%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 16 0 R 20 0 R 24 0 R ] /Count 5 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140416071727+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140416071727+01'00') /Title (Eoin O'Duffy: A Self-Made Hero) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4036 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Eoin O'Duffy: A Self-Made Hero)] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Fearghal McGarry?s much anticipated biography of general Eoin O?Duffy is an impressive piece of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(research, and its illuminating detail traces O?Duffy?s rise from minor local government official to ruthless )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(guerrilla fighter. This was followed by a rapid ascent as Michael Collins? protg through the ranks of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Irish Republican Army \(IRA\), and its secret controlling body the Irish Republican Brotherhood \(IRB\). )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(O?Duffy experienced tumultuous post-independence years as police commissioner in the twenties. Later, in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the thirties, he was leader of the major opposition party Fine Gael/United Ireland, and of various failed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fascistic organizations \(National Guard, League of Youth, National Corporate Party\). His career ended in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ignominy. After resigning as the Fine Gael?s leader, he presided over the Irish Blueshirts? decline, and later )] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.019 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(led a self-styled ?crusade? to Spain where he soldiered under Franco?s command in 1937. On his return to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 130.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ireland O?Duffy drank himself into an early grave in 1944. Among commentators there is a tendency to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 116.507 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(diminish the general?s later career. But pre-Spain, as Fearghal McGarry notes, he was a serious player on the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 102.251 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Irish political scene.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 75.995 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(McGarry?s first book, )] TJ ET BT 143.324 75.995 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Irish Politics and the Spanish Civil War)] TJ ET BT 335.336 75.995 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Cork, 1999\), provides the background for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.739 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the later chapters here, and he makes good use of O?Duffy?s private papers. On the whole this book is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.699 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(583)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.187 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.931 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thursday, 1 March, 2007)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.675 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.419 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Fearghal McGarry)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.163 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.907 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9780199276554)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.651 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.395 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2005)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.139 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.883 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(25.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.627 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.371 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(476pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.115 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.859 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Oxford University Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.603 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher url:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.347 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://ukcatalogue.oup.com/product/9780199276554.do)] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.091 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 313.835 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Oxford)] TJ ET BT 34.016 299.579 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 285.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(John Regan)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 7395 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(further testament to the increasingly sophisticated approach to modern biography of twentieth-century Irish )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(nationalist revolutionaries, and as such it deserves to sit beside other offerings from Tom Garvin?s collective )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(approach to Richard English?s thematic study of Ernie O?Malley, and more conventional approaches offered )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(by David Fitzpatrick on Harry Boland, and Peter Hart on Michael Collins. Arguably, it also shares some of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the interpretative problems present in that body of work.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(When crisis loomed in the early Free State, the authorities sent for O?Duffy. He spearheaded the military )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(defence of the 1921 Anglo-Irish treaty in the civil war against former comrades in the IRA. When the new )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(police force collapsed in August 1922, the government turned to O?Duffy to take it in hand. Again, in 1924, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(when mutiny threatened the army, the government made O?Duffy their first soldier. And when, in 1933, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(many believed Eamon de Valera?s Fianna Fail government would bring an end to democratic politics, it was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the irascible O?Duffy \(by then leader of 30,000 Blueshirts\) that the opposition parties called on to lead them. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(At the outset of his public life he seemed to possess remarkable gifts of leadership, which seemed to desert )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(him in later years. The picture remains one of inconsistency, disjuncture, and change. Fearghal McGarry )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(wrestles with this, bringing to bear an enviable prose style to this biography which effortlessly drives )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(forward its narrative. It is the underlying structure of that narrative I wish to address in this review.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(From the mid-1970s a new public history of Irish independence emerged simultaneously within the Irish )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(state and academia. In response to the war in Northern Ireland \(c. 1969?97\), and alongside a modernizing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(southern Irish society, the new public history focused on the achievements of the 1922 state. This contrasted )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sharply with traditional republican aspirations for a united Ireland encapsulated in earlier alternative public )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(histories. Dorothy Macardle?s )] TJ ET BT 181.988 501.605 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Irish Republic)] TJ ET BT 271.316 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(London, 1937\) remains the classic of the former )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(approach. After Fianna Fail?s accession to power in 1932, narratives of republican struggle dominated both )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(official and public culture in the twenty-six counties. Such histories stressed the betrayal of republican )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(principle that the 1921 Anglo-Irish ?treaty? settlement represented, and the continuation of the ?struggle? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(toward unification. Emphasizing the constitutionality of the state formation process, the new history?s aim )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was to distinguish state-formation violence in the period 1918?23 from that of the contemporary and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(unmandated Provisional IRA. It also attempted to reconcile nationalism in the south with the established )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1922 state as opposed to the thirty-two-county revolutionary republic. The tensions between these competing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(public histories, as well as the distortions resulting from them, have provided a context for history writing in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ireland for the last four decades. Whether or not the new history represented a ?war historiography? is a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(moot point, but no Irish historian can assume events emanating in Northern Ireland have been incidental to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(their work, and more particularly the historicization of the revolutionary period, 1912?39. A biography of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Eoin O?Duffy, Ulsterman, IRA leader, state-builder, and fascist has to negotiate its way through the old and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the new histories, and, it might be suggested, their attendant mythologies.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Orthodox approaches favoured by the community of professional Irish historians dichotomize the post-1922 )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(period in independent Ireland around the issue of democracy. Accordingly the dominant, but by no means )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(uniform, interpretation, is that the Irish Free State?s founders \(Michael Collins, Arthur Griffith, William T. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cosgrave, et al.\) were essentially constitutionalists, and sometimes they are collectively identified as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(democrats. Conversely, the anti-treatyite republicans have been stereotyped as non-democratic wreckers of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the new state. O?Duffy, as democrat turned fascist, sits uneasily within this overly neat order. Therein lies )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(one of several problems for the historian. What do we do with General O?Duffy? Explain him away as a bad )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(apple in an otherwise healthy barrel of treatyite democrats? Or do we argue he later went wrong, having )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(previously served the state well?)] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Complicating all of this, a biography of O?Duffy is also in some measure a biography of the independent )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(state. At once this might appear to simplify the biographer?s task by providing an established frame around )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which that life may be reconstructed: cultural nationalist revival \(1900?10\); paramilitarization \(1912?21\); )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(civil war \(north and south 1922?3\); state building \(1922?33\); and opposition to Fianna Fail \(after 1932\). But )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(this approach, it is suggested here, presents as many interpretative problems as solutions. And not least )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(among these is the 1922 nation-state?s centrality in a historiography distorted by southern Irish nationalism )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in which the Irish nation equates with the southern state.)] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 18 0 R ] /Contents 17 0 R >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Length 7861 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Fearghal McGarry purports to challenge much that is orthodox. Critiquing Jeffrey Prager?s )] TJ ET BT 474.272 784.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(State Building )] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(and Democracy in Ireland)] TJ ET BT 160.988 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Cambridge, 1986\), and Tom Garvin?s )] TJ ET BT 353.624 770.213 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(1922: The Birth of Irish Democracy)] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Dublin, 1996\) he comments, ?O?Duffy?s short-lived cameo on the Irish political stage [1920?37] )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(undermines the interpretation of the Civil War [1922?3] as a conflict between a rational constitutional )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(tradition within nationalist politics and elitist republicanism? \(p. 269\). This interpretation is now accepted by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(many, and, perhaps, is not quite as original as its presentation might suggest. Singling out political scientists )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for criticism \(in which the present reviewer has also been found guilty\) ignores the work of much of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(senior historical profession who have increasingly endorsed the democrats \(treatyites\) and dictators \(anti-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(treatyites\) model. Later, Fearghal McGarry writes, ?O?Duffy?s extremism was not fully embraced by Fine )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Gael [1933?4], its brief flirtation with fascism blemished an otherwise impressive commitment to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(democratic values dating back to 1922? \(p. 269\). This, perhaps, suggests an overly-confident belief in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(constitutional credentials of the state?s founders.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In the pre-treaty autumn of 1921, Eamon de Valera?s revolutionary Dail government attempted to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(renegotiate its relationship with the IRA by issuing new commissions under its authority. This was a further )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(attempt to bring the military under civil control ahead of settlement with Britain and the Empire. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(resulting clash, on 25 November 1921, between the staff officers of IRA general headquarters and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(civilian government?s authority prefigured later civil-military conflicts leading eventually to the civil war in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(June 1922. O?Duffy and de Valera ended the meeting shouting across a conference room at one another. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(staff officers left the confrontation unbowed before the civilian government. Fearghal McGarry describes )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(this as a ?nasty row?, but the defiance of governmental authority was, as de Valera claimed at the time, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(tantamount to mutiny. O?Duffy may have spoken loudest, but he did not speak alone. The IRA cadre )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(marching out with him formed the treatyite army?s elite in 1922, and was led by Collins. Its relationship to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(civil authority remained unresolved, complex, and poisonous to any assumption that power would in future )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reside with the civilians rather than the soldiers.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Fearghal McGarry invests the treatyite regime in 1922 with unqualified legitimacy. His civil war polarizes )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(combatants into legitimate and illegitimate, and therefore regulars \(the Free State?s treatyite army\) and their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(antonymic adversaries, the ?Irregulars? \(the anti-treatyite IRA\). Is there ever any justification for using the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(pejorative language of a civil war in historical writing? If Fearghal McGarry employs the language of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(civil war?s winners, it may be because his is still essentially a winners? history. The British use of coercion )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and threat of re-intervention, critical to understanding anti-treatyite responses in 1922, is acknowledged but )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(underplayed \(p. 96\). The general election results of 1922?3, which emboldened treatyite claims to be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(democracy?s defenders, are not analysed in the context of a contested historiography. Authoritarianism and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(aspirations to dictatorship in 1922 are exclusively ascribed to the anti-treatyites. Given O?Duffy?s supposed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(journey from defending democracy in 1922, to backing fascism in 1933, one might expect more meaningful )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(engagement on these issues, and the contradictions they suggest. Instead O?Duffy?s life is made to conform )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to orthodoxy, with a nod here and there to its challengers.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Within the dominant orthodoxy it remains problematic to acknowledge that the southern state began life )] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(covertly at war with Northern Ireland. The northern IRA?s offensive of May 1922, formed part of that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conflict, and McGarry tells us it ?was directed by O?Duffy with the knowledge of Collins but not the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cabinet? \(p. 102\). But who can know what the government ministers knew about such matters at any given )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(time? While it is accepted that Collins sent arms to the north, it is also important in any interpretation )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(arguing for constitutional development to maintain the civilian government?s innocence in this area \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 519.620 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 519.620 162.579 m 525.620 162.579 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 525.620 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\). The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(assertion that the cabinet was ignorant of such affairs \(including General Richard Mulcahy, Dail minister of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(defence?\) provides an instance of the constitutional narrative over-riding the evidence. Fearghal McGarry )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(himself notes, ?on 22 April ? O?Duffy publicly accused [Liam] Lynch?s [anti-treatyite] 1st southern division )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of retaining Thompson machine guns intended for the northern IRA? \(p. 98\). The account appeared in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Irish Independent)] TJ ET BT 119.000 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( on 26 April, proving invaluable information for the British army \(who had originally )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(supplied the guns to Collins to defend the treaty\), and, one may safely wager, Collins? fellow ministers. That )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the civilian government were comfortable with this situation is unlikely, but given the dominance of Collins )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and the military within the treatyite regime it would seem they were in no position to take action. The onset )] TJ ET endstream endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 19 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 519.6197 162.8935 525.6197 174.7735 ] >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 22 0 R ] /Contents 21 0 R >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Length 7538 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of civil war two months later exaggerated that unequal relationship.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Fearghal McGarry describes de Valera?s 1922 republican government established during the civil war as a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?notional? entity \(p. 172\). Clearly the anti-treatyites could not gather resources to rival the early Free State?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?real? government. But the anti-treatyite government, and the legitimacy underpinning it, was far from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?notional? to de Valera?s supporters who fought their civil war in defence of its republican legitimacy. In the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(August 1923 general election it should be recalled de Valera?s ?notional? government was endorsed by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(nearly 290,000 votes or 26 per cent of the poll. To dismiss the republican consensus underpinning the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(opposition to the state is suggestive of an impartial or perhaps even a stateist approach.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 658.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Nowhere is Fearghal McGarry?s legitimizing narrative better exampled than when writing on the treatyites )] TJ ET BT 34.016 644.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(formation of a ?war council? on 12 July 1922 \(consisting of Michael Collins, Richard Mulcahy, and Eoin )] TJ ET BT 34.016 629.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(O?Duffy\). McGarry comments that, ?[r]epublicans like [Harry] Boland depicted the war council, a little )] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(richly, as a dictatorial clique rather than a convenient rationalization of treatyite military authority? \(p. 106\). )] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(On this the reviewer declares particular interest having written on the subject, and having come to somewhat )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(different conclusions in )] TJ ET BT 150.332 587.141 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Irish Counter-Revolution 1921?36)] TJ ET BT 337.328 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Dublin, 1999\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 560.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(During July?August 1922, the military gained control of civil, military, and, through the treatyite dominated )] TJ ET BT 34.016 546.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Irish Republican Brotherhood?s agency, extra-constitutional powers within the treatyite regime. The IRB )] TJ ET BT 34.016 532.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was a secret oath-bound organization headed by Collins with O?Duffy, which claimed in 1922 be the true )] TJ ET BT 34.016 518.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(government of the Irish republic. In 1999 I concluded, ?[between July and September 1922] [t]he absence of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 503.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(any legislative body meant that the [treatyite] Provisional Government was not accountable to any other )] TJ ET BT 34.016 489.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(institution and in the circumstances this granted Collins in theory if not in practice dictatorial powers? \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 530.636 489.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 530.636 488.211 m 536.636 488.211 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 536.636 489.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\). )] TJ ET BT 34.016 475.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Among Collins? last decisions, taken on 21 August, was his instruction Parliament should not meet. This ran )] TJ ET BT 34.016 461.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(against the wishes of the ministers. That decision may well have amounted to the agency, and not just the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(structure, of a military government. In either case the argument that a treatyite dictatorship of some order )] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was in place before Collins? death, on 22 August 1922, should not be dismissed out of hand. Not, that is, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(without first addressing the interpretation, and the supporting evidence.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.069 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Eoin O?Duffy: Self-Made Hero)] TJ ET BT 184.988 392.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( is an attempt at a consensual historical interpretation, weaving the strands of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a contested historiography into an orthodox interpretation. On grittier issues Fearghal McGarry ignores that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which is problematic. Despite recognizing many senior treatyite politicians? authoritarian tendencies, most )] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(particularly in the period surrounding the communist ?red scare? of 1931?4, O?Duffy is still presented as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(exceptional in his political leanings. That such a central figure should be quite so ideologically peripheral )] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(has always been suspect. Such an approach, however, serves to mitigate a much stronger authoritarian )] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(tradition within treatyite and broader Irish political culture than is commonly accepted.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 280.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(O?Duffy?s ascent to political leadership during de Valera?s second year in power, 1933, was specific to a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 266.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(moment of crisis. The treatyites genuinely feared de Valera would suppress the opposition parties. In the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 251.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(emergency following, O?Duffy?s lead, and the protection the Blueshirts? afforded, seemed of vital necessity )] TJ ET BT 34.016 237.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to the continuation of parliamentary rule. Much as the treatyites had revered Collins and tolerated the IRB in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1922, they accepted once again a leader disdainful of parliamentary democracy backed in 1933 by a band of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 208.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(shirted paramilitaries. When, in September 1933, the opposition parties asked O?Duffy to lead a Fine Gael )] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and Blueshirt combination, none who had worked with him for twelve years or more could have doubted his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(temperament or outlook. In fairness to Fearghal McGarry, he accepts some of this, but the relationship )] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(between the revolutionaries and concepts of parliamentary democracy were far more complex than he allows.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 139.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(General O?Duffy?s authoritarianism may look out of sorts in the thirties, but only when a deterministic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 125.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(constitutional interpretation is applied to the broad period of state formation. For those unconvinced by this, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 111.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(O?Duffy?s cherished place among the treatyites represents the constant presence of authoritarianism )] TJ ET BT 34.016 97.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(connecting Collin?s de facto dictatorship of 1922 to the possibility of a similar outcome in the 1930s. That )] TJ ET BT 34.016 82.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(understood, O?Duffy begins to appear both more consistent, and as a historical figure more plausible, at the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 68.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(beginning and the end of his political life than hitherto has been presented. Throughout, he remained a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 54.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(tactical democrat, endorsing majorities when they suited his interests. Thirty years ago, in a seminally )] TJ ET endstream endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 23 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 530.6357 488.5255 536.6357 500.4055 ] >> endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 24 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 26 0 R 28 0 R 30 0 R 32 0 R 34 0 R ] /Contents 25 0 R >> endobj 25 0 obj << /Length 5614 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(important paper responding to the influence of violence in Northern Ireland on state formation )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historiography, Ronan Fanning wrote:)] TJ ET BT 64.016 743.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Now, when academic historians question the myths of the old, ?official history? ? they find they )] TJ ET BT 64.016 729.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(are no longer crying in the wilderness, but rather they are part of a larger and louder chorus?a )] TJ ET BT 64.016 715.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sort of Irish intellectual establishment. And, while the passing of the old myths must afford )] TJ ET BT 64.016 701.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(them satisfaction, the growing consensus affirming the strength of the democratic tradition in )] TJ ET BT 64.016 686.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Irish politics must make them ponder whether new myths are not being conjured up in place of )] TJ ET BT 64.016 672.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(old \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 86.348 672.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(3)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 86.348 671.283 m 92.348 671.283 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 92.348 672.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 634.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The historiography in which McGarry, as with so many of the emergent generation of modern Irish )] TJ ET BT 34.016 620.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historians, places his faith is leavened with a good deal of the mythology against which Fanning warned with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 605.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(such prescience.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 579.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Fearghal McGarry has gone someway to humanizing and properly contextualizing O?Duffy. He treats with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 565.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sensitivity his subject?s homosexuality and, equally, his struggle with alcoholism. If this biography follows )] TJ ET BT 34.016 551.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(too closely the constitutional narrative of the state, this may in part be explained by an over-reliance on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 536.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(selected secondary sources, which is a common problem for the biographer. Nevertheless, this is an elegant )] TJ ET BT 34.016 522.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and accomplished piece of research, and while some may not agree with all of its assumptions and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 508.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(propositions, one cannot fail other than to be impressed by the hand crafting them.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.475 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 442.858 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 442.853 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(For the original interpretation reconciling the claim, ?[i]t was only after the Treaty that he [Michael )] TJ ET BT 64.016 428.597 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Collins] clearly became a constitutionalist? with Collins?s non-disclosure of his northern policy to )] TJ ET BT 64.016 414.341 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cabinet ministers in 1922 see, T. D. Williams, ?The Irish Republican Brotherhood? in )] TJ ET BT 478.304 414.341 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Secret Societies )] TJ ET BT 64.016 400.085 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(in Ireland)] TJ ET BT 111.680 400.085 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, ed. T. D. Williams \(Dublin, 1973\), p. 148 \(first broadcast as part of the Thomas Davis )] TJ ET BT 64.016 385.829 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(lecture series on Radio Telefis Eireann, 10 January 1971\). This might be interpreted as one of the )] TJ ET BT 64.016 371.573 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(earliest assertions of the new public history responding to the onset of violence in Northern Ireland in )] TJ ET BT 64.016 357.317 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1969. )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 94.016 357.317 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 94.016 355.923 m 148.004 355.923 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 343.066 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 343.061 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(J. M. Regan, )] TJ ET BT 128.012 343.061 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Irish Counter-Revolution, 1921?36)] TJ ET BT 318.008 343.061 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Dublin, 1999\), p. 80. )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 428.336 343.061 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 428.336 341.667 m 482.324 341.667 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 328.810 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(3.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 328.805 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(R. Fanning, ?Leadership and transition from the politics of revolution to the politics of party: the )] TJ ET BT 64.016 314.549 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(example of Ireland 1914?1939? in )] TJ ET BT 231.644 314.549 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reports?Fourteenth International Congress of Historical Sciences)] TJ ET BT 551.300 314.549 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 300.293 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(3 vols \(New York, 1977\), iii. 1741?68, at 1743. Originally delivered 27 August 1975, at San )] TJ ET BT 64.016 286.037 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Francisco. )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 116.672 286.037 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 116.672 284.643 m 170.660 284.643 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 259.781 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 245.525 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 240.799 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 223.019 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 223.019 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/583)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 221.625 m 322.316 221.625 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 196.648 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 182.248 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/3975)] TJ ET BT 34.016 167.848 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET endstream endobj 26 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 27 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 86.3477 671.5975 92.3477 683.4775 ] >> endobj 27 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 28 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 29 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 94.0157 356.2375 148.0037 368.1175 ] >> endobj 29 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 30 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 31 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 428.3357 341.9815 482.3237 353.8615 ] >> endobj 31 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 32 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 33 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 116.6717 284.9575 170.6597 296.8375 ] >> endobj 33 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 34 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 35 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 221.9395 322.3157 233.8195 ] >> endobj 35 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/583) >> endobj xref 0 36 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000349 00000 n 0000000386 00000 n 0000000540 00000 n 0000000622 00000 n 0000004710 00000 n 0000004819 00000 n 0000004929 00000 n 0000005038 00000 n 0000008599 00000 n 0000008727 00000 n 0000008811 00000 n 0000008876 00000 n 0000016324 00000 n 0000016408 00000 n 0000024322 00000 n 0000024450 00000 n 0000024486 00000 n 0000024570 00000 n 0000032161 00000 n 0000032289 00000 n 0000032325 00000 n 0000032437 00000 n 0000038104 00000 n 0000038230 00000 n 0000038266 00000 n 0000038393 00000 n 0000038429 00000 n 0000038557 00000 n 0000038593 00000 n 0000038721 00000 n 0000038757 00000 n 0000038885 00000 n trailer << /Size 36 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 38980 %%EOF