%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 20 0 R 28 0 R 50 0 R 56 0 R 98 0 R ] /Count 7 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140818083420+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140818083420+01'00') /Title (Theatric Revolution: Drama, Censorship and Romantic Period Subcultures 1773?1832) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4185 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Theatric Revolution: Drama, Censorship and Romantic Period )] TJ ET BT 34.016 593.937 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Subcultures 1773?1832)] TJ ET BT 34.016 237.683 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(At the centre of David Worrall?s )] TJ ET BT 194.636 237.683 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Theatric Revolution)] TJ ET BT 290.300 237.683 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( a striking tableau is unveiled. It is around 1800, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.427 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(we are at a private party in London, attended by leading Whigs including the playwright-politician Sheridan. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 209.171 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The arrival of a surprise guest is announced, and curtains are drawn back to reveal a cleverly-lit female )] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.915 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(figure on a pedestal, ?feigning a statue?. An electric ripple of recognition runs round the room: it is Caroline, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.659 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(estranged wife of the Prince Regent, and she is in the character of Hermione in Shakespeare?s )] TJ ET BT 488.228 180.659 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Winter?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.403 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Tale)] TJ ET BT 55.352 166.403 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, a wronged queen turned to stone by a jealous king. From hollow marriage to staged funeral, Caroline?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 152.147 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(public career was a series of benefit performances. In 1821, after her return to England as would-be queen, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 137.891 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Caroline scooped the carefully-laid publicity for her husband?s coronation by acting as patron of the Royal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 123.635 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Coburg theatre, an illegitimate theatre named after Caroline?s son-in-law, Prince Leopold of Saxe Coburg, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 109.379 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which paraded an alternative-version royal theatricality from the unruly south bank of the Thames. Worrall?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 95.123 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(central chapter brilliantly recovers a lost side of the Queen Caroline affair, tracing through this one )] TJ ET BT 34.016 80.867 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(absorbing episode the roots and branches of the theatrical political culture of later-Georgian England.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 54.611 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Worrall describes the episodic studies of this rich new book as ?theatrical microhistories? \(p. 133\). Some of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 563.315 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 549.059 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(576)] TJ ET BT 34.016 534.803 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 520.547 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thursday, 1 March, 2007)] TJ ET BT 34.016 506.291 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 492.035 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(David Worrall)] TJ ET BT 34.016 477.779 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 463.523 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9780199276752)] TJ ET BT 34.016 449.267 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 435.011 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2006)] TJ ET BT 34.016 420.755 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.499 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(55.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.243 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.987 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(416pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.731 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.475 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Oxford University Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.219 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher url:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.963 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://ukcatalogue.oup.com/product/9780199276752.do)] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.707 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.451 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Oxford)] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.195 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.939 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Robert Poole)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 16 0 R 18 0 R ] /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 8193 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(these microhistories stand alone, but two themes structure groups of chapters: censorship, and political )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(theatre. His stated aim, as a scholar based in an English literature department, is to ?go beyond close )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reading? \(p. 146\) to historical context, and in this aim the book often, but not always, succeeds. Its virtues )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and its limitations raise wider issues about the limitations of text-centred cultural history, and about the \(in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(part\) unstated assumptions upon which the book rests.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The book opens with two strong declarations: ?Theatricality was a mode of public being, a representation of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the self that was not confined to dramas performed in the playhouses? \(p. 2\) and, ?links between theatre, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(visual arts \(including popular prints\), and the popular press provide much of the basis for understanding )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Georgian behaviour? \(p. 3\). Similar assertions punctuate the rest of the text: ?theatrical subcultures permeate )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the period? \(p. 30\); ?theatricality was rooted in just about every imaginable sphere of contemporary life, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(permeating Georgian culture? \(p. 218\). ?By the late 1810s?, argues Worrall, ?drama was the primary literary )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(form mediating between the British people and national issues?, reinforced by the rapid development of print )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(culture to produce, ?a change in the national infrastructure of public expression? \(p. 274\). In conclusion, he )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reiterates the case for a ?vast groundswell of popular theatricality? in the late-Georgian period. The attendant )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conflicts made theatres, ?laboratories not only of social activism but also of regulatory tactics? \(pp. 361?2\). )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This is confident and assertive cultural history. How well does it come off?)] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The regulation of drama is the subject of the early chapters. A pervasive and effective censorship, argues )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Worrall, was the dominant fact of later-Georgian theatre; we are clearly revisiting some of the territory )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(covered in his earlier book )] TJ ET BT 164.984 515.861 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Radical Culture)] TJ ET BT 241.988 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 248.984 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 248.984 514.467 m 254.984 514.467 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 254.984 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\). Worrall is critical of other scholars of romantic-era culture )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for having overlooked the determining influence of censorship. The failure to appreciate this has, he )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(suggests, distorted a whole field of scholarship. Well, maybe, but in that case he should be offering a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(coherent alternative scenario. The following chapter on ?The Regulation of the Theatres? is, however, less )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(successful, dealing with its subject in a somewhat piecemeal way, and leaving this reader still in the dark )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(about the exact framework of regulation. Those looking for a more structured approach can turn to Jane )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Moody?s more institutional study, )] TJ ET BT 201.692 430.325 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Illegitimate Theatre in London)] TJ ET BT 349.364 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 356.360 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 356.360 428.931 m 362.360 428.931 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 362.360 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\), which Worrall himself finds )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?excellent? \(p. 18\). Whereas Moody sees an escalating and ultimately successful series of challenges to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(monopoly of the three London patent theatres in this period, for Worrall the position of the patents was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(largely maintained until 1832, in active collusion with a state hegemony sustained by monopoly, censorship )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and political repression. The subsequent case study in Chapter 2 of the laboured suppression of the minor )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Royalty Theatre in the east end in the late 1780s and early 1790s does not bear out either scenario )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(particularly strongly. It is hard to see the basis for the concluding claim that through this episode the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?government must also have learned how to prosecute political radicals? \(p. 87\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Chapter 3 strikes gold, in the form of a focused study of the thirty-year run of the manuscripts of the official )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Examiner of Plays, John Larpent, in the Huntington Library. Worrall details the remarkable part played by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Larpent?s wife, Anna, in the process. Theatre censorship appears as an ?unofficial cottage industry? which a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?husband and wife team ? administered from their drawing room? \(pp. 105, 107\) as they read play scripts to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(each other by the fireside and erased any reference to revolution and subversion even in the most loyal of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contexts. It was a ?lawless, unsystematic, highly personal monopoly of literary repression? \(p. 115\). As with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the real Wizard of Oz, this is not quite what the preceding story of total hegemony had led us to expect; it is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(an enthralling piece of research.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Chapter 4, ?Theatrical Subcultures?, deals with the ?communities of skill? surrounding the scene designer )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and pyrotechnician, Philip de Loutherbourg, in the 1770s and 1780s, and the networks of freemasons and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(artisans of which he was a part. This minutely-researched cultural history rests on a somewhat narrow base )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of individual examples, but it is integrated into a wider perspective in which concerns over deception and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(disguise in freemasonry are shown to be part of a wider fear over the social consequences of acting and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(imposture in many walks of life. Chapter 5, ?Political Microcultures?, deals with the censorship of Thomas )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Dibdin?s 1800 anti-free market play )] TJ ET BT 210.980 92.693 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Two Farmers)] TJ ET BT 296.984 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. While the detailed research situating the play in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(context of the 1800 food riots is impressive, Worrall is avowedly at a loss to explain the apparent )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contradiction of a loyalist playwright portraying volunteer troops taking the side of the food rioters, and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(chapter fizzles out a fog of generalizations about social forces and boundaries crossed. There is no shortage )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 17 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 248.9837 514.7815 254.9837 526.6615 ] >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 19 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 356.3597 429.2455 362.3597 441.1255 ] >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 22 0 R 24 0 R 26 0 R ] /Contents 21 0 R >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Length 8049 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of works on the changing context of wartime loyalism to help unravel this conundrum \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 453.968 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(3)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 453.968 795.075 m 459.968 795.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 459.968 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Next, at the heart of the book, come two splendid chapters on ?The Theatricalization of British Popular )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Culture? . The Queen Caroline chapter we have already looked at. The second is ambitiously subtitled ?A )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(General Historical Anthropology?, and covers a lot of ground. Worrall brings home the physicality of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(theatre-going experience, which provided a rare common arena in which all classes, from royalty to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(unruly youth of the galleries, could participate?and, indeed, perform. He goes on to delineate, in a well-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(structured way, the various cultural tributaries of commercial drama: the actors themselves, who were part of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the metropolitan low life which they often portrayed; the song and supper clubs of the 1820s and 1830s, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?where theatre, literature, and the popular culture of the street met together in clouds of speech, song, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(alcohol, and tobacco? \(p. 241\); the tavern ?spouting clubs? of the mid-eighteenth to early-nineteenth )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(centuries \(home of Ian McCalman?s )] TJ ET BT 211.640 641.909 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Radical Underworld)] TJ ET BT 310.640 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\) \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 321.632 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(4)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 321.632 640.515 m 327.632 640.515 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 327.632 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\); the booming unregulated private theatres of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the 1820s with their disturbing ?paedophiliac tastes? \(p. 252\); the penny theatres frequented by young urban )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(working-class audiences from the 1830s; and \(a real find, this\) the working-class private theatres of the early-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(nineteenth century, a sort of thespian karaoke where people paid to perform. In a book of tightly-focused )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(studies, this chapter stands out as one which not only deepens our understanding, but also makes structured )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sense of what we already know; it will be useful to undergraduates.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Three further microhistories follow, all dealing with examples of political drama. Chapter 8 features another )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(coup in the form of the discovery of two loyalist plays written by the government spy James Powell, and of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the text of an unperformed, but extremely interesting, play called )] TJ ET BT 349.292 515.861 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Plots and Placemen)] TJ ET BT 445.280 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, written by the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(London ultra-radicals as a boisterous riposte to the suspension of Habeas Corpus in March 1817?a text )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which eluded even Ian McCalman. Upon such texts Worrall builds an argument for ?an intimate but )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(economically quite complex relationship between radical political and popular drama? \(p. 277\). Chapter 9 )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(deals with the Mary Ashford murder case of 1817?18, where, ?dramatic writing and an emerging artisan )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(theatre acted as a focus for dissertation of contemporary questions of legality, justice, politics, and, not least, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the role of women? \(p. 339\). Worrall offers an analysis of the various stage performances about the affair )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and a fascinating exposition of the antiquated device of the ?trial by battle? through which the alleged )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(murderer sought melodramatically to fend off one of his accusers. Finally, there is a lively account, using the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reports of police spies, of the theatrical goings-on at Richard Carlile?s Rotunda, particularly the staging of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Carlile?s fearlessly seditious )] TJ ET BT 174.332 373.301 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Life of [Captain] Swing)] TJ ET BT 288.692 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?though not quite as lively, it has to be said, as Ian )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(McCalman?s essay on the same subject, another conspicuous absentee from Worrall?s references \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 508.220 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(5)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 508.220 357.651 m 514.220 357.651 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 514.220 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The great strength of )] TJ ET BT 137.324 332.789 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Theatric Revolution)] TJ ET BT 232.988 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( is the sheer richness of its exploration of the sources?and the book )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is written very close to its sources. The resourcefulness which Worrall brings to the work of linking people )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and places, texts and events is impressive, and the book resounds with the eureka moments of a decade?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(lonely research. The format of a set of microhistories is probably the right one for this kind of work, which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(brings a talent for deep soundings to a range of neglected topics. Conversely, though, the book is open to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(criticism in its treatment of the wider picture. I will tackle three areas here: limited attention to secondary )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sources; the omission of melodrama; and the issue of literary versus historical methods.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Theatric Revolution)] TJ ET BT 129.680 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( is not strong in its use of the work of other authors, as has already been noticed. Worrall )] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(explains that, because of his disappointment with the reliability of secondary work, he has ?chosen largely to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rely on the interpretation of first-hand documents rather than on the insights of modern criticism? \(p. 28\), but )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(literary criticism and history are not quite the same thing. There is now quite a sizeable literature to show )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that later Georgian culture was in many ways highly theatricalized, and that a reaction set in against this in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the 1800s, leaving in the 1810s and 1820s a highly theatrical popular political culture that was to find both )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(its fulfilment and its finale in 1832. As Worrall remarks:)] TJ ET BT 64.016 97.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Something of this was picked up over forty years ago in E. P. Thompson?s memorable insight )] TJ ET BT 64.016 82.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that ?the vice of the English Jacobins ? was self-dramatization?. Certainly the link between )] TJ ET BT 64.016 68.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(political radicalism and a propensity for theatricality will be a persistent undercurrent in this )] TJ ET endstream endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 23 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 453.9677 795.3895 459.9677 807.2695 ] >> endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 24 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 25 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 321.6317 640.8295 327.6317 652.7095 ] >> endobj 25 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 26 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 27 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 508.2197 357.9655 514.2197 369.8455 ] >> endobj 27 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 28 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 30 0 R 32 0 R 34 0 R 36 0 R 38 0 R 40 0 R 42 0 R 44 0 R 46 0 R 48 0 R ] /Contents 29 0 R >> endobj 29 0 obj << /Length 7721 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 64.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(book \(p. 2\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 758.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(But we already have rather more than a ?persistent undercurrent? to sail with. Jane Moody?s )] TJ ET BT 481.244 758.213 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Illegitimate )] TJ ET BT 34.016 743.957 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Theatre in London)] TJ ET BT 123.356 743.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( aims to provide a structured ?institutional history? of its subject that will ?bring to life the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 729.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(theatrical revolution? of the period in which ?the rebellion of the minor theatres against the patent houses )] TJ ET BT 34.016 715.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(merged imperceptibly with discourses of popular representation and dissent in the political sphere? \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 516.272 715.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(6)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 516.272 714.051 m 522.272 714.051 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 522.272 715.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\). Julia )] TJ ET BT 34.016 701.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Swindells? )] TJ ET BT 89.684 701.189 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Glorious Causes)] TJ ET BT 170.024 701.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( argues \(often through dramatic texts\) that in the age of reform, popular theatre )] TJ ET BT 34.016 686.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and melodrama made ?attempts to constitute a more democratic model of actors and audiences, in a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 672.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(performance space that would help to give the people their liberty? \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 362.276 672.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(7)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 362.276 671.283 m 368.276 671.283 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 368.276 672.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\). Gillian Russell?s )] TJ ET BT 462.944 672.677 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Theatres of War)] TJ ET BT 34.016 658.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(uncovers a sort of military-theatrical complex, arguing that, ?The problem for the generals and politicians )] TJ ET BT 34.016 644.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(directing the war was that the theatricality which had attracted many men of the middling and lower orders )] TJ ET BT 34.016 629.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to the ranks of volunteers was a sign that their loyalty was not to be trusted? \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 405.968 629.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(8)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 405.968 628.515 m 411.968 628.515 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 411.968 629.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\). Anna Clark?s more recent )] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Scandal)] TJ ET BT 72.680 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( also deals with the interface between performance and politics \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 381.932 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 381.932 614.259 m 387.932 614.259 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 387.932 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\). All of these are in Worrall?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(bibliography, but their powerful and structured insights are not drawn upon, and the contextualization of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Worrall?s episodic )] TJ ET BT 127.328 587.141 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Theatric Revolution)] TJ ET BT 222.992 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( is the weaker for it.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 560.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(One area that is conspicuously absent from Worrall?s account is that of melodrama. His previous book, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 546.629 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Radical Culture)] TJ ET BT 111.020 546.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, aimed at ?eliminating melodrama? \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 290.324 546.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(10)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 290.324 545.235 m 302.324 545.235 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 302.324 546.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\), but it is more puzzling to find him still avoiding it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 532.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in a book on the theatre. ?Melodrama? is absent even from the index, although there is a lot of it in chapter )] TJ ET BT 34.016 518.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9?and, indeed, elsewhere. Melodrama has traditionally been seen as an impoverished and reactionary form, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 503.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(but Rohan McWilliam?s survey article ?Melodrama for Historians? provides plenty of reasons for taking )] TJ ET BT 34.016 489.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(melodrama seriously as a radical form \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 224.636 489.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(11)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 224.636 488.211 m 236.636 488.211 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 236.636 489.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\). Any medium characterized \(as McCalman puts it\) by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 475.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?utopianism, vilification of aristocrats, and commitment to absolute moral justice? ought to be of interest to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 461.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the author of )] TJ ET BT 98.336 461.093 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Theatric Revolution)] TJ ET BT 194.000 461.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, but Worrall seems to have a blind spot here \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 415.628 461.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(12)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 415.628 459.699 m 427.628 459.699 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 427.628 461.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\). Elaine Hadley?s superb )] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Melodramatic Tactics)] TJ ET BT 139.676 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( builds a whole cultural history around melodrama, arguing that ?the melodramatic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mode? was ?a behavioural and expressive model for several generations of English people?, and one which, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(like Worrall?s illegitimate theatre, was opposed to romanticism. Hadley includes a penetrating study of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1809 Old Price riots at Drury Lane, also covered in )] TJ ET BT 282.968 404.069 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Theatric Revolution)] TJ ET BT 378.632 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 385.628 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(13)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 385.628 402.675 m 397.628 402.675 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 397.628 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\). The work of Anastasia )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Nikolopoulou and others on melodrama addresses some of Worrall?s interests in political theatre, as does )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Louis James? 1977 essay ?Taking melodrama seriously? with its insights into the ?unexpected authenticity? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of socially-based melodrama in the 1820s \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 241.316 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(14)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 241.316 359.907 m 253.316 359.907 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 253.316 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\). More recently, Marc Brodies has demonstrated in striking )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(detail the influence of performances of )] TJ ET BT 223.292 347.045 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Wat Tyler)] TJ ET BT 270.956 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( and )] TJ ET BT 294.284 347.045 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Vive La Liberte)] TJ ET BT 368.948 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( at the Royal Victoria Theatre )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(formerly the Coburg\) on late Chartist crowds in London, arguing that ?the politics of the street and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(politics of the stage could interact and reinforce each other? \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 327.932 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(15)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 327.932 317.139 m 339.932 317.139 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 339.932 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\). )] TJ ET BT 349.928 318.533 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Theatric Revolution)] TJ ET BT 445.592 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( could only have )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(benefited from engagement with these, and other, historical works.)] TJ ET endstream endobj 30 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 31 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 516.2717 714.3655 522.2717 726.2455 ] >> endobj 31 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 32 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 33 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 362.2757 671.5975 368.2757 683.4775 ] >> endobj 33 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 34 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 35 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 405.9677 628.8295 411.9677 640.7095 ] >> endobj 35 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 36 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 37 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 381.9317 614.5735 387.9317 626.4535 ] >> endobj 37 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 38 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 39 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 290.3237 545.5495 302.3237 557.4295 ] >> endobj 39 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 40 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 41 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 224.6357 488.5255 236.6357 500.4055 ] >> endobj 41 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 42 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 43 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 415.6277 460.0135 427.6277 471.8935 ] >> endobj 43 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 44 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 45 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 385.6277 402.9895 397.6277 414.8695 ] >> endobj 45 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 46 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 47 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 241.3157 360.2215 253.3157 372.1015 ] >> endobj 47 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 48 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 49 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 327.9317 317.4535 339.9317 329.3335 ] >> endobj 49 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 50 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 52 0 R 54 0 R ] /Contents 51 0 R >> endobj 51 0 obj << /Length 8283 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The explanation for the omission of melodrama may be that it muddies the sharp political boundaries )] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(between loyalism and radicalism that are one of the core assumptions of Worrall?s work, both here and in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the earlier )] TJ ET BT 85.328 755.957 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Radical Culture)] TJ ET BT 162.332 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. Melodrama, reacting against change in the name of traditional values, hardly fits )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the model; nor do the rioter-friendly volunteer troops who so puzzled Worrall in chapter 5. In )] TJ ET BT 485.600 741.701 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Radical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Culture)] TJ ET BT 70.688 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( the pervading vision was of Britain as ?a spy culture? \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 337.640 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(16)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 337.640 726.051 m 349.640 726.051 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 349.640 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\). In )] TJ ET BT 372.632 727.445 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Theatric Revolution)] TJ ET BT 468.296 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( the hegemony is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that of the censor, a regime in which ?absolute lack of principle [was] coupled to a complete intention of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(implementing authority? \(p. 47\). We are here in a real Foucauldian pea-souper in which oppressors and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(oppressed blunder around in a fog of ever-contending discourse, the authorities always dominant, their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(subjects always resisting, the whole process producing a great deal of rhetoric but no real change?the politics )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the theoretical left, transplanted into academia. There is a lot of struggling, but not a lot of change, in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Theatric Revolution)] TJ ET BT 129.680 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, and at the end in 1831 the patent theatres remain ?uninterrupted and undisturbed? \(p. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(365\)?a sharp contrast to Moody?s success story of illegitimate drama. It is worth noting that Hadley?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Melodramatic Tactics)] TJ ET BT 139.676 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, by contrast, while informed by Foucault, explicitly rejects his ?static archaeological )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(model? as unable to account for historical specificity and change \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 351.944 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(17)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 351.944 597.747 m 363.944 597.747 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 363.944 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\). Moody, Russell, and Hadley all offer )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(more historically-grounded accounts of change than Worrall. Interestingly, though, this turns out to be not a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fault line between literature and history, but one which runs through the discipline of English literature, as it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(runs through history.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Related to this somewhat static view of hegemony is a tendency to flip-flop between the very particular and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the very general?between the foregrounded text and what is still sometimes referred to by literary scholars as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?the historical background?. Small items of evidence are held to vindicate large generalizations, as if one )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sample of the historical ether?or one spoonful of the Foucauldian soup?was as good as any other. It is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(disconcerting, for example, to be told that a retrospective account of de Loutherbourg, written at thirty )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(years? distance by a known forger, ?serves to connect and empirically confirm the materiality of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historicism which has here been described? \(pp. 165?6\). Later, writing of two political plays, one written by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a government spy and the other a pamphlet never seriously intended to be performed, Worrall states: ?these )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(two works, along with the other plays discussed here, present definitive evidence that drama was the premier )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(genre of choice for political activists? \(p. 278\). Again, we are asked to accept that a bit of early product )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(placement in Dibdin?s 1819 )] TJ ET BT 172.004 387.557 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Melodrame Mad)] TJ ET BT 252.320 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, in the form of puffs for the short-lived velocipede craze and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for the century-old Sun and Norwich fire insurance companies, ?mark a qualitative transformation, a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(movement in popular theatre which was receptive towards the capital?s increasing concern with intellectual )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(property and social mobility as it developed in the nineteenth century? \(p. 266\). Generalizations such as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(these are scattered throughout the book, punctuating rather than structuring it. Quite why literary scholars )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(and indeed postmodernists\) can be rigorous over textual details one minute and reach for easy )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(generalizations the next is one of those mysteries of the age which may in time find its own cultural )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historian. I had to gather the overarching statements cited in the third paragraph of this review from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(throughout the book; it would have been interesting to have had them worked up by its author into a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(prologue or epilogue to frame the microhistories, rather than scattered around like clues.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The criticism has gone far enough, and it is time to recall the virtues of David Worrall?s generally-excellent )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(book. Literary scholars and historians have a habit of not quite seeing eye-to-eye over subjects of common )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(interest and retiring to their corners disappointed. Worrall?s work, with its energy-releasing fusion of text )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and context, demonstrates that this need not be so. He often works through texts, but overwhelmingly the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(text is invoked in service of the context rather than vice-versa \(unlike in some versions of the new )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historicism\). At their best, these theatrical microhistories are deeply researched and sparkle with insight, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historians and literary scholars alike will find them fascinating.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(To finish with a piece of microhistory, I am not convinced that Worrall?s identification of the prisoner-poet )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(at the centre of the Spencean play )] TJ ET BT 198.968 106.949 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Plots and Politics)] TJ ET BT 284.312 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( with Thomas Evans is the full story \(pp. 303?7\). An )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(aspiring ?epic Miltonic poet?, arrested at home near Manchester amongst ?pen, ink and paper?, this figure )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(also has much in common with Samuel Bamford, the Lancashire radical leader. The rising for which he was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(arrested is less likely to be the June 1817 Pentridge rising than the March 1817 Manchester rising, in )] TJ ET endstream endobj 52 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 53 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 337.6397 726.3655 349.6397 738.2455 ] >> endobj 53 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 54 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 55 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 351.9437 598.0615 363.9437 609.9415 ] >> endobj 55 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 56 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 58 0 R 60 0 R 62 0 R 64 0 R 66 0 R 68 0 R 70 0 R 72 0 R 74 0 R 76 0 R 78 0 R 80 0 R 82 0 R 84 0 R 86 0 R 88 0 R 90 0 R 92 0 R 94 0 R 96 0 R ] /Contents 57 0 R >> endobj 57 0 obj << /Length 11713 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(connection with which the real Bamford was \(mistakenly\) arrested. Bamford had met the London ultra-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(radicals as part of a provincial delegation in January 1817, and claimed that the scheme to march on the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(capital from Manchester had ?followed us from London?. He also attended one of the London ?free-and-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(easies? \(18\). A few weeks later, parts of Southey?s insurrectionary play )] TJ ET BT 380.924 753.701 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Wat Tyler)] TJ ET BT 428.588 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( were read at another )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(London free-and-easy. Shortly after that, on 26 March 1817, extracts from )] TJ ET BT 393.932 739.445 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Wat Tyler)] TJ ET BT 441.596 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( were reprinted in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(radical )] TJ ET BT 69.668 725.189 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Black Dwarf)] TJ ET BT 130.664 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( on the very weekend of the Manchester rising. Perhaps they were connected, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(perhaps \(to make a lunge in the fog\) elements of David Worrall?s )] TJ ET BT 351.944 710.933 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Theatric Revolution)] TJ ET BT 447.608 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( were also enacted in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the provinces.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 661.779 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 631.162 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 631.157 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(D. Worrall, )] TJ ET BT 122.000 631.157 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Radical Culture: Discourse, Resistance and Surveillance, 1790?1820)] TJ ET BT 455.972 631.157 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Hemel Hempstead, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 616.901 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1992\). )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 98.012 616.901 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 98.012 615.507 m 152.000 615.507 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 602.650 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 602.645 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(J. Moody, )] TJ ET BT 115.352 602.645 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Illegitimate Theatre in London 1770?1840)] TJ ET BT 320.024 602.645 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Cambridge, 2000\). )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 420.344 602.645 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 420.344 601.251 m 474.332 601.251 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 588.394 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(3.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 588.389 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(I. C. Dyck, )] TJ ET BT 120.008 588.389 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(William Cobbett and Rural Popular Culture)] TJ ET BT 332.360 588.389 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Cambridge, 1992\); idem., ?William Cobbett )] TJ ET BT 64.016 574.133 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and the Rural Radical Platform?, )] TJ ET BT 224.660 574.133 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Social History)] TJ ET BT 293.660 574.133 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(1993\); P. Spence, )] TJ ET BT 388.316 574.133 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Birth of Romantic Radicalism: )] TJ ET BT 64.016 559.877 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(War, Popular Politics and English Radical Reformism, 1800?1815)] TJ ET BT 385.688 559.877 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Aldershot, 1996\); S. Semmel, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 545.621 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Napoleon and the British)] TJ ET BT 185.024 545.621 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(New Haven and London, 2004\); J. E. Cookson, )] TJ ET BT 422.660 545.621 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The British Armed Nation )] TJ ET BT 64.016 531.365 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(1793?1815 )] TJ ET BT 121.016 531.365 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Oxford, 1997\). None of these is in Worrall?s bibliography. )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 410.300 531.365 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 410.300 529.971 m 464.288 529.971 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 517.114 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(4.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 517.109 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(I. McCalman, )] TJ ET BT 133.340 517.109 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Radical Underworld: Prophets, Radicals and Pornographers in London, 1795?1840)] TJ ET BT 64.016 502.853 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Cambridge, 1988\). )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 161.336 502.853 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 161.336 501.459 m 215.324 501.459 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 488.602 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(5.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 488.597 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(I. McCalman, ?Popular irreligion in early Victorian England: infidel preachers and radical theatricality )] TJ ET BT 64.016 474.341 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in 1830s London?, in )] TJ ET BT 169.016 474.341 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Religion and Irreligion in Victorian Society)] TJ ET BT 378.680 474.341 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, ed. R. W. Davis and R. J. )] TJ ET BT 64.016 460.085 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Helmstadter \(Routledge, 1992\). )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 218.996 460.085 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(5\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 218.996 458.691 m 272.984 458.691 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 445.834 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(6.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 445.829 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Moody, )] TJ ET BT 104.684 445.829 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Illegitimate Theatre)] TJ ET BT 200.348 445.829 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, pp. 1, 9, 146?7. )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 283.676 445.829 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(6\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 283.676 444.435 m 337.664 444.435 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 431.578 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(7.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 431.573 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(J. Swindells, )] TJ ET BT 128.024 431.573 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Glorious Causes: the Grand Theatre of Political Change 1789?1833)] TJ ET BT 458.696 431.573 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Oxford, 2001\), p. )] TJ ET BT 64.016 417.317 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(38. )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 82.016 417.317 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(7\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 82.016 415.923 m 136.004 415.923 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 403.066 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(8.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 403.061 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(G. Russell, )] TJ ET BT 120.020 403.061 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Theatres of War: Performance, Politics and Society 1790?1815)] TJ ET BT 425.996 403.061 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Oxford, 1995\), pp. 50?1. )] TJ ET BT 64.016 388.805 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Similarly for Hadley \(n. 12 below, ?pervasive theatricality ? turned into fears of widespread )] TJ ET BT 64.016 374.549 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(imposture?, p. 22\). )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 157.340 374.549 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(8\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 157.340 373.155 m 211.328 373.155 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 360.298 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 360.293 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(A. Clark, )] TJ ET BT 111.344 360.293 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Scandal: the Sexual Politics of the British Constitution)] TJ ET BT 374.360 360.293 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Princeton University Press, 2004\). )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 64.016 346.037 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(9\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 64.016 344.643 m 118.004 344.643 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 42.816 331.786 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(10.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 331.781 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Worrall, )] TJ ET BT 107.336 331.781 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Radical Culture)] TJ ET BT 184.340 331.781 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, p. 3. This earlier work also claimed to be ?a theorized book?, which is much )] TJ ET BT 64.016 317.525 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(less explicitly the case with )] TJ ET BT 199.004 317.525 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Theatric Revolution)] TJ ET BT 294.668 317.525 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 300.668 317.525 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(10\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 300.668 316.131 m 360.656 316.131 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 42.816 303.274 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(11.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 303.269 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(R. McWilliam, ?Melodrama and the Historians?, )] TJ ET BT 301.652 303.269 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Radical History Review)] TJ ET BT 415.640 303.269 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 78 \(2000\), 57?84. )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 509.960 303.269 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to )] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 509.960 301.875 m 549.956 301.875 l S BT 64.016 289.013 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(11\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 64.016 287.619 m 84.008 287.619 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 42.816 274.762 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(12.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 274.757 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(McCalman, ?Popular irreligion in early Victorian England?, p. 61. )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 385.640 274.757 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(12\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 385.640 273.363 m 445.628 273.363 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 42.816 260.506 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(13.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 260.501 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(E. 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James, ?Taking Melodrama seriously: theatre, and nineteenth-century studies?, )] TJ ET BT 493.940 217.733 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(HWJ)] TJ ET BT 517.928 217.733 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 3 )] TJ ET BT 64.016 203.477 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1977\), 153. )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 126.008 203.477 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(14\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 126.008 202.083 m 185.996 202.083 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 42.816 189.226 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(15.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 189.221 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(M. 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