%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 16 0 R 32 0 R 42 0 R ] /Count 4 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140818082619+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140818082619+01'00') /Title (North East England, 1850?1914) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R 14 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4394 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(North East England, 1850?1914)] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This examination of economic and urban linkages, networks, and patterns of development in the industrial )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(districts of Northumberland, Durham, and the Middlesbrough district of North Yorkshire, or in the territories )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(surrounding the estuaries of the Tyne, Wear, and Tees, is more convincing as an exercise in ?maritime-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(industrial? history than as an analysis of a ?region?. The ?dynamics? of the title are essentially economic, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(revolving around the carboniferous capitalism of coal, railways, shipping, iron, steel, and shipbuilding that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(stamped an enduring identity on this ?North East? of England. The regional label was current in some circles )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(before the First World War, as evidenced by the introductory map showing the ?North East Coast \(electrical\) )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(power system? in 1911; and companies or other organizations supplying goods, services, or media content to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.019 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(defined areas can, and do, help to develop a sense of regional identity or even of that tenebrous, shifting )] TJ ET BT 34.016 130.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(entity that John Marshall called ?regional consciousness? \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 316.304 130.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 316.304 129.369 m 322.304 129.369 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 322.304 130.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\). But a recent report by the Organisation for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 116.507 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Economic Co-operation and Development underlines that even in 2006, although this ?medium sized )] TJ ET BT 34.016 102.251 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(metropolitan area? or ?city region? \(the phrases are used interchangeably\) ?sees itself as well defined?, it is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 87.995 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(necessary to recognize that ?the North East has at least two urban economically functional regions, with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 73.739 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(extremely weak economic links between them?, as well as an extensive rural hinterland; and the report )] TJ ET BT 34.016 59.483 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(clearly envisages Newcastle as the hub of this economy, while remaining unsure about the role of County )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.699 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(579)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.187 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.931 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thursday, 1 March, 2007)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.675 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.419 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Graeme J. Milne)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.163 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.907 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9781843832409)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.651 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.395 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2006)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.139 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.883 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(55.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.627 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.371 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(240pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.115 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.859 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Boydell & Brewer)] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.603 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher url:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.347 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.boydell.co.uk/43832402.HTM)] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.091 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 313.835 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Woodbridge)] TJ ET BT 34.016 299.579 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 285.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(John K. Walton)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 15 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 316.3037 129.6835 322.3037 141.5635 ] >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 18 0 R 20 0 R 22 0 R 24 0 R 26 0 R 28 0 R 30 0 R ] /Contents 17 0 R >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Length 8790 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Durham or Middlesbrough and district in it \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 248.336 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 248.336 795.075 m 254.336 795.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 254.336 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Regional historians working on the North East England History Institute project, which has produced a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cluster of scholarly publications on the North East, including the book reviewed here, have recently )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(concluded that although ?the North East? was used as an economic descriptor in certain contexts from the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(late-nineteenth century onwards, ?a North East regional identity did not fully emerge from the many )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(overlapping identities that characterized its constituent counties until after the middle of the twentieth )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(century?, catalysed in part by the introduction of the Tyne-Tees commercial television franchise in 1959 \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 541.916 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(3)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 541.916 697.539 m 547.916 697.539 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 547.916 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\). )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This resonates with my own parallel finding that the concept of North-West England as a regional entity did )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(not become current until the end of the 1960s \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 258.980 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(4)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 258.980 669.027 m 264.980 669.027 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 264.980 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\). So the North East of Dr Milne?s book is at best a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(geographical expression, or an umbrella under which several smaller economic and cultural identities offer )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(opportunities for comparison and contrast at the level of the individual river and its ?foreland? and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?hinterland?.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Dr Milne is well aware of these issues and the problems they pose. His introductory chapter locates an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(emergent interest in the idea of British regions as economic and political entities ?from the bottom up? in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(early-twentieth century, calling as witnesses Patrick Geddes and Victor Branford, and regretting the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(subsequent preference for imposing regional structures from Whitehall rather than paying heed to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(circumstances and preferences ?on the ground?. He provides a clear territorial definition of his own version )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the region, while coming out firmly against attempts to derive the character of Tyne, Wear, and Tees on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the basis of an imagined Geordie hegemony. He makes very brief comparative comment on other British )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(regions, and emphasizes the importance of the North East?s maritime links with northern Europe, as well as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(London, as part of an international North Sea economy. But he prefers to sustain a focus on the economic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(aspects of regional development, applying a self-denying ordinance to exclude or marginalize the analysis of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(culture, politics, or, indeed \(in most respects\), social history; and his focus is emphatically on the North East )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as he defines it \(paradoxically, perhaps, as imposed ?shape on the ground? rather than as a response to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(expressed preferences of the locals\) to the exclusion of other concerns.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(As Dr Milne reminds us, regions exist in time as well as space?and may therefore be thought to expand and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contract over time \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 128.324 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(5)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 128.324 388.419 m 134.324 388.419 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 134.324 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\). His chosen region was, between the mid-nineteenth century and the First World War, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in the process of forging a set of industrial identities and associated myths by which it was to live until the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(last third of the twentieth century, based on coal mining, heavy industry, and a cluster of related export )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(trades. This distinctive image was for export as well as for domestic consumption, and neighbouring )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(onlookers from outside the charmed industrial circle sometimes looked on with undisguised envy while any )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(measure of prosperity or apparent comparative advantage endured, as the twentieth-century history of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Whitby makes particularly clear \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 195.308 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(6)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 195.308 302.883 m 201.308 302.883 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 201.308 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\). It was a strongly gendered, masculine image, and it is a pity that the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(book fails to pursue this significant dimension of regional identity \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 358.004 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(7)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 358.004 288.627 m 364.004 288.627 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 364.004 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\). Since 1970, the industrial North East )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(has been perpetuated in probably the most successful of the open-air industrial museums of the later-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(twentieth century, at Beamish in County Durham; and the difficulties inherent in creating and perpetuating a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sense of shared cultural identity across the imagined region are well expressed in the political history of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(museum itself, which had to juggle the local prejudices and political susceptibilities of a shifting spectrum of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(local and county authorities in order to achieve and sustain viability. One of the Beamish museum?s themes )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is the re-creation and representation of everyday life across the North East in 1913, at the end of Dr Milne?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(chosen period; and it may be thought ironic that this historical representation of the region as a whole, on a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contested site close \(on most definitions\) to its geographical centre, exists and exerts influence largely )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(through the diplomatic skills of the museum?s founder, Frank Atkinson, in reconciling and massaging the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(collective egos of the component parts of what he preferred to think of as ?the North of England? \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 507.908 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(8)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 507.908 146.067 m 513.908 146.067 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 513.908 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Dr Milne makes no mention of these issues, choosing to sustain his focus on the regional articulation of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(economic, business, and local government relationships across the estuaries and hinterlands of the Tyne, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Wear, and Tees. He does this convincingly, finding interesting evidence of business linkages within and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(beyond the region \(including Liverpool and the Manchester Ship Canal, as well as Northern Europe\) while )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(emphasizing the continuing predominance of Tyneside, the importance of the North Eastern Railway as a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(regional deity that pulled the localities together \(but also had to be placated by its customers\), the enduring )] TJ ET endstream endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 19 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 248.3357 795.3895 254.3357 807.2695 ] >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 21 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 541.9157 697.8535 547.9157 709.7335 ] >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 23 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 258.9797 669.3415 264.9797 681.2215 ] >> endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 24 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 25 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 128.3237 388.7335 134.3237 400.6135 ] >> endobj 25 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 26 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 27 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 195.3077 303.1975 201.3077 315.0775 ] >> endobj 27 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 28 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 29 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 358.0037 288.9415 364.0037 300.8215 ] >> endobj 29 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 30 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 31 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 507.9077 146.3815 513.9077 158.2615 ] >> endobj 31 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 32 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 34 0 R 36 0 R 38 0 R 40 0 R ] /Contents 33 0 R >> endobj 33 0 obj << /Length 7886 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(preference for dealing with neighbouring concerns based on or around the ?local? river where at all )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(appropriate, and the lack of local government articulation beyond the city and town, apart from the important )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sphere of river and estuary management. This is valuable, clear, detailed analysis, firmly grounded in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(primary sources, and would alone make the book a worthwhile purchase.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Chapter 4, on ?Making and managing the maritime landscape?, is particularly interesting and innovative, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(although it would have benefited from more engagement with the burgeoning literature on environmental )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(history, which would have added extra dimensions to the analysis \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 356.312 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 356.312 697.539 m 362.312 697.539 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 362.312 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\). But this chapter, above all, raises )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(another problem about the limited ambitions of this book. It is very firmly grounded in primary research in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(local and regional \(Tyne and Wear\) archives, and in the minutes of evidence as well as the reports of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(parliamentary commissions of enquiry; but it ignores the extensive resources of the National Archives and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the manuscript records of Parliament. These are important omissions, especially for a book that lays )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(emphasis on its maritime history dimension. The Ministry of Agriculture and Fisheries and the Ministry of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Trade files in the National Archives, dealing with \(among other things\) port and harbour investment and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(administration \(including the important question of dredging\) and commercial fisheries, would have raised )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(new questions and provided information not available elsewhere, and it is hard to believe that nothing of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(relevance would have been found in the extensive archives of the North Eastern Railway. The parliamentary )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(archives contain minutes of evidence on contested local bills involving river management and navigation, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(urban improvements, and railway extension, in which the strategic intentions behind railway promotions )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(often come to light \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 132.008 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(10)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 132.008 526.467 m 144.008 526.467 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 144.008 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\). There is also surprisingly little, to an outsider?s eye, on the role of landed estates in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(regional economic development, whether as coalowners, railway promoters, county magistrates, county )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(councillors, or in other guises. This is another area of archival research that the author has chosen not to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(pursue, as with the history of the trade union movement within and across the region. Newspapers, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(meanwhile, are used very selectively indeed. A further indication of the limits to the range of this study is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the failure of techniques of statistical analysis to go beyond the basically descriptive, as with the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(occupational classification of ?major North-East towns? in 1891?presented as Table 5.1 on p. 124?which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(offers an unduly long and complex set of categories \(several of them too small to be worth including\), puts )] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(men and women together in the same table, and fails to deploy the basic location quotients which would help )] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to make comparative sense of the material.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The author is clearly most at home in dealing with business history and business networks, especially with a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(maritime dimension and including aspects of the relationships between business and urban politics. As a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(book on these themes, this is a major contribution to our understanding of the peak period of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(industrialization in the North East; and this is no mean achievement. However, it is a pity that Dr Milne was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(unable to go the extra mile not only in extending the agenda of his primary research, but also in looking )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(comparatively at other regions in a fuller and more systematic way, in Britain if not beyond. Obvious )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(comparators, from the perspective of this reviewer, might have been Lancashire \(a good ?compare and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contrast? exercise with plenty of existing published research to draw on\), South Wales, and that Basque )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(country of northern Spain which played its own part in the development of the economy of North-East )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(England, as Dr Milne usefully demonstrates \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 252.320 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(11)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 252.320 243.603 m 264.320 243.603 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 264.320 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\). And the absence from the bibliography of Dave Russell?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(excellent recent work on ?the North in the national imagination? represents a missed opportunity to slot this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(project into a wider comparative context of interpretations of northern England \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 420.272 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(12)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 420.272 215.091 m 432.272 215.091 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 432.272 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(On its own terms, this book is a valuable contribution to the economic, business, and urban history of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(three river basins of North-East England and their relationships with internal hinterlands and international )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(trading partners. It does not meet the wider expectations aroused by its title, and its ambitions are limited by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the range of sources used and the failure to pursue wider issues of comparative identity, as well as the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(decision not to engage with wider cultural and social issues. But it is a very worthwhile addition to its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(literature.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 84.051 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 53.434 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 53.429 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(J. D. Marshall and J. K. Walton, )] TJ ET BT 221.996 53.429 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Lake Counties from 1830 to the Mid-Twentieth Century: a Study )] TJ ET BT 64.016 39.173 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(in Regional Change)] TJ ET endstream endobj 34 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 35 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 356.3117 697.8535 362.3117 709.7335 ] >> endobj 35 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 36 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 37 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 132.0077 526.7815 144.0077 538.6615 ] >> endobj 37 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 38 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 39 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 252.3197 243.9175 264.3197 255.7975 ] >> endobj 39 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 40 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 41 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 420.2717 215.4055 432.2717 227.2855 ] >> endobj 41 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 42 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 44 0 R 46 0 R 48 0 R 50 0 R 52 0 R 54 0 R 56 0 R 58 0 R 60 0 R 62 0 R 64 0 R 66 0 R 68 0 R ] /Contents 43 0 R >> endobj 43 0 obj << /Length 8889 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 64.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Manchester, 1981\), Introduction. )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 229.316 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 229.316 795.075 m 283.304 795.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 782.218 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(OECD Territorial Reviews, )] TJ ET BT 199.328 782.213 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Newcastle in the North East, the United Kingdom)] TJ ET BT 437.336 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(November 2006\), )] TJ ET BT 64.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(especially Chapters 2 and 3. )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 201.992 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 201.992 766.563 m 255.980 766.563 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 753.706 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(3.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Commentary by Dr D. Newton on the findings of ed. A. Green and A.J. Pollard, )] TJ ET BT 451.628 753.701 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Regional Identities in )] TJ ET BT 64.016 739.445 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(North East England c.1300?2000)] TJ ET BT 225.356 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Woodbridge, forthcoming 2007\), at )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 406.328 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 406.328 738.051 m 460.316 738.051 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 725.194 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(4.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(J. K. Walton, ?Imagining Regions in Comparative Perspective: the Strange Birth of North-West )] TJ ET BT 64.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(England?, in )] TJ ET BT 127.676 710.933 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(An Agenda for Regional History)] TJ ET BT 283.004 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, ed. N. Vall and D. Newton \(Newcastle, forthcoming )] TJ ET BT 64.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2007\). )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 98.012 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 98.012 695.283 m 152.000 695.283 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 682.426 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(5.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(F. Musgrove, )] TJ ET BT 131.348 682.421 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The North of England)] TJ ET BT 236.360 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Oxford, 1990\), provides a particularly mechanistic and )] TJ ET BT 64.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(inappropriate rendering of this concept. )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 256.640 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(5\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 256.640 666.771 m 310.628 666.771 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 653.914 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(6.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(J. K. Walton, )] TJ ET BT 130.676 653.909 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Tourism, Fishing and Redevelopment: Post-War Whitby, 1945?1970)] TJ ET BT 460.652 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(University of )] TJ ET BT 64.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cambridge: Institute of Continuing Education, Wolfson Lectures, Occasional Paper No. 5, 2005\), pp. )] TJ ET BT 64.016 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(8?9. )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 87.344 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(6\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 87.344 624.003 m 141.332 624.003 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 611.146 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(7.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 611.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(E. Knox, ??Keep your feet still Geordie hinnie?: women and work on Tyneside?, in )] TJ ET BT 468.272 611.141 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Geordies: Roots )] TJ ET BT 64.016 596.885 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(of Regionalism)] TJ ET BT 136.352 596.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, ed. R. Colls and B. Lancaster, \(Edinburgh, 1992\), pp. 92?112. )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 442.988 596.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(7\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 442.988 595.491 m 496.976 595.491 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 582.634 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(8.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 582.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(F. Atkinson, )] TJ ET BT 126.692 582.629 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Man who Made Beamish: an Autobiography)] TJ ET BT 361.340 582.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Gateshead, 1999\); G. Cross and J. K. )] TJ ET BT 64.016 568.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Walton, )] TJ ET BT 105.344 568.373 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Playful Crowd)] TJ ET BT 196.688 568.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(New York, 2005\), Chapter 6. )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 346.988 568.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(8\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 346.988 566.979 m 400.976 566.979 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 554.122 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 554.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(J. Sheail, )] TJ ET BT 110.684 554.117 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(An Environmental History of Twentieth-Century Britain)] TJ ET BT 379.688 554.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Basingstoke, 2002\); J. D. Porteous, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 539.861 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Environmental Aesthetics)] TJ ET BT 187.004 539.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(London, 1996\); L. E. Breeze, )] TJ ET BT 337.640 539.861 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The British Experience of River Pollution, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 525.605 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(1865?1876)] TJ ET BT 118.016 525.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(New York, 1993\); S. Mosley, )] TJ ET BT 270.332 525.605 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Chimney of the World)] TJ ET BT 396.992 525.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Cambridge, 2001\). )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 497.312 525.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(9\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 497.312 524.211 m 551.300 524.211 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 42.816 511.354 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(10.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 511.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(J. K. Walton, ?Fishing communities and redevelopment: the case of Whitby, 1930-1970?, in )] TJ ET BT 64.016 497.093 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Bridging the North Sea: Conflict and Cooperation)] TJ ET BT 306.032 497.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, ed. David J. Starkey and M. Hahn-Pedersen )] TJ ET BT 64.016 482.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Esbjerg, Denmark, 2005\), pp. 135?62; A. Delgado and J. K. Walton, ?La pesca y los pescadores en )] TJ ET BT 64.016 468.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Inglaterra y el Pas Vasco, siglo XIX-1930: los casos de Whitby y Bermeo?, )] TJ ET BT 432.956 468.581 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Itsas Memoria: Revista )] TJ ET BT 64.016 454.325 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(de Estudios Martimos del Pas Vasco)] TJ ET BT 247.016 454.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 4 \(2003\), pp. 563?82; J. Simmons, )] TJ ET BT 421.688 454.325 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Railway in Town and )] TJ ET BT 64.016 440.069 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Country, 1830?1914)] TJ ET BT 163.352 440.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Newton Abbot, 1986\). )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 281.336 440.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(10\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 281.336 438.675 m 341.324 438.675 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 42.816 425.818 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(11.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 425.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(J. K. Walton, )] TJ ET BT 130.676 425.813 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Lancashire: A Social History, 1558?1939)] TJ ET BT 331.004 425.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Manchester, 1987\); L. Castells and J. K. )] TJ ET BT 64.016 411.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Walton, 'Contrasting identities: north-west England and the Basque Country, 1840-1936', in )] TJ ET BT 508.316 411.557 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Issues of )] TJ ET BT 64.016 397.301 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Regional Identity)] TJ ET BT 147.008 397.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, ed. E. Royle \(Manchester, 1998\), pp. 44?81; R. C. Watson, )] TJ ET BT 439.640 397.301 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Rhondda Coal, Cardiff )] TJ ET BT 64.016 383.045 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Gold)] TJ ET BT 88.016 383.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Cardiff, 1997\); P. Cooke, )] TJ ET BT 220.004 383.045 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Flexibility in the Periphery: Regional Restructuring in Wales and the )] TJ ET BT 64.016 368.789 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Basque Country)] TJ ET BT 141.680 368.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Regional Industrial Resources, 1989\). )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 333.320 368.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(11\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 333.320 367.395 m 393.308 367.395 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 42.816 354.538 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(12.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 354.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(D. 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