%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 16 0 R 18 0 R 22 0 R 24 0 R ] /Count 6 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140827145100+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140827145100+01'00') /Title (Western Imperialism in the Middle East, 1914?1958) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 1951 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Western Imperialism in the Middle East, 1914?1958)] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.699 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(575)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.187 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.931 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thursday, 1 February, 2007)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.675 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.419 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(David K. Fieldhouse)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.163 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.907 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9780199287376)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.651 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.395 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2006)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.139 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.883 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(65.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.627 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.371 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(400pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.115 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.859 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Oxford University Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.603 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher url:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.347 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://ukcatalogue.oup.com/product/9780199287376.do)] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.091 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 313.835 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Oxford)] TJ ET BT 34.016 299.579 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 285.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Nigel Ashton)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 7612 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(D. K. Fieldhouse?s goal in this major comparative study of British and French imperialism in the Middle )] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(East is to consider the effects of the imposition of the mandate system on the former Arab provinces of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ottoman Empire. He brings to this task the wide-ranging knowledge accrued through a lifetime?s research in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(various aspects of British imperial history, and, more recently, specific regional expertise acquired through )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the preparation of his study, )] TJ ET BT 171.332 727.445 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Kurds, Arabs and Britons: The Memoir of Wallace Lyon in Iraq, 1918?1944)] TJ ET BT 538.328 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The result is a work that offers both some fascinating broader insights into the place of the Middle East in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the broader pattern of Western imperialism, and some detailed thoughts on the individual mandates )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(themselves. So, Fieldhouse argues that in the broader sense the pattern of British and French rule in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Middle East was similar to that followed elsewhere. Both imperial powers tried to rule through established )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(elites, although the British were much more willing than the French to move their mandates forward towards )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a qualified form of independence. At the specific, local level, though, Fieldhouse finds no parallel in his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(wide knowledge of imperial practice elsewhere to compare to the disastrous experiment in social and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(political engineering undertaken by the British in Palestine. Here, he pulls no punches in his criticisms. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Palestine mandate was, ?probably the most ignominious failure of its kind in British imperial history, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(first time that Britain had ended its rule without leaving an established government behind it? \(pp. 344?5\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(As Fieldhouse himself acknowledges, this study is essentially a work of synthesis, although one which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(enriches the existing scholarship by offering a series of astute assessments of the existing state of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historiographical debate in the field. Beginning with the Ottoman legacy, Fieldhouse traces the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(developments in the early years of the twentieth century, including the genesis of Arab nationalist sentiment )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and the reform of the Ottoman system. In essence, he concludes that, despite its military defeats in the early )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(years of the twentieth century, by 1914 the Ottoman Empire was in the course of reconstruction. Indeed in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(respect of the Arab lands, one can even talk of a ?reconquest? and reintegration. The great majority of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ottoman subjects remained loyal to the empire and fought for it during the First World War. There was thus )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(no pre-war inevitability about the empire?s collapse. In terms of the Arab nationalist movement, Fieldhouse )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(provides a lucid summary of the subsequent course of the historiographical debate sparked by George )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Antonius?s seminal \(and still eminently readable\) tract, )] TJ ET BT 302.648 416.069 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Arab Awakening)] TJ ET BT 403.976 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. For Fieldhouse, Antonius )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(makes a huge jump from charting the revival of cultural interest in the Arabic language, and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(development of Arab nationalist secret societies in Syria, to broader claims about the awakening of a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(widespread Arab consciousness and desire for independence.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Antonius?s arguments were challenged first by C. E. Dawn, who attacked the notion of a dominant and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ideologically based Arab nationalist movement before 1914, and held that the majority of Arab notables )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(remained loyal Ottomanists. Thereafter, Albert Hourani, while agreeing with much of Dawn?s critique of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Antonius?s arguments about pre-war Arab nationalism, argued that Antonius also placed too much emphasis )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(on the unity and solidity of the Sharif Hussein?s wartime movement. For Hourani, and subsequent )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(commentators including Mary Wilson, the Hashemites were in essence pursuing the defence of their own )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(interests via alliance with the British under the banner of Arab revolt. That Antonius overstated the unity of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Hashemite Arab Revolt, and the role of Arab nationalist ideology in its instigation, is perhaps no surprise )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in view of the support he received from the Hashemite family in his research. Indeed, the Great Arab Revolt, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as formulated by Antonius, remained an ideological reference point for the Hashemites until at least the end )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the twentieth century.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(If the Ottoman Empire was reviving itself before 1914, and if the appeal of Arab nationalism was by no )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(means widespread in the region, then the First World war emerges as the key event, which shattered the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(existing order, led to the creation of the mandates system, and originated much of the contemporary )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(instability of the region. In terms of the impact and outcome of the war, probably the most interesting and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(important question Fieldhouse addresses is why, in view of their wartime promises to the Hashemites about )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Arab independence, the British ended up cooperating with France in the establishment of a League of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Nations mandates system for the former Arab lands of the Ottoman Empire? In terms of the promises to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Hashemites contained in the famous Hussein-McMahon correspondence, Fieldhouse points to what he sees )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as the ?ambiguities and absurdities? \(p.57\) of McMahon?s 24 October 1915 letter to the Sharif. Antonius )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(too, in his original analysis of the correspondence, was scathing about the British missives, particularly, with )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 17 0 R >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Length 7533 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(his astute eye for style and dignity, the inappropriate and fawning terms in which the Sharif was addressed. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In terms of the substance of what was offered to the Sharif by the British, the correspondence certainly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(provided a weak and imprecise foundation on which to base subsequent claims to Arab independence. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Although the British allowed Feisal, Hussein?s third son, to march into Damascus at the head of the Arab )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(army in October 1918, they proved unwilling to champion his claims to retaining his Syrian kingdom once )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(his relations with the French had broken down in the wake of the 1920 San Remo conference. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(apportionment of mandates agreed between the powers at San Remo, which saw the British given )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Mesopotamia \(hereafter Iraq\) and Palestine \(sub-divided in 1922 into Palestine and Transjordan\), and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(French given Syria and Lebanon, was dictated by Anglo-French relations and interests. For the Hashemites )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(it remained a betrayal of earlier promises, although compensation was subsequently offered to them, first in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the shape of the British installation of Feisal as King of Iraq, and, later, in the form of the British )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(acquiescence in the assumption of authority in Transjordan by the Sharif?s second son Abdullah.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The British establishment of the new state of Iraq, and its political development under the mandate, is a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(matter of more than academic interest from the perspective of the early-twenty-first century. Most wisely, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Fieldhouse avoids indulging in any misplaced attempts at drawing comparisons between the British )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(imposition of political authority in the wake of their military conquest, between 1918 and 1921, and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(singular Anglo-American failure to do likewise in the wake of the contemporary invasion of Iraq, between )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2003 and 2006. Nevertheless, book reviewers have the licence to be more self-indulgent than serious )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(authors, so I trust readers will forgive me one or two comparative sallies in this direction. First of all, it is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(clear that at the end of the First World War, the British in Iraq were regarded not as deliverers, but as infidel )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(invaders. Secondly, ?post-invasion policy? was also poorly thought out. There was no clear plan for Iraq )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(between 1918 and 1920, and thus political developments were prey to competing pressures on the ground, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(bureaucratic competition back in London, and political tensions in the international arena. The result was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(drift, and it should have been no surprise when, in July 1920, a major revolt broke out in the Euphrates )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(valley against British rule. Consider Fieldhouse?s description of the causes of the revolt: ?the rising was a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(general reaction to the realities of foreign occupation, sparked off by evidence of apparent British military )] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(weakness in Mosul, and given a crusading spirit by the clerics? \(p. 87\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The costs of suppressing the insurgency were high. The British lost 426 dead, 1,228 wounded and 615 )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(missing or taken prisoner. There were around 8,000 casualties among the insurgents. What mattered more, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(though, in terms of securing the relative political stability which subsequently prevailed in Iraq through the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1920s and 1930s, was the British political response to the crisis. Here, the essence of the subsequent British )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(strategy was to co-opt, as far as possible, the existing elites. Albeit that at the apex of the Iraqi political )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(system the British imposed an alien monarch, in the shape of Feisal I, who brought with him his own )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(retainers from the Hashemite Arab army, nevertheless, their goal was to establish under him a ?national )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(government? that would attract genuine Iraqi support. Moreover, as Fieldhouse points out, once again )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(illustrating the benefit of his wide knowledge of the workings of British imperialism elsewhere, ?the key to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the British approach to creating the Iraq constitution lies in the fact that, uniquely in British imperial history, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(it was intended to lead to early independence rather than extended imperial rule? \(p. 97\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Fieldhouse is unsentimental about the realities of the political system established by the British in Iraq. It )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was ?democratic? in form only, with real power lying in the hands of a small circle of notables, and ex-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Sharifian officers close to the king. Parliamentary elections produced little more than a shuffling of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(existing pack, while, even after independence in 1932, the British remained the dominant influence behind )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the scenes until the 1958 revolution swept away the existing social and political order. In essence, what the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(British did in Iraq was to rule through, and depend on, what H. Batatu, in his monumental study, called the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?old social classes?. Moreover, their establishment of a ?centralized bureaucratic regime?, and an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?unnecessarily large army?, laid the groundwork for the subsequent revolution \(p. 116\). Thus while, in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Fieldhouse?s view, the British succeeded in creating a viable state from three former Ottoman vilayets, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in satisfying most of what they wanted in terms of their economic and strategic interests for forty years, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(thereafter they left Iraq to its own devices. ?Iraq could then fall into what became the common mould of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(other revolutionary Middle Eastern states under military regimes, almost as if the mandate had never )] TJ ET endstream endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 20 0 R ] /Contents 19 0 R >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Length 7579 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(existed? \(p. 116\). This characterization reminds me very much of the comments of one Arab official from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the former mandate administration in Palestine, who described for me the disappearance of his British )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(superiors almost overnight. ?The mandate dissolved?, he told me, ?like salt in water?.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Fieldhouse?s decision to choose 1958 as the terminal date for this volume is, therefore, logical in the sense )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that the Iraqi revolution of that year marked the effective overthrow of the social and political order )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(established by the British during the early 1920s. It is nevertheless refreshing for those of us who are used to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(having to deal with 1956 as the supposed terminal date for the British imperial role in the Middle East, to see )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(it thus subtly revised. As the former British diplomat Harold Beeley observed some while ago, ?the event )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which more than any other symbolized the end of an era was the death at the hands of the Baghdad mob? of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([Iraqi Prime Minister] Nuri Said ? for whom association with Britain had been axiomatic throughout his long )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(career? \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 75.644 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 75.644 640.515 m 81.644 640.515 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 81.644 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(While the British achieved some limited, if transient, success in Iraq, Fieldhouse finds nothing to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(recommend either the conduct or legacy of the mandate in Palestine. Whether conceived of in terms of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(British imperial interests, the interests of the indigenous inhabitants, or its longer-term effects on regional )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and international stability, British mandatory rule over Palestine was an unmitigated disaster. The Balfour )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Declaration of November 1917 was originally framed, in Fieldhouse?s view, largely ?to ensure that no )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(potentially hostile country controlled Palestine? \(p. 147\). As problems mounted in the mandate during the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1930s, a key argument against altering or surrendering it remained the fear that the French might step in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(instead. Thus, although Fieldhouse acknowledges that certain British officials were driven by a belief in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(essential justice of the Zionist cause, in his view it was principally considerations of imperial interest and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(prestige that predominated in the British acquisition and maintenance of the Palestine mandate. That the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(eventual collapse of the mandate would do significant harm to Britain in both of these respects is certainly a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(considerable irony.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In respect of British attempts to make the mandate workable, Fieldhouse points out that the principal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(difficulty lay in the attitude of the Arab majority population. The one concession which the British might )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(have offered to win over Arab opinion, the cessation of Jewish immigration, was not in their power to grant )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(under the terms of the mandate. The British also made an unfortunate choice in selecting, as the Mufti of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Jerusalem, Amin al-Husayni, who proved to be a most unreliable collaborator. Meanwhile, cooperation with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the World Zionist Organization and the Jewish community in Palestine or Yishuv, which had been the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(foundation of British rule through the 1920s and 1930s, also came under pressure in the wake of the 1939 )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(White Paper, with its proposed limits on Jewish immigration. By 1943, Fieldhouse argues, ?the majority of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Yishuv had already come to see total independence as essential and were ready to fight Britain to achieve )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(it? \(p. 186\). The 1948 dnouement in Palestine, and the unseemly British scuttle for the door without leaving )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(any effective administration behind, ranks, in Fieldhouse?s view, ?as one of the major defeats in British )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(imperial history, comparable with that by the Thirteen Colonies in 1776?83 and the fall of Singapore in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1942? \(p. 195\). In this respect one might once again note that it is odd that so much of the historiography of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the decline of the British imperial role in the Middle East has focused on the humiliation of Suez in 1956. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Certainly in terms of Arab perceptions of the British role in the region, it was the outcome in Palestine that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mattered much more in ensuing years.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Without question, the most successful outcome of the British experiment in mandatory rule lay in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Transjordan. Herein, one might observe an irony, for the British approach in Transjordan was almost wholly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ad hoc in the early years of the mandate. Indeed, even the creation of Transjordan as a separate mandate was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(largely unplanned, although Churchill?s famous description of the emirate as ?that country I created one )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Sunday afternoon? surely overstates the case. Certainly the first ruler of Transjordan, the Emir Abdullah, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(played a significant role in establishing the foundations of the state during the 1920s and 1930s, albeit that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(he could not have succeeded without British support. Here Fieldhouse draws another interesting comparison )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from his wider knowledge of British imperial rule, noting that Abdullah was in ?much the same subservient )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(position as rulers of princely states in India or in Northern Nigeria? \(p. 226\). He was the nominal ruler, but )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in practice was obliged to do as the British representative, or resident, wanted. Abdullah?s success in re-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(negotiating this position was rewarded with Transjordan?s independence after the Second World War, )] TJ ET endstream endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 21 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 75.6437 640.8295 81.6437 652.7095 ] >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 23 0 R >> endobj 23 0 obj << /Length 7450 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(although the country did not fully break free of British influence until the negotiated termination of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Anglo-Jordanian Treaty under his successor, Hussein, in March 1957.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In terms of the pattern of French mandatory rule in Syria and Lebanon, probably the more surprising element )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to emerge from Fieldhouse?s account is the extent of the similarities with the British approach. In both )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cases, the methods adopted involved ruling through elements of the established elites. In both cases, each )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(imperial power took up its mandates principally to defend perceived imperial interests against the possible )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(encroachment, or excessive aggrandisement, of the other. The main difference between the British and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(French, though, was that the French refused to offer a schedule for independence in their mandates. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Moreover, France had relatively little experience of the region to fall back on in working out how to govern )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(its mandates. The French had, in fact, done little actual fighting to gain their share of the Ottoman spoils. It )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was mainly the British determination to preserve the entente in Europe and Britain?s post-war lack of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(resources which explained their willingness to bring the French into the region \(p. 251\). Thereafter, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Fieldhouse draws an interesting comparison between the methods of French colonial rule in Syria and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(British rule in Iraq. ?The main difference?, he argues, ?lay in the faade? \(p. 260\). In Baghdad, all the main )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(departments had Iraqi ministerial heads who notionally made policy, even if in practice this had to be cleared )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with a British advisor. ?This never happened in Syria?, where all the main departments were under exclusive )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(French control. Nevertheless, the French succeeded in maintaining control because the local Syrian notables )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(proved largely docile under their rule, which effectively preserved the social status quo.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In Lebanon, meanwhile, the French found ready collaborators in the form of the Maronite Christian )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(community, which feared being swamped in an independent Arab state. France reciprocated their loyalty, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with Lebanon representing ?the jewel in its new Middle Eastern empire? \(p. 328\). Nevertheless, the carving )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(out of a greater Lebanon from Syria, incorporating large Sunni and Shia Muslim minorities, laid the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(foundations both for Lebanon?s eventual civil war, and the ultimate eclipse of Maronite leadership. In short, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Fieldhouse contends, ?it is arguable that the worst thing the French did in Lebanon was not to postpone )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(independence and continually interfere in Lebanese politics, but to create a plural society? \(p. 329\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Fieldhouse concludes his analysis with an interesting counter-factual section looking at what other outcomes )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(might have been possible had the mandate system not been imposed on the region in the wake of the First )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(World War. He effectively dismisses the possibility that the Allies might have allowed Ottoman rule in some )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(form or another to continue after the war. There had been too much blood spilt for that. What then of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(possible outcome had the British honoured their promises to the Hashemites and created an independent )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Arab state? Fieldhouse argues convincingly that a single Arab state stretching from the Mediterranean to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Yemen under the Sharif was ?beyond all probabilities? \(p. 338\). There was simply no existing political, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(administrative, or economic basis on which to found such a state. Could separate, independent Arab states )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(have survived after the war? Probably the best chance would have been in Syria, although Fieldhouse finds )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the evidence provided by the brief period of Feisal?s regime in Damascus far from promising. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(probability of success elsewhere, he believes, was even lower. Had the British simply withdrawn, then, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?there would have been no state system and probably a great deal of confusion and rivalry? \(p. 340\). The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mandates were, in theory, a good way to avoid this chaos. Had they in fact acted as devices to aid political )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(development, they could even have been a good thing. In practice, though, Fieldhouse points out \(in a choice )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(phrase\) that, ?the mandate was the weasel word that would appear to combine the reality of effective )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Western control with the ethics of President Wilson? \(p. 341\). In sum, he finds the British record as a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mandatory power to be ?very mixed? \(p. 345\). The French, meanwhile, failed to allow the development of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(true self-government. Overall, Fieldhouse?s conclusion on the effects of the system is fair and judicious, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reflecting the balanced judgements made throughout this volume: ?the mandates sowed dragon?s teeth that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were eventually to grow into the complex of tensions and despotisms that constitute the contemporary )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Middle East? \(p. 348\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(For any student wanting a good introduction to the workings of British and French imperialism in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Middle East this volume is to be highly recommended. Regional and imperial historians, too, will find food )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for thought in Fieldhouse?s cogent summaries of the evolution of the historiography in this field. Overall, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(this is a thoughtful and erudite volume which goes a long way towards locating the apparently exceptional )] TJ ET endstream endobj 24 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 26 0 R 28 0 R ] /Contents 25 0 R >> endobj 25 0 obj << /Length 1457 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(case of the Middle East in the mainstream of British and French imperial history.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [()] TJ ET BT 34.016 735.315 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 704.698 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 704.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(H. Beeley, ?The Middle East?, in )] TJ ET BT 226.988 704.693 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Special Relationship)] TJ ET BT 346.988 704.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, ed. W. R. Louis and H. Bull \(Oxford, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 690.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1986\), p. 290. )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 134.012 690.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 134.012 689.043 m 188.000 689.043 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 664.181 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 649.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 645.199 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 627.419 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 627.419 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/575)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 626.025 m 322.316 626.025 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 601.048 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 586.648 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/3936)] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.248 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET endstream endobj 26 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 27 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 134.0117 689.3575 187.9997 701.2375 ] >> endobj 27 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 28 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 29 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 626.3395 322.3157 638.2195 ] >> endobj 29 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/575) >> endobj xref 0 30 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000356 00000 n 0000000393 00000 n 0000000566 00000 n 0000000648 00000 n 0000002651 00000 n 0000002760 00000 n 0000002870 00000 n 0000002979 00000 n 0000006540 00000 n 0000006668 00000 n 0000006752 00000 n 0000006817 00000 n 0000014482 00000 n 0000014547 00000 n 0000022133 00000 n 0000022217 00000 n 0000029849 00000 n 0000029975 00000 n 0000030011 00000 n 0000030076 00000 n 0000037579 00000 n 0000037670 00000 n 0000039180 00000 n 0000039308 00000 n 0000039344 00000 n 0000039472 00000 n trailer << /Size 30 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 39567 %%EOF