%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 22 0 R 24 0 R ] /Count 4 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140722172007+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140722172007+01'00') /Title (Women in Business, 1700?1850) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4085 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Women in Business, 1700?1850)] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In )] TJ ET BT 47.012 259.067 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Women in Business, 1700?1850)] TJ ET BT 200.336 259.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, Nicola Phillips has produced a dense and absorbing study of \(British\) )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(women in business. In line with contemporary usage she employs a capacious definition of ?business? to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(consider the range, nature, and discursive representations of women?s economic activities. The first section )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the book considers the legal implications of women?s business activity. There follows a case study of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(female business networks in mid-eighteenth-century Durham, using the archive of gentlewoman Judith )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Baker. This is succeeded by a consideration of the insurance policies of the Sun Fire Insurance Company )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(between 1735 and 1845. A final section on ?Representation? contains a chapter on gender, trade, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(nationalism, and an examination of the advertising strategies of women in the London )] TJ ET BT 449.972 159.275 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Daily Advertiser)] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.019 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(between 1731 and 1775. The section concludes with a discussion of early-Victorian perceptions of female )] TJ ET BT 34.016 130.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(millinery and the plight of needlewomen.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.507 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(As this synopsis suggests, the book is not designed to be a comprehensive study of female business activity. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.251 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(As such there is comparatively little attention paid to some of the more traditional sources for such a study. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 75.995 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Trade directories are occasionally cited, but there is no substantive discussion as to their utility, and census )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.739 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(data is barely mentioned. Whilst the book thus touches lightly on broader macro-structures, an alternative )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.699 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(578)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.187 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.931 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thursday, 1 March, 2007)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.675 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.419 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Nicola Phillips)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.163 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.907 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9781843831839)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.651 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.395 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2006)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.139 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.883 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(50.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.627 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.371 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(312pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.115 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.859 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Boydell and Brewer)] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.603 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher url:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.347 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.boydell.co.uk/4383183X.HTM)] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.091 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 313.835 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Woodbridge)] TJ ET BT 34.016 299.579 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 285.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Kathryn Gleadle)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 16 0 R 18 0 R 20 0 R ] /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 8106 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(narrative framework is provided in the book?s first section, which considers a range of legal texts and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(judgements drawn from across the period. Indeed, one of the great strengths of this work is that it brings )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(legal history into fruitful dialogue with the social and cultural perspectives of women?s history. The law, as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Phillips reminds us, is not a monolithic entity, invariably dictating the contours of property relations. In )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(practice the law could be variously interpreted and enacted, resulting in a more complicated \(and often less )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(oppressive\) set of social relations. Chapter two, for example, provides careful readings of a number of legal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(treatises, enabling the author to reconstruct the ways in which legal principles might be modified by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(practitioners to allow for more socially responsive judicial decisions. Her close and scrupulous reading of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(such texts reveals that contemporary legal scholars could prove keenly sensitive to the implications of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?coverture? for married women. Indeed Lord Mansfield, the Chief Justice 1756?88, upheld women?s rights )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to separate property under equity in common law courts.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Phillips is careful not to construct a trajectory of whiggish progress regarding the treatment of married )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(women?s legal position. She notes the ways in which legal decisions were constantly reinterpreted and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(demonstrates the impact of Mansfield?s more conservative successors, such as Lords Kenyon and Eldon. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Nonetheless, she concludes that the creation of ?numerous exceptions? in the practice and interpretation of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(legal doctrine provided married women with far greater possibilities for business trading than has often been )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(recognized \(p. 47\). Furthermore, through particularizing the intricacies of various cases that came before the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Court of Chancery in the early-eighteenth century, Phillips reveals further subtleties in women?s legal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(position. As her dense case studies indicate, the ability of women to act as independent traders depended less )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(upon their marital status than upon the degree to which their local communities felt they could be regarded )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as trustworthy economic agents. Thus, women?s economic agency was enmeshed within elaborate local )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(relations and family networks. Such factors might be jeopardized both by remarriage, which had the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(potential to unsettle kinship loyalties, as well as local assumptions of status or credit worthiness. Phillips is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(lead to the conclusion that ?in equity, the existence of separate property seems to have rested on even the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(most informal of agreements?. Thus, feme covert and feme sole were ?highly contingent categories rather )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(than concrete determinants of women?s trading status? \(p. 91\). Such insights make a valuable contribution to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the ongoing reassessment of women?s legal position. As Margot Finn argued in 1996, ?the law of coverture )] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is best described as existing in a state of suspended animation?.wives? legal inability to contract and litigate )] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(debts was often ignored or attenuated in practice? \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 279.284 385.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 279.284 383.907 m 285.284 383.907 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 285.284 385.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Phillips?s painstaking account involves the minute recounting of exemplary cases. This is a strategy which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rightly restores the experiences of marginalized historical agents to the record. Such tireless attention to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(detail will be welcomed by scholars, but may prove at times just a little indigestible for some undergraduate )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(audiences. Equally, whilst Phillips provides a meticulous consideration of the role of businesswomen and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(networks in the life of Judith Baker of Durham \(see chapter five\), the non-specialist may find Helen Berry?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(recent analysis of the same material a more approachable text, providing, as it does, such an instructive )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(engagement with a wide range of historiographical themes \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 321.956 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 321.956 272.115 m 327.956 272.115 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 327.956 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\). On the other hand a comprehensive survey of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the data gleaned from the Sun Fire Insurance office provides Phillips with a range of fascinating material )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with which to question pessimistic accounts of female economic agency in this period. This includes a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(discussion of the activities of female insurance agents, as well as a broader consideration of contemporary )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(women?s sophisticated business approaches. Her sample indicated widespread practices of risk )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(diversification, with women often supplementing business activities with property investment. Although )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(women remained clustered in small enterprises, Phillips notes that the range of individual trades in which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(they engaged actually increased over the period. These are important findings. It is possible that their impact )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(might occasionally have been yet greater had Phillips juxtaposed this material with a broader range of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sources. For example, in a comparable analysis based upon the same archive, Alison Kay has traced )] TJ ET BT 34.016 130.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(individual female policy holders back to census data to construct a richer picture of these women?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 116.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(circumstances \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 108.992 116.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(3)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 108.992 115.299 m 114.992 115.299 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 114.992 116.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\). Yet these caveats aside, Phillips?s handling of this data is compelling.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Phillips appears to be most at home when helping the reader to make sense of the dense and technical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(material relating to business or legal history. Nonetheless, her section on ?Representation?, whilst slightly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(uneven in execution, raises intriguing issues. One of the most interesting chapters investigates the intricate )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 17 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 279.2837 384.2215 285.2837 396.1015 ] >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 19 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 321.9557 272.4295 327.9557 284.3095 ] >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 21 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 108.9917 115.6135 114.9917 127.4935 ] >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 23 0 R >> endobj 23 0 obj << /Length 7433 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(connections between gender, trade, and nationalism. Here Phillips has identified a ?language of praise )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(available for women in business within patriotic discourses? \(pp. 176?7\). Phillips?s illuminating discussion )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the Society for the Encouragement of Arts, Manufactures and Commerce, founded in 1754, illustrates )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(how female business initiatives might be rewarded as part of a patriotic project of national progress. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(material hints at themes for further investigation. Whilst Phillips emphasizes how that society might )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(champion the national good, some of the women cited actually expressed a counter-discourse of regional )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(identity. A Mrs Croft, for example, claimed that the committee discriminated against Yorkshire women, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(such as herself, in favour of southerners \(pp. 199?200\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In chapter ten the book?s tone and focus shift to consider early-Victorian attitudes towards female milliners )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and dressmakers. Phillips concentrates largely upon the figure of the emaciated needlewomen. Greater )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(attention to businesswomen per se might have helped to cohere the various themes of the book at this point. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Nonetheless, the material raises important questions concerning the processes whereby businesswomen were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(obscured within contemporary discourses, as public concern came to crystallize around either ?exploitation )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(or domesticity? \(p. 233\). Of course, gender is differently constructed across discrete discursive sites. If the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(existence of businesswomen was rarely mentioned in government publications and prescriptive works on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(woman?s position then the same cannot be said of fiction. As any reader of Charles Dickens will know, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(economically active women were an accepted component of the contemporary imaginary. His novels are )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(bustling with female innkeepers, proprietors of dressmaking establishments \(as Phillips does note on p. 168\), )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(school-keepers, toymakers, landladies, professional artists, and midwives. Phillips?s arguments therefore )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(prompt further questions as to the uneven nature of representations of female businesswomen. Why were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(their activities ?suppressed? \(p. 253\) in some contexts, yet acknowledged in others?)] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In a similar vein Phillips?s discussion of ?Christian maternalism? \(pp. 250?3\)?in which she argues that the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(responsibilities of female employers were cast within a discourse of maternal care?will also provoke debate. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(None of the sources cited by her explicitly evoke women?s maternal responsibilities, but rather speak more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(broadly of Christian imperatives. But would not many men also articulate a Christian duty to care and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(protect employees and apprentices? Phillips argues for a distinction between ?the paternalism expected from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(male factory owners? and that exhorted of employers in the millinery sector. I would question whether this is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(simply a matter of gender. Would not the paternalism of a man who owned a factory be differently )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conceived and articulated to that of a man who owned a small-scale, home-based enterprise assisted by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(apprentices? Whilst Phillips categorizes the care of employees? morals as a distinctly feminine construct )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(here, such assumptions had, of course, been a feature of male paternalism for centuries. Early-modern )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(definitions of the family might include the extended household of apprentices and labourers, for whom the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(male head of the household was expected to assume responsibility. Further elaboration, then, as to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(qualitative distinctions between maternalism and paternalism would be helpful. Unless such terms are very )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(precisely employed there is a danger of ascribing to contemporaries more static gender codes than were, in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fact, salient. The same might be said at times of Phillips?s handling of the vexed issue of separate spheres. In )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(an insightful discussion of commercial women?s use of advertising, the author concludes that ?in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(language of advertisements the gentlewoman, more commonly associated with the private sphere, was often )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(interchangeable with the businesswoman of the public sphere? \(p. 229\). However, ?gentlewoman? was a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(term which could be used to connote social status rather than necessarily implying particularly feminine )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(qualities or behaviours, whilst the location and nature of businesswomen?s activities \(which in this study )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(includes such pursuits as midwifery, for example\) might often blur any simple dichotomy between public )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and private. I would venture that there is no need to re-inscribe the language of spheres in this way. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(wealth of Phillips?s empirical data speaks for itself and more than adequately problematizes any simple )] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(concept of gendered spheres.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Phillips?s case studies provide rich insights into the range and nature of female business enterprise. It is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(possible that readers new to the field might appreciate a more general overview of the range and nature of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(female business practice in the book?s introduction. For example, whilst we hear much of needlewomen in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the volume there are but few references to school teachers. The establishment of educational enterprises was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(such a common avenue of income generation for those of the middling sorts that its omission here seems )] TJ ET endstream endobj 24 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 26 0 R 28 0 R 30 0 R 32 0 R ] /Contents 25 0 R >> endobj 25 0 obj << /Length 3933 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(surprising. Equally, Phillips barely mentions the ubiquitous practice of female inn-keeping, nor does she )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dwell upon those activities whose business activities thrived in the interstices of the domestic and the formal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(economy?such as landladies, child-minders, and brothel keepers. However, Phillips?s work forms part of a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(broader historiographical trend. It may well be that she designedly focused upon particular issues, rather than )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(attempting a more comprehensive survey, so as to distinguish her work more clearly from other recent )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(publications in the field?most notably Hannah Barker?s )] TJ ET BT 304.316 725.189 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Business of Women: Female Enterprise and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Urban Development in Northern England, 1760?1830)] TJ ET BT 294.668 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Oxford, 2006\). Overall the eclectic format of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Phillips?s work?with its consideration of such a wide range of sources and contexts?makes for a stimulating )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contribution to this burgeoning literature.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 647.523 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 616.906 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 616.901 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(M. C. Finn, ?Women, Consumption and Coverture in England, c. 1760?1860?, )] TJ ET BT 445.328 616.901 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Historical Journal)] TJ ET BT 534.332 616.901 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 39 )] TJ ET BT 64.016 602.645 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1996\), 707. )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 126.008 602.645 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 126.008 601.251 m 179.996 601.251 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 588.394 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 588.389 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(H. Berry, ?Prudent Luxury: the Metropolitan Tastes of Judith Baker, Durham Gentlewoman?, in )] TJ ET BT 64.016 574.133 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Women and Urban Life in Eighteenth-Century England: ?On the Town?)] TJ ET BT 411.668 574.133 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, ed. R. Sweet and P. Lane )] TJ ET BT 64.016 559.877 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Aldershot, 2003\), pp. 131?55. )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 214.664 559.877 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 214.664 558.483 m 268.652 558.483 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 545.626 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(3.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 545.621 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(A. C. Kay, ?Small Business, Self-Employment and Women?s Work-Life Choices in Nineteenth )] TJ ET BT 64.016 531.365 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Century London?, in )] TJ ET BT 166.676 531.365 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Origins of the Modern Career)] TJ ET BT 311.336 531.365 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, ed. D. Mitch, J. Brown, M. H. D. Van Leeuwen )] TJ ET BT 64.016 517.109 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Aldershot, 2004\) pp. 191?206, here at p. 201.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 285.980 517.109 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 285.980 515.715 m 339.968 515.715 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 490.853 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 476.597 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 471.871 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 454.091 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 454.091 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/578)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 452.697 m 322.316 452.697 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 427.720 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.320 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/3952)] TJ ET BT 34.016 398.920 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET endstream endobj 26 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 27 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 126.0077 601.5655 179.9957 613.4455 ] >> endobj 27 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 28 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 29 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 214.6637 558.7975 268.6517 570.6775 ] >> endobj 29 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 30 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 31 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 285.9797 516.0295 339.9677 527.9095 ] >> endobj 31 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 32 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 33 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 453.0115 322.3157 464.8915 ] >> endobj 33 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/578) >> endobj xref 0 34 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000342 00000 n 0000000379 00000 n 0000000531 00000 n 0000000613 00000 n 0000004750 00000 n 0000004859 00000 n 0000004969 00000 n 0000005078 00000 n 0000008639 00000 n 0000008767 00000 n 0000008851 00000 n 0000008949 00000 n 0000017108 00000 n 0000017236 00000 n 0000017272 00000 n 0000017400 00000 n 0000017436 00000 n 0000017564 00000 n 0000017600 00000 n 0000017665 00000 n 0000025151 00000 n 0000025256 00000 n 0000029242 00000 n 0000029370 00000 n 0000029406 00000 n 0000029534 00000 n 0000029570 00000 n 0000029698 00000 n 0000029734 00000 n 0000029862 00000 n trailer << /Size 34 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 29957 %%EOF