was born in a lace work-cot?, a Nottingham woman explained. The new )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?plum? jobs in factories, in offices and in shops, were reserved for employees? daughters and protges. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(That having separated parents might be a bar to respectable shopwork demonstrates the gulf between the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(England of 1941 and the England of 2006.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 461.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(While their choice of a first job was severely constrained, many young women, as Todd demonstrates, had )] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the confidence to move on. Better pay was by no means their sole motive. Female friends were a major )] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(factor: they were a source of intelligence about the labour market?and they made dull work bearable. War )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(work was perceived as both patriotic and glamorous. Employment was a vehicle for social mobility. ?Good )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(service?, which provided both a training in domestic science and a social and cultural education, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(disappeared, but office work served as an escalator that could transport a young woman into the middle )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(class. Mill girls, with the means to, dressed like typists.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Family hierarchies and dynamics were mirrored in the work place: in domestic service; in family-run )] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(business; and in the relationship between a boss and his office wife. Family sponsors, crucial in job finding, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(intervened to chastise young women who misbehaved at work. Parents challenged employers when their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(daughters were unfairly treated. At the same time, family values were undermined, even in segregated, all-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(women settings. Young women acquired a, sometimes shocking, understanding of their families? place in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the social pecking order. Eavesdropping and direct questions provided an education in sex. Young women )] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(learned to subvert authority by skiving or, if paid by the piece, petty theft.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 237.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Todd plots the unsteady emergence of young women as ?worker-citizens?. The General Election of May )] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1929 was the first to give these young women a say. Patterns of union membership reflected the industrial )] TJ ET BT 34.016 208.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(labour market, peaking in times of war, dipping in the Twenties and early Thirties. Craft unions, with their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mission to protect the interests of men who had served their time as apprentices, were slow to admit women. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Unions, representing the unskilled and semi-skilled were more welcoming. With every employee a Union )] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(member, the Co-op was unique. To illustrate young women?s capacity for militancy in the workplace, Todd )] TJ ET BT 34.016 151.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(focuses on three disputes: one official; one unofficial; and, most striking, an illegal strike over )] TJ ET BT 34.016 137.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(wages?brilliantly timed and successful?at the Bath Co-op on 23 December 1941.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 111.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Todd?s final chapter tracks the escape route from work through the world of leisure and courtship to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 97.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(marriage as a career. Here, once again, she is mindful of historiographical gaps. Paid work in factories, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 82.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(shops, and offices gave young women the wherewithal to buy clothes and makeup, and to pay for hairdos )] TJ ET BT 34.016 68.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and outings to the pictures and the palais de danse with mates from work. Maids were the Cinderellas of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 54.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thirties. But girls whose income was their families? lifeline, or who stayed at home to cook, clean, mend, )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 18 0 R ] /Contents 17 0 R >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Length 1541 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and mind their siblings, had little better access to the bright lights. Determination not to start married life )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sharing with the in-laws made for long engagements.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Young Women, Work and Family in England 1918?1950)] TJ ET BT 306.668 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( is in almost every respect an admirable book?it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(does what it says on the jacket and its footnotes catalogue the rich evidence for this important topic. My only )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(regret is that, for the reader, the dense and properly cautious text is sometimes hard-going and may defeat )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(less-confident student readers.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 686.933 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 672.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 667.951 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 650.171 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 650.171 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/574)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 648.777 m 322.316 648.777 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 623.800 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 609.400 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/3934)] TJ ET BT 34.016 595.000 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET endstream endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 19 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 649.0915 322.3157 660.9715 ] >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/574) >> endobj xref 0 20 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000335 00000 n 0000000372 00000 n 0000000547 00000 n 0000000629 00000 n 0000004636 00000 n 0000004745 00000 n 0000004855 00000 n 0000004964 00000 n 0000008525 00000 n 0000008653 00000 n 0000008737 00000 n 0000008802 00000 n 0000015805 00000 n 0000015889 00000 n 0000017483 00000 n 0000017611 00000 n trailer << /Size 20 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 17706 %%EOF