%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 16 0 R 18 0 R ] /Count 4 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140417103154+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140417103154+01'00') /Title (Chartism After 1848: The Working Class and the Politics of Radical Education) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4123 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Chartism After 1848: The Working Class and the Politics of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 593.937 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Radical Education)] TJ ET BT 34.016 237.683 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The nineteenth century saw the coming together of a coherent body of people who regarded themselves as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.427 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(workers, and whose attitudes towards culture and politics followed accordingly. The process is well )] TJ ET BT 34.016 209.171 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(documented and by no means restricted to Britain. But what was its significance, why did it happen, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.915 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(what does it tell us about our society today? Labour history has been dominated by three partial narratives. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.659 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(One portrays the rise of labour as something inevitable, onwards and ever upwards, a constant accumulation )] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.403 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of similar facts, starting with the Napoleonic wars and continuing to the present. Year by year, greater )] TJ ET BT 34.016 152.147 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(numbers of people could be judged working-class, in terms of who they were, how they dressed, their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 137.891 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(occupational life, and their cultural preferences. No longer plausible since the Conservative election victories )] TJ ET BT 34.016 123.635 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of 1979 and 1983, this heroic narrative spawned a second approach, one that held that the forward march of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 109.379 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(labour continued indefinitely until some moment, 1951 say, or 1979, and then was halted. A third, quite )] TJ ET BT 34.016 95.123 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(different, history has had more recent influence. According to this model, there was never a working class at )] TJ ET BT 34.016 80.867 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(all. Nothing rose or fell. Britain was a society of the self-employed, or of artisans, or any other group other )] TJ ET BT 34.016 66.611 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(than those that Marx termed proletarians. In politics, too, there were only radicals and liberals. Whether in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 52.355 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1819, 1842, or 1889, the workers simply never formed a class and could accordingly have no class )] TJ ET BT 34.016 563.315 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 549.059 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(580)] TJ ET BT 34.016 534.803 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 520.547 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thursday, 1 March, 2007)] TJ ET BT 34.016 506.291 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 492.035 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Keith Flett)] TJ ET BT 34.016 477.779 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 463.523 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9780850365443)] TJ ET BT 34.016 449.267 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 435.011 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2006)] TJ ET BT 34.016 420.755 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.499 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(45.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.243 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.987 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(232pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.731 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.475 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The Merlin Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.219 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher url:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.963 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.merlinpress.co.uk/acatalog/CHARTISM_AFTER_1848.html)] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.707 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.451 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(London)] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.195 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.939 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(David Renton)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 6801 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(consciousness.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(For some years, historians have been inching towards a fourth possible position. This is one that treats class )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(formation both as a historical reality and as a reversible fact; which sees classes as things capable of being )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(made, unmade, and remade; which holds that while the historical conjuncture of the late-eighteenth century )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(may have been particularly helpful towards the formation of a British working class, what was at stake in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(industrialization was never a one-off process, but depended in part on a particular generation of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(technological change. Thus, the formation of a trade of Lancashire cotton spinners was no more 'decisive' to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(class formation than the coherence of dock work a hundred years later, the demise of the Lancashire cotton )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(industry after 1945, or the growth of the British car industry in the 1960s. Seen from this perspective, there )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is no reason why a history of British work written a hundred years from now would necessarily assume, as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(we still tend to do, that male miners were one and for all the single, true face of labour. Why not nurses in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the public sector? Or call-sector workers? Or the recent strikers at Gate Gourmet?)] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Such insights cause us to re-evaluate the classic insights of writers such as Edward Thompson and Eric )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Hobsbawm. Their 'making' seems more contingent to us, less complete. Processes that mattered less to them )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(may mean more to us. Decades that seemed quiet to them may come back to us as pregnant with possibility.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 546.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In this context Keith Flett's new book, )] TJ ET BT 220.172 546.629 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Chartism After 1848: the Working Class and the Politics of Radical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 532.373 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Education)] TJ ET BT 83.348 532.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, takes on special significance. An extended dialogue with the insights of Thompson and his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 518.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(generation, it makes a case for seeing the two decades after 1848 as decisive in shaping the English working )] TJ ET BT 34.016 503.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(class. In marked contrast to Thompson?s )] TJ ET BT 232.988 503.861 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Making of the English Working Class)] TJ ET BT 413.324 503.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, it emphasizes the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 489.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(significance of London over Yorkshire and Lancashire. It also has much to say about education and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 475.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(traditions and symbolism of the post-Chartist workers' movement.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 449.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Taking the last point first, Flett portrays spectacle as one legacy of Chartism. The great demonstration of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 434.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(April 1848 is described as, 'a great popular festival where music and colourful banners mixed with political )] TJ ET BT 34.016 420.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(slogans'. There were musicians, women wearing the tricolour, and caps of liberty fastened to the ends of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(twigs. Cordwainers marched beneath a ?blue silk banner?, inscribed with the words ?Liberty, Equality, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Fraternity?. The Irish Confederates were also at Russell Square and one group, the Emmett Brigade, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?displayed a silk banner of crimson, white, and green with the inscription ?What is life without liberty???. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Amongst many other banners present was a square shaped one with black writing on a white round which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(noted, ?Every man is born free and God has given men equal rights and liberties. May it please God to give )] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(man knowledge to assert those rights?. Other banners insisted, ?We are Millions and Demand Our Rights? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and ?Speak with the Voice?Not with the Musket?. The idea of great and popular colourful demonstrations )] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(has not gone away since.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 280.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The issues of 1848, Flett argues, were revolution, land, emigration, and labour \(four of the most popular )] TJ ET BT 34.016 266.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(words found in the titles of books published that year\). Public banners and placards were a distinctive )] TJ ET BT 34.016 251.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(working-class form. Yet other Chartist habits were closer to those of the educated middle classes. Take, for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 237.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(example, the 'mass platform'. This had its hints of Peterloo and 1819. Yet meetings took place inside as well )] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as out, and in an era of declining militancy after 1848, numbers were fewer, and independent class politics )] TJ ET BT 34.016 208.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(tended to make way for a more general emphasis on education and individual self-improvement. The mass )] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(platform gave way to the political meeting, the Chartist bookstall to the public library. Would it be right, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(then, to argue that former Chartists were forced to adopt the norms of 'civil society'; forms that gave less )] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(challenge to the dominance of the privileged?)] TJ ET BT 34.016 139.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Flett studies the content of meetings organized by Chartists after 1848. The most popular titles included, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 125.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('"the Labour Question", seen by many Chartists as central to the failure of the French Revolution, land )] TJ ET BT 34.016 111.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(colonization, emigration, "wealth and misery", "the cause of misery and the means of speedily removing it" )] TJ ET BT 34.016 97.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and "labour?s wrongs and labour?s remedies"?. Some historians have portrayed meetings as 'melodramatic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 82.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(narratives'. Flett argues that,)] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 17 0 R >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Length 5888 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 64.016 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Such an analysis has the benefit of focusing closely on what people thought and how they )] TJ ET BT 64.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(understood what was happening and, hence, shaped it. It has the weakness however of failing to )] TJ ET BT 64.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(grasp that people were motivated to support Chartism in 1848 because of real grievances and a )] TJ ET BT 64.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(belief that these could only be addressed through collective activity.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 703.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(After 1848, it is by no means true that political activity ceased. In London, true, the next three years saw )] TJ ET BT 34.016 689.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(very little specific agitation for the Charter. Yet in Rochdale, membership of the Co-operative Society )] TJ ET BT 34.016 674.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(quadrupled between 1848 and 1851. A sense of class continued, as did the search for collective strategies for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 660.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(change.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 634.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The continuing of Chartism, even as its formal structures tended to hollow out, provided opportunities for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 620.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the state to intervene in a hostile fashion, closing off the spaces in which Chartists could met. In Manchester, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 605.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Chartist Hall of Science became a public library. Other venues closed, leaving no trace.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 579.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The greatest innovation of Flett's book is to show that the decade after 1848 witnessed both a decline in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 565.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Chartist activity and simultaneously a growing hegemony of language that marked the independence of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 551.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(workers. One of the striking features of the 1840s, in retrospect, is precisely the linguistic range used by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 536.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(speakers to identify their audience. Popular terms included 'the people', 'labourers' as against 'plunderers', the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 522.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('wage' or 'social slaves' as opposed to 'the aristocracy of class government', 'we, the English', 'we Saxons', )] TJ ET BT 34.016 508.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Marx's term ?the proletariat?, Engels's 'working class'. Then, and in previous generations, the rich had their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 494.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(own terms, 'the mob', 'the swinish multitude'. Behind these competing terms were different visions of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 479.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rich and the poor, the owners and the workers, and different strategies for struggle, implying different )] TJ ET BT 34.016 465.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(degrees of working-class independence.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 439.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Flett shows that Chartists were aware of some process of the recomposition of labour after 1848. Thus Julian )] TJ ET BT 34.016 425.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Harney changed the name of his paper )] TJ ET BT 221.624 425.093 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Red Republican)] TJ ET BT 318.944 425.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( to )] TJ ET BT 334.280 425.093 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Friend of the People)] TJ ET BT 454.268 425.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( in 1850. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 410.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Concentrating on Harney's strategy at the time, Flett writes,)] TJ ET BT 64.016 372.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The change and the reasons for it were significant. Firstly it focused on an emerging )] TJ ET BT 64.016 358.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(constituency for radical ideas, namely that of organized labour. Before 1848 Chartism had )] TJ ET BT 64.016 344.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(related to this area only sporadically and then, rarely, as workers with specific grievances, as )] TJ ET BT 64.016 329.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The Red Republican had done with the typesetters during their 1850 strike. Secondly it )] TJ ET BT 64.016 315.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(recognized that there was now a new generation of workers who knew little or nothing of )] TJ ET BT 64.016 301.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Chartism in 1838, and perhaps had not been particularly involved in the events of 1848. They )] TJ ET BT 64.016 287.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(too had concerns which could be focused and advanced by Chartist ideas.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 248.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Places of struggle, rarely noticed by Thompson or Hobsbawm, are restored in this account to a central )] TJ ET BT 34.016 234.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(position. One such is Copenhagen Fields, just North of Kings Cross. Flett cites a moving account of Ernest )] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Jones lecturing at the spots where some of the great processions had been held.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 182.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(I walked from a distant part of London through miles of streets to hear him ... The old fervour )] TJ ET BT 64.016 167.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and the old eloquence were still to be noted. But the pinched face and the threadbare garments )] TJ ET BT 64.016 153.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(told of trial and suffering. A shabby coat buttoned close up round the throat seemed to conceal )] TJ ET BT 64.016 139.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the poverty to which a too faithful adherence to a lost cause had reduced him. A year or two )] TJ ET BT 64.016 124.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(later even Ernest Jones had to confess that Chartism was dead.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 86.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The moral of the story is in fact upbeat?class decay and renewal were happening in precisely the same )] TJ ET BT 34.016 72.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(moment that older forms of struggle were decaying. Even as Jones's audience declined, elsewhere, new )] TJ ET BT 34.016 58.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(personalities were becoming important and new forms of protest were being born. The number of trades )] TJ ET endstream endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 20 0 R ] /Contents 19 0 R >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Length 1903 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(unions branches in London rose sharply in the 1850s, with stonemasons, bricklayers, carpenters, and joiners )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to the fore.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 743.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(If the approach is taken that a battle of ideas between working-class and middle-class in )] TJ ET BT 64.016 729.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(particular must be always present in one form or another in society, then it becomes impossible )] TJ ET BT 64.016 715.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to sustain interpretations of post-1848 British history which contemplates only the collapse of )] TJ ET BT 64.016 701.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Chartism and a total capitulation to the Liberal Party by former working-class radicals by the )] TJ ET BT 64.016 686.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(early 1860s. Rather what can be seen is a process of struggle for influence, for ideas and for )] TJ ET BT 64.016 672.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(political change.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 634.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The changing world of labour recreated in this book is a location of struggle and renewal: a society not so )] TJ ET BT 34.016 620.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(different from our own.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 593.909 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 579.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 574.927 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 557.147 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 557.147 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/580)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 555.753 m 322.316 555.753 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 530.776 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 516.376 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/3964)] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.976 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET endstream endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 21 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 556.0675 322.3157 567.9475 ] >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/580) >> endobj xref 0 22 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000342 00000 n 0000000379 00000 n 0000000579 00000 n 0000000661 00000 n 0000004836 00000 n 0000004945 00000 n 0000005055 00000 n 0000005164 00000 n 0000008725 00000 n 0000008853 00000 n 0000008937 00000 n 0000009002 00000 n 0000015856 00000 n 0000015921 00000 n 0000021862 00000 n 0000021946 00000 n 0000023902 00000 n 0000024030 00000 n trailer << /Size 22 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 24125 %%EOF