%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R ] /Count 2 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140416120725+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140416120725+01'00') /Title (The Sounds of Silence: Nineteenth-Century Portugal and the Abolition of the Slave Trade) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4029 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(The Sounds of Silence: Nineteenth-Century Portugal and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 593.937 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Abolition of the Slave Trade)] TJ ET BT 34.016 237.683 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Unequivocally, until today the vast majority of the academic works on the history of the abolition of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.427 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(transatlantic slave trade have focused on the British side of the story. Having said that, it is also true that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 209.171 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(during recent years more and more studies have addressed the processes of abolition in countries and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.915 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(territories of Africa, the Americas, and Europe. )] TJ ET BT 263.948 194.915 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Sounds of Silence)] TJ ET BT 369.608 194.915 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, first published in Portuguese and now )] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.659 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(opportunely translated into English, is a particularly meticulous study on the obstacles that the abolitionist )] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.403 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cause had to face throughout the first half of the nineteenth century in one of the most pro-slave trade )] TJ ET BT 34.016 152.147 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(countries in the western hemisphere: Portugal.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 125.891 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The book is divided into six main chapters, each of them discussing a specific period of the battle for the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 111.635 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(abolition of the slave trade, but always keeping an eye on the internal and external political developments )] TJ ET BT 34.016 97.379 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that affected Portugal. Chapter 1 explores the origins of Portuguese abolitionism and how the commitments )] TJ ET BT 34.016 83.123 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the wealthy Portuguese affected the effective development of abolitionist ideas. Marques is keen to note )] TJ ET BT 34.016 68.867 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(how ?Tolerationism? usurped the place of ?Abolitionism? and how policies from above shackled any )] TJ ET BT 34.016 54.611 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(attempts of changing public opinion on the necessity of bring the Portuguese involvement in the slave trade )] TJ ET BT 34.016 563.315 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 549.059 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(577)] TJ ET BT 34.016 534.803 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 520.547 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thursday, 1 March, 2007)] TJ ET BT 34.016 506.291 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 492.035 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Joo Pedro Marques)] TJ ET BT 34.016 477.779 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 463.523 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9781571814470)] TJ ET BT 34.016 449.267 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 435.011 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2006)] TJ ET BT 34.016 420.755 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.499 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(50.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.243 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.987 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(304pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.731 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.475 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Berghahn Books)] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.219 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher url:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.963 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.berghahnbooks.com/title.php?rowtag=MarquesSounds)] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.707 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.451 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Oxford)] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.195 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.939 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Manuel Barcia)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 16 0 R ] /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 5762 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to an end.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Chapter 2 is particularly good. Here Marques examines in-depth the diplomatic battles that the Portuguese )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(authorities had to fight against British pressures after the end of the Napoleonic wars. He reveals the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(stratagems of the Portuguese diplomats in the Congress of Vienna, and the way in which they reluctantly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(agreed to sign the Convention of 28 July 1817, with the British instituting the right of search for slaves, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the establishment of Courts of Mixed Commissions devised to look after the effective abolition of the trade )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in the Atlantic.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 672.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Supported by a vast array of primary sources, Marques deals in chapters 3 and 4 with what was possibly the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 658.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(most politically complicated period in the modern history of Portugal. Here he wisely wades through the two )] TJ ET BT 34.016 644.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(decades that followed the independence of Brazil. This Portugal is a convulsing kingdom, suddenly deprived )] TJ ET BT 34.016 629.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of its main source of wealth, but also, alas, relieved of its slaves. However, despite losing Brazil, Portuguese )] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(merchants did not stop trading in slaves, but, as Marques explains, took advantage of the various loopholes )] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(existing in the abolitionist laws to expand their businesses. In some cases these slave traders acquired fake )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(papers and flags, while in others they obtained dual passports so as to use one of them south and the other )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(north of the Equator. In these two chapters Marques also examines the characteristics of the Septembristas )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and their ambiguous positions towards the issue of Abolition, and the gradual changes in public opinion )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(about the path that Portugal should follow. Chapters 5 and 6 deal with the last years of the Portuguese slave )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(trade and with the final triumph of the abolitionist cause, which Marques called a ?victory for persistence?, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and with the aftermath of this long-lasting fight. Here, he is keen to remind us that Portugal was far from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(adopting real progressive policies, and to support this claim he recalls the history of the Portuguese policies )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(concerning its African colonies.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 461.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The )] TJ ET BT 55.676 461.093 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Sounds of Silence)] TJ ET BT 140.336 461.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( is a solid book that we will all welcome on our shelves. The depth of Marques?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(analysis alone would be enough to make this book one of the most significant contributions to the recent )] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(scholarship on the trans-Atlantic slave trade. Nevertheless, Marques?s primary sources are tremendously )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(revealing and the variety of topics examined all together make this book a crucial piece of academic work on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the field. A few minor problems here and there undermine some of Marques?s conclusions, however. For )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(instance, he mentions the Courts of Mixed Commissions, but never really discusses them comprehensively, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(leaving us a little in the dark. The impact of the loss of Brazil is not given a full follow-up treatment )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(throughout the book?it is only thoroughly discussed in chapter 3. Finally, the ideas and personalites of some )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the most important historical characters?both Portuguese and British?are not fully explained. I would )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(have like to know more, for example, about the background and ideas of characters such as S da Bandeira )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(or the Duke of Palmela. In general, though, these are minor problems that do not affect to a great extent the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(final result. Joo Pedro Marques has given us an outstanding and refreshing book that has certainly made me )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(look at the slave trade from a different perspective, and from which I have been able to draw new )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conclusions.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 249.509 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 230.527 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 212.747 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 212.747 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/577)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 211.353 m 322.316 211.353 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 186.376 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 171.976 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/3948)] TJ ET BT 34.016 157.576 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 17 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 211.6675 322.3157 223.5475 ] >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/577) >> endobj xref 0 18 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000328 00000 n 0000000365 00000 n 0000000576 00000 n 0000000658 00000 n 0000004739 00000 n 0000004848 00000 n 0000004958 00000 n 0000005067 00000 n 0000008628 00000 n 0000008756 00000 n 0000008840 00000 n 0000008924 00000 n 0000014739 00000 n 0000014867 00000 n trailer << /Size 18 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 14962 %%EOF