%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 16 0 R 18 0 R 20 0 R ] /Count 5 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140425084629+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140425084629+01'00') /Title (Homecomings: Returning POWs and the Legacies of Defeat in Postwar Germany) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 3963 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Homecomings: Returning POWs and the Legacies of Defeat in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 593.937 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Postwar Germany)] TJ ET BT 34.016 237.683 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This is the first book in English to examine the reception, in both the west and the east of Germany between )] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.427 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1945 and 1955, of the returning POWs released from Soviet captivity. With commendable clarity, it seeks to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 209.171 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(understand this reception within the context of the political, social, and cultural discourses prevalent at the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.915 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(time. For all the political and ideological differences between West and East Germany, both states )] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.659 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(attempted, in their own ways, to make propaganda of the returning soldiers. In the West, they were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.403 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(represented not as defeated soldiers returning from a genocidal war, but as victims of Soviet captivity whose )] TJ ET BT 34.016 152.147 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(courage transcended their suffering. In the East, they were represented as men enlightened by the antifascist )] TJ ET BT 34.016 137.891 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ideals to which they had been exposed in captivity. In neither state was there an inclination to dwell on the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 123.635 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(unfortunate fact of the participation of Hitler?s Wehrmacht in a criminal war.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 97.379 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Biess begins his always measured, insightful, and thorough analysis by taking us back into the Nazi period )] TJ ET BT 34.016 83.123 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(itself. His first chapter sketches the official Nazi policy of silence on those German soldiers held in Soviet )] TJ ET BT 34.016 68.867 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(captivity and those missing in action \(MIAs\). Thus the Reich Security Main Office ordered that, ?all mail )] TJ ET BT 34.016 54.611 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from Soviet POW camps be held back by the censorship office? for ?state-political reasons? and ?forwarded )] TJ ET BT 34.016 563.315 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 549.059 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(582)] TJ ET BT 34.016 534.803 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 520.547 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thursday, 1 March, 2007)] TJ ET BT 34.016 506.291 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 492.035 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Frank Biess)] TJ ET BT 34.016 477.779 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 463.523 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9780691125022)] TJ ET BT 34.016 449.267 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 435.011 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2006)] TJ ET BT 34.016 420.755 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.499 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(22.95)] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.243 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.987 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(352pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.731 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.475 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Princeton University Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.219 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher url:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.963 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://press.princeton.edu/titles/8209.html)] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.707 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.451 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Princeton and Oxford)] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.195 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.939 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Bill Niven)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 7459 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to the RSHA for further evaluation? \(p. 25\). Tens of thousands of intercepted letters were never passed on. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Biess argues that the Nazi leaders, especially after the debacle at Stalingrad and the surrender of General )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Paulus, were keen to convince the population and the German soldiers of the continued need to focus on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(heroic struggle. Even to acknowledge the fact that many German soldiers were now in Soviet hands would )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(have been to acknowledge the existence of an alternative scenario?one of surrender, captivity, and survival. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Beyond this, allowing contact between Soviet-interned POWs and their families in Germany would have )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(risked undermining the Nazi view of the Soviets as subhuman?especially as Soviet treatment of German )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(POWs improved in the last years of the war. Soviet attempts, through the National Committee for a Free )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Germany, to inform the Wehrmacht and, indeed, Germans on the home front that German POWs were well-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(treated in Soviet hands intensified this risk. As Biess is able to show, family members of POWs and MIAs )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(refused to accept the hush-hush policy of the Nazis, and did what they could to establish what had happened )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to their loved ones. This led, in Biess?s view, to a certain disengagement on the part of some German )] TJ ET BT 34.016 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(families with the regime, and to a retreat into a private world in which missing family members, and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 611.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(wish to be reunited with them, became an obsessive focus. This retreat led to a cultural turn towards family )] TJ ET BT 34.016 596.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(values, anticipating the collapse of Nazism and forming a bridge into the postwar period. It also helped to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 582.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(foster a sense of those unaccounted-for family members as victims?anticipating in turn the postwar culture )] TJ ET BT 34.016 568.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of victimization that blocked empathy with victims of Nazism such as the Jews.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(For all that Biess believes in the cultural significance of this disengagement, he does not believe that it led in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(any way to a wish to protest against Nazism. The Wehrmacht, and the home front, stood by Hitler to the end. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(But if this is the case, what was the nature of this disengagement? If, as Biess seems to suggest, it was a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(disengagement with the Nazi claim that heroic struggle down to the last man was the only form of proper )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conduct for a German soldier \(rather than surrender and captivity\), then this disengagement, it seems to me, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(would constitute a form of inner rejection of Nazi propaganda?a refusal, if not a protest.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The second chapter stresses the importance of the reception and treatment of returning POWs as a ?site of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(memory? for postwar Germany, given the totality of German defeat. Biess informs us that the western Allies )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(released all their POWs by 31 December 1948, while the Soviets needed until 1950. Even then, a further )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(26,000 POWs and civilian internees classified as ?war criminals? were only released in two main waves; in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1953?54 and 1955?56 \(p. 45\). All in all, 2 million POWs returned from the Soviet Union. Biess argues that, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in the immediate postwar period, there were indications that the Germans would be prepared to confront )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(guilt, including Wehrmacht guilt. But the situation soon changed. Biess goes on to make two fundamental )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(claims. First, that narratives of German victimization were soon mobilized by political parties on both sides )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the ideological divide?here the SED, there the SPD and CDU?in their attempts to win support as the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(election campaigning began. The returnees and their families, after all, represented an enormous percentage )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the population. In the West, the SPD began to berate the SED and the Soviets for their continued )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(victimization of Germans, while in the East, the communists?initially so critical of the way the workers had )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(streamed into Hitler?s war?were now prone to presenting the German soldiers as victims of ?western? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fascism.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Biess?s second claim is that the returnees themselves developed a tendency to regard themselves as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(victims?not least because such an attitude enabled them to make sense of the otherwise disorienting present. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Faced with unexpectedly high levels of destruction at home, and with the fact of defeat, ex-POWs resorted to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(constructions of continuity according to which they, their wives, and their families had all been victims in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(different ways. Yet Biess also points to other reactions amongst returnees. Changing gender-roles as a result )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the war, urban destruction, and massive political upheaval were too much for former POWs to process, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and so they escaped into the imagined world of a rural Heimat, untouched by war and social upheaval. Biess )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sees variety in the coping mechanisms of returnees?mechanisms that went beyond the victimization trope. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(As a result, he does not believe that a sense of victimization became the bedrock of new personal or national )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(identity in the postwar years. That development set in later. This argument is subtle, but perhaps not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(convincing. If returnees defined their relationship to the present in terms of a common experience of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(victimization, then they certainly were understanding themselves and others as stamped by that experience. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(It had become part of the fabric of their identity. The idealization of Heimat does not contradict this. In )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 17 0 R >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Length 7551 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(retreating into an imagined status quo ante, the soldiers abnegated the very modernist horror that they were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(implicated in, seeking to retrieve a lost innocence. Only on that basis is self-identification as victim possible.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In the following chapter, Biess turns his attention to the medical and psychological assessments by West and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(East German doctors of the mental condition of returnees. In the West and East, there was widespread )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reluctance to recognize mental problems as the direct result of the involvement of soldiers in war \(not least )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(genocidal warfare\). In West Germany, psychological difficulties were attributed to the effect of malnutrition )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(under the rubric ?dystrophy?\) and other privations experienced in Soviet captivity. In both West and East, it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was believed that returnees? psychic problems could be alleviated by therapy?ranging from electro-shock )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and psychotherapy in the West, to a programme of political enlightenment in the East. Where problems )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(persisted, this was put down to individual psychopathology. It was only under the pressure of lawsuits )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(brought against compensation authorities by former soldiers that doctors in the West started to acknowledge )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the fact that exogenous factors such as captivity \(if not war\) could per se cause long-term psychological )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(damage. This shift helped to foster a sense of the returnees as victims. But it was a slow shift, partly, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(perhaps, because the doctors involved in assessing the psychological condition of returnees had been active )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(during the Nazi period; a time notorious for its emphasis on inherited illness, sterilization and euthanasia.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Chapter Four, ?Survivors of Totalitarianism?, explores the way in which narratives of victimhood, in West )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Germany, were gradually supplanted by what Biess calls ?redemptive memories? \(p. 97\). Now the stress was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(on the heroic fact of surviving both the experience of serving in Hitler?s war, and of imprisonment in Soviet )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(POW camps. The use of Christian iconography implied that Germans had undergone a Christ-like )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(martyrdom. It also implied that captivity had triggered a spiritual resilience, a soul-searching, and a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reorientation towards God. Thus it was that the Protestant and Catholic organizations heavily involved in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(supporting ex-POWs in the immediate aftermath of the war sought to frame their experience in a manner )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which would foster postwar re-Christianization. Church and state bodies were, not surprisingly, keen to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reinstate returning POWs as dependable citizens and fathers. Yet, as Biess shows, post-currency-reform )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(problems on the employment market, as well as the physical and psychological deficiencies of returnees, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(made absorption into the market a halting process. Moreover, shifts in gender roles as a result of war and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(postwar, as well as the weakened condition of returnees, meant that they could not simply resume patriarchal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(positions within their families. For all that the state wished to see ex-POWs recover their ?masculinity? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(literally and symbolically\), within the family returnees needed to negotiate and redefine their roles to an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(extent. At the same time the family represented a deideologised realm for the ex-POWs where their role in a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(genocidal war largely went unquestioned. Biess shows that many ex-POWs did not immediately embrace )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(western democratic values. Many clung instead to nationalist and even Nazi attitudes. The chapter also )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(discusses the lobbying of the West German government by the Association of Returnees for compensation )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for POW captivity, a cause supported by the SPD.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Chapter Five deals with a different form of redemptive narrative?that of ?antifascist conversion? \(p. 126\), )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the dominant official narrative in the eastern zone and then the GDR. Given that some 70,000 German )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(POWs in Soviet captivity had participated in antifascist courses from 1942 onwards, it may well have been )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the case that some, at least, had genuinely undergone an ?antifascist conversion? during the war. After the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(war, however, the KPD and then the SED would seem to have identified in returnees generally a particular )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(antifascist potential which needed to be harnessed and developed. According to official SED narratives, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(returnees from Soviet captivity had undergone an ideal transformation from soldiers in Hitler?s fascist army )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to philo-Soviet antifascist fighters for socialist progress. This narrative, which Biess rightly calls )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?pseudoreligious? \(p. 127\), enabled former POWs to continue seeing themselves as soldiers?only now, of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(course, for the better cause. The narrative also allowed them to forget their role in Hitler?s war. The SED did )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(what it could to recruit members and functionaries from the ranks of former POWs. The Party also sought to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(press returnees into joining the Kasernierte Volkspolizei, the military arm of the state; some 4,800 POWs )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were integrated into KVP units. As Biess shows, not all returning POWs were enamoured of SED socialism, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(or indeed of the Soviet Union; others may genuinely have believed antifascism represented a model for a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(new society. I did wonder if Biess might not have underplayed one of the motives for the ?antifascist )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conversion? narrative?namely wishful thinking. The SED will have been well aware of the nationalist, anti-)] TJ ET endstream endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 19 0 R >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Length 7596 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Bolshevik, orientation of many ex-POWs. The ?antifascist conversion? narrative hoped to bring about what )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(it evoked; it was a rhetorical ploy. Pressing ex-POWs into the police force, moreover, was an ideal way of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(disciplining them by giving them the role of discipliners.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(There follows a fascinating chapter in which Biess identifies further parallels between West and East )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Germany?this time with respect to the trials of former POWs in West Germany, known as the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Kameradenschinder trials, and the purges of some ex-POWs from the state and party apparatus in East )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Germany. Between 1948 and 1956, about one hundred former POWs, who had been in Soviet captivity, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were sentenced by West German courts either for maltreating, in their capacity as camp functionaries, other )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(German prisoners, or for denouncing other POWs to the Soviets. In East Germany and the early GDR, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(POWs who had been in )] TJ ET BT 150.332 656.165 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(western)] TJ ET BT 187.664 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( imprisonment became the subject of investigations by the Central Party )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Control Commission. They stood accused of ?political indoctrination? and ?deviation?, and even of having )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(collaborated with western ?agents?. Biess demonstrates here the effect of the descending Iron Curtain. In )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(West Germany, any collaborative contact between German POWs and their Soviet captors was dismissed as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(symptomatic of a pathological or totalitarian personality; in East Germany, any form of interaction between )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(German POWs and the Americans and British was stigmatized as collaboration with the imperialist and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(capitalist enemy. Thus the Cold War shaped interpretations of the Second World War. Biess?s discussion of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Kameradschinder trials is particularly illuminating. At a time when the West German legal system was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(doing little to put Nazis on trial, it showed less hesitation in prosecuting supposed ?Soviet collaborators?. It )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was also less inclined to recognize Befehlsnotstand as a defence in such cases than in cases where former )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Nazis claimed they had been acting under orders. Evident from this was the continued commitment of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(legal authorities to wartime national and military systems of evaluation. For all the legal positivism which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Biess identifies in West German legal thinking, the Kameradenschinder trials also show that West German )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(judges still tended to think in terms of categories such as ?treason? or at least ?uncomradely behaviour?.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?Absent Presence?, Biess?s penultimate chapter, examines the 1950?1955 period. In May 1950, the Soviet )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(News Agency, TASS, announced that all German POWs had now been repatriated. In West Germany, this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(claim was greeted by a storm of protest, not least from Adenauer himself, who vastly inflated \(as did others\) )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the number of POWs actually still held by the Soviets. In the first half of the 1950s, organizations such as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Association of Refugees \(VdH\) lobbied for the release of Soviet-held POWs, )] TJ ET BT 424.940 387.557 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(and)] TJ ET BT 442.940 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( of those POWs still in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(western captivity?although the latter comprised convicted war criminals such as Erich von Manstein. In this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(way, post-war POW commemorations, ?helped to erase crucial boundaries among victims, bystanders and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(perpetrators? \(p. 191\). While the anti-communist thrust of much VdH rhetoric was quite in tune with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Adenauer?s politics, the increasing insistence of the VdH on negotiations with Moscow on the subject of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(POWs was not. Biess shows that appeals in West Germany for the release of the remaining Soviet-held )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(POWs kept the POW theme alive and adapted it to the growing anti-communism of the Cold War. In the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(East, there was no official political discourse on the POW theme after 1950; the matter was regarded as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?resolved?. Biess can prove, however, that here too tensions existed. Family members refused to accept that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(TASS?s statement was an end of the matter, and petitioned President Pieck for the release of their loved )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ones. Official silence on the subject bred discontent.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The final chapter, appropriately enough, deals with the final chapter in the postwar repatriation history: the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(release of about 10,000 German POWs by the Soviets in 1953, and roughly the same number in 1955. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(public and political reception of the 1953 and 1955 returnees in West Germany, among whom there were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(war criminals, made little distinction between straightforward POWs and war criminals. In East Germany, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the opposite problem was the case: all 1953/1955 returnees were tarred with the brush of Nazi criminality. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(However, as Biess shows, the situation in West Germany did gradually become more differentiated. In )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(response to domestic and international pressure, the West German judiciary began to arrest returnees )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(suspected of war crimes and place them on trial. Biess points to the example of the two notorious )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Sachsenhausen guards, Sorge and Schubert, who were arrested in 1956 and sentenced to life imprisonment )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in 1959 \(although Biess does not mention the role of the GDR in campaigning for their arrest\). In the East, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the official discourse remained static, but it failed to impose itself upon the population at large. Biess cites )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(several examples of East Germans who did not accept the criminal status assigned to the 1953/1955 )] TJ ET endstream endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 22 0 R ] /Contents 21 0 R >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Length 3166 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(returnees by the SED, and who found that the latter had been treated far more judiciously in the West. Not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that these East Germans expressed such ideas openly: they were registered by the Stasi.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Biess?s book is superbly written and carefully, indeed meticulously, researched. The unpublished sources he )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(uses were gleaned from some thirty different archives. He also consulted an enormous number of magazines )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and newspapers, as well as conducting oral history interviews. The bibliography of secondary literature )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(consulted is also impressive. The sheer thoroughness and conscientious attention to detail results in a work )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of subtlety, refinement, and intelligent, differentiated comparison. His study covers responses to returning )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(POWs in all their social, political, economic, cultural, legal, and social policy dimensions. No stone is left )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(unturned. He proves that returning soldiers, in the West, were regarded as victims. But the real originality of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(his work lies in his identification and analysis of a ?redemptive narrative? in both West and East Germany; a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(narrative in accordance with which the returnees could be understood as contributing to social and spiritual )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reconstruction. That narrative masked, indeed denied, the traumatic effects of war and captivity, and of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(involvement in genocide. It circumnavigated the mental and moral morass of the Wehrmacht?s war. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Symptomatic of this was the refusal to recognize the psychological effects of that war. With )] TJ ET BT 478.604 599.141 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Homecomings)] TJ ET BT 547.256 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Biess has enriched our understanding of the formative post-war years in both East and West Germany. It is a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(masterful piece of scholarship?and beautifully written.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 525.391 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 507.611 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 507.611 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/582)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 506.217 m 322.316 506.217 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 481.240 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 466.840 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/3973)] TJ ET BT 34.016 452.440 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET endstream endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 23 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 506.5315 322.3157 518.4115 ] >> endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/582) >> endobj xref 0 24 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000349 00000 n 0000000386 00000 n 0000000583 00000 n 0000000665 00000 n 0000004680 00000 n 0000004789 00000 n 0000004899 00000 n 0000005008 00000 n 0000008569 00000 n 0000008697 00000 n 0000008781 00000 n 0000008846 00000 n 0000016358 00000 n 0000016423 00000 n 0000024027 00000 n 0000024092 00000 n 0000031741 00000 n 0000031825 00000 n 0000035044 00000 n 0000035172 00000 n trailer << /Size 24 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 35267 %%EOF