%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 16 0 R ] /Count 3 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140721214428+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140721214428+01'00') /Title (France Since 1945) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4438 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(France Since 1945)] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.603 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(There are two qualities in Dr. Gildea?s book that are immediately apparent. The first is the sensible planning )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.347 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the contents. Beginning with "The Crisis of Empire", the last chapter is "France in search of a world role". )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.091 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The second chapter is "Crisis in the state", balanced by the penultimate chapter, "The Republic of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 301.835 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Centre". In between lie "Echoes of the Occupation" and "Cultural Revolutions", with a key central chapter )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.579 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dealing with what are called "Les Trente Glorieuses" and the markedly less successful years that followed, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which one French writer has called "Les Trente Piteuses".)] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The second quality is the amount of detail that is available in a relatively short book. We find here the well )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(known names of the Vichy past, Klaus Barbie, Touvier, Bousquet and Papon, with short explanations of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(their importance; there are the names of politicians who are recalled because they achieved fame through )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(being corrupt, names such as Medecin, Carignan and Pelat \( and although the last named is stated to have )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(died in 1989 it might have been added that he died in prison\); popular songsters are not forgotten, and find )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mention of Juliette Greco, Jaques Brel, Serge Gainsburg and Johnny Haliday, the last having his real name )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(revealed and reference being made to one of his wives \(but where is Catherine Sauvage and her overtly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(political songs ?\). We have the new Look \(Dior\), the New Philosophers \(Bernard-Henri Levy and Andre )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.019 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Glucksman\), the New Poor \(the 1980?s\), the New Right \(Alain de Benoist\), the New Society \(Chaban-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Delmas\) and the New Wave \(Chabrol and Godard\). Gildea is quite right to make no mention of the New )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.507 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Romanticism \(Gonzague de Saint Bris\), but is he justified in omitting from the catalogue of "New" the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.251 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Nouvelle Cuisine \(Bocuse\) ?)] TJ ET BT 34.016 63.995 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The comedian-clown Coluche, with his anti-racism and sympathy for the poor is given his role in politics )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.739 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(when he seeks to stand for President in 1981, and we are told that he had the support of the sociologist Pierre )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.699 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(58)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.187 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.931 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Wednesday, 1 July, 1998)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.675 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.419 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Robert Gildea)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.163 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.907 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1996)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.651 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.395 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(288pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.139 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.883 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Oxford University Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.627 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.371 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Oxford)] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.115 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.859 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Douglas Johnson)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 7036 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Bourdieu, the philosophers Deleuze and Guattari, the film stars Belmondo and Depardieu, whilst later we are )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(told of his contacts with Mitterrand via Attali and Jean-Louis Bianco and his influence amongst the socialists )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(via Julian Dray. \(But there was no need to refer twice to his rock concert on the place de la Concorde in June )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1985 and some mention should have been made to his enthusiastic following among the motor-cycling )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(community\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thus in a work which is already being used widely as a reference book and as an indispensable text book, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the role of politicians is being played down, so that some who were of considerable importance such as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Christian Pineau, Jean-Marcel Jeanneney or Edgard Pisani receive only a single passing mention. But the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(importance of cultural is continually stressed. In accordance with present preoccupations this means that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(culture is not confined to the chapter specifically designated or dealing with that subject, still less to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(work of the Ministers of Culture whom Gildea has singled out, Malraux and Lang \(other inhabitants of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rue de Valois, such as Duhamel, are not mentioned in this context\). But culture is headlined in many places.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(For example, at the beginning of the book, the author classifies the phenomenon of anti-Americanism )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(largely in cultural terms. He gives importance to the role of the supremely American drink, "Coca-Cola". He )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(shows how the pre-1939 slogan "mourir pour Danzig" was mimicked by the slogan "mourir pour le Coca-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cola" indicating a fate that was undesirable. Coca-Cola is explained as being an image. It meant American )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(capitalism, American bad taste in competition with the wine, the fruit juice and the mineral water which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were part of the French civilization. It was not only the Communists who felt deeply about the dangers of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(being "coca-colonised".)] TJ ET BT 34.016 489.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Yet the inhabitants of Ploermel, in Brittany, to take one example out of many, were not anti-American )] TJ ET BT 34.016 475.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(because of Coca-Cola. Their town had been destroyed by American bombing. The bitterness caused by high )] TJ ET BT 34.016 461.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(level bombing of the American Air Force was very real. And although it is difficult to assess the extent of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(knowledge about the history of the war years - it was widely known that Roosevelt had been a friend to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Vichy, that he had hoped to establish some sort of American provisional government in France which would )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(issue its own currency, that he had treated France as a vassal rather than an ally. If one turned to legend, had )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(not America protected German war criminals, were the Americans not pouring money into Germany, was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(not the Marshall Plan an attempt by American capital to take over France ?)] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Had Dr. Gildea pursued the theme of anti-Americanism, he would have seen how de Gaulle told, in his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Memoirs, of the American general who had tried to stop the victory parade down the Champs Elysees on 26 )] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(August 1944. "Naturally" commented de Gaulle "I paid no attention". In the 1960s the General is alarmed at )] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the prospect of America being in the position of a colonial power, and ordering the closure of certain French )] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(enterprises and he expresses his determination never to allow such a situation to arise. Post de Gaulle anti-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Americanism is not cultural in any way, as any examination of cinemas and television programmes shows. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(But all French governments have shown a determination to stand aside from American foreign policy and to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fear of American domination, whilst admiring what was dynamic and democratic in American society.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 237.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The directness with which Dr. Glidea are solves problems is admirable. Thus, when answering the question )] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of why there was not a Communist revolution in France in 1944, he gives three reasons. Firstly, because )] TJ ET BT 34.016 208.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(France was ultimately liberated by the Allied forces rather than by the internal Resistance. Secondly, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(because de Gaulle made the restoration of the state a priority and succeeded in establishing the machinery of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(governmental authority very rapidly \(a measure which also foiled American attempts to use their military )] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(authority and currency\). Thirdly, because the majority of the party was not in favour of a revolutionary )] TJ ET BT 34.016 151.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(seizure of power, and de Gaulle was seen by Stalin as an agent who would limit the authority of the Anglo-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 137.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Saxon powers in the West. It is refreshing to read such clear statements which do not get lost in speculations )] TJ ET BT 34.016 123.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(about the divisions within the Communist party, with Duclos suggesting that Thorez had become too much )] TJ ET BT 34.016 109.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of a parliamentarian, Thorez being alarmed by Marty?s influence in the Internationale, and the power and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 94.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(influence of the party varying from one Resistance group to another.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 68.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Dr. Gildea is equally direct, but perhaps a bit rapid in his account of the decline of the Communist Party. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 54.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Bearing in mind that he has a section on the transition from Marxism to gauchism \(where he puts Althusser, )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 18 0 R ] /Contents 17 0 R >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Length 3303 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(curiously enough, alongside Castoriadis, Lefebvre and ?Cohn-Benditism?\) and a section on the union of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Communists and Socialists, the suggestion that there was a decline in the 1980?s simply because of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(incompetence of the party direction is scarcely adequate. There is much more to write about changes in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(basis of communist traditional strength, as well as about divisions within the Party?s leadership.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The effect on the French of the pulling down of the Berlin Wall in November 1989 is well described, with its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(revival of French fears and phobias. President Mitterand escapes censure and his policy is given a steadfast )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(coherence which he probably does not deserve. But in his conclusion the author does not spare criticism of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(France as a whole, explaining that the Franco-German axis in Europe must be maintained and that France )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(should be more ?reticent? as he puts it, referring to its colonial adventures in recent years. Dr. Gildea, after )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(writing his account of some fifty years of French history is well entitled to have a moment of lecturing his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(subject, and this too, he does sensibly and well.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(It is a feat to write about general de Gaulle and President Mitterand without resorting to anecdotes. This )] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(makes it all the more surprising that Edouard Balladur is singled out for semi-anecdotal treatment. ?A )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(practising Catholic known as "the canon" to his friends, his socks were bought in Rome by the wife of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(French ambassador to the Holy See, whereas Beregovoy?s came from Prisunic?. We are not, incidentally, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(told where Madame Edith Cresson bought her dresses. And might one not know more about Balladur by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(recalling that he abstained from making his devastating attack on his predecessor?s financial policy, when he )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(learned that Beregovoy had committed suicide ?)] TJ ET BT 34.016 503.861 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 489.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 484.879 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 467.099 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 467.099 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/58)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 465.705 m 316.316 465.705 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 440.728 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 426.328 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/441)] TJ ET BT 34.016 411.928 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET endstream endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 19 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 466.0195 316.3157 477.8995 ] >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/58) >> endobj xref 0 20 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000335 00000 n 0000000372 00000 n 0000000513 00000 n 0000000595 00000 n 0000005085 00000 n 0000005194 00000 n 0000005304 00000 n 0000005413 00000 n 0000008974 00000 n 0000009102 00000 n 0000009186 00000 n 0000009251 00000 n 0000016340 00000 n 0000016424 00000 n 0000019780 00000 n 0000019908 00000 n trailer << /Size 20 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 20002 %%EOF