%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 18 0 R 22 0 R 24 0 R ] /Count 5 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140420124857+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140420124857+01'00') /Title (Triumph Forsaken: The Vietnam War, 1954?1965) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 3993 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Triumph Forsaken: The Vietnam War, 1954?1965)] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back at the end of the 1980s, when I was a lowly teaching assistant at the Pennsylvania State University, I )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(had the good fortune to work on an undergraduate course on the Vietnam War directed by the great Vietnam )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(scholar William Duiker. Duiker?s course was very popular. One of the attractions was a role-playing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(exercise where a small group of student volunteers would adopt the roles of members of the National )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Security Council at key watershed moments in the development of the First and Second Indochina Wars. We )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(would go out to Duiker?s house where, over coffee and soft drinks, the members of the NSC would debate )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the issues and make their policy recommendations to the president, played by Duiker himself. These )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(deliberations would then be presented to the entire lecture group on campus for debate. One of the things )] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.019 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that struck me forcibly about these sessions was that, despite the prevailing wisdom on the war, which had )] TJ ET BT 34.016 130.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(come to see it as a serious mistake, when confronted with the information available to the protagonists at the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 116.507 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(time, these students, most too young to remember much if anything about the conflict, would arrive at the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 102.251 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(same conclusions and make the same recommendations regarding American policy and strategy in Southeast )] TJ ET BT 34.016 87.995 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Asia as the persons whose roles they played.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.739 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Mark Moyar would not be surprised to learn that the Penn State students found it perfectly understandable )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.699 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(584)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.187 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.931 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Wednesday, 28 February, 2007)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.675 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.419 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Mark Moyar)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.163 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.907 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9780521869119)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.651 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.395 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2006)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.139 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.883 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(20.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.627 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.371 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(542pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.115 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.859 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cambridge University Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.603 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher url:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.347 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.cambridge.org/uk/catalogue/catalogue.asp?isbn=9780521869119)] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.091 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 313.835 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cambridge)] TJ ET BT 34.016 299.579 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 285.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ian Horwood)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 16 0 R ] /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 7209 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and logical that, in the context of the times they were studying, the United States should commit itself to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(preservation of a non-communist South Vietnam, for he sees the war as a ?noble cause?. He would, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(however, more than likely quibble at the precise strategies by which the students thought such an objective )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(should best be pursued, because he also thinks that this noble cause was ?improperly executed?. As such, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Moyar?s book is heir to the tradition of ?revisionist? interpretations of the Vietnam War, by contrast to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conventional or ?orthodox? interpretations, which tend to see the war as ?wrong-headed and unjust? \(p. xi\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Triumph Forsaken)] TJ ET BT 123.680 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( is the first volume of what will be a two-volume history of the Vietnam War, but it did )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(not start out that way. Moyar tells us that he set out to write a short single-volume history of the war )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(synthesised from secondary sources, but in the course of his research he discovered that much of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conventional wisdom about the war seemed faulty, and, in order to set the record straight, a much more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(extensive work, based on primary research, was necessary. In fact, Moyar probably set out from the view )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that much of the conventional wisdom needed to be challenged, since his earlier work on the CIA?s counter-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(insurgency Phoenix Programme \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 194.996 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 194.996 612.003 m 200.996 612.003 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 200.996 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\) also falls into the revisionist school, and while Moyar himself insists )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that there is much in the works of ?orthodox? historians with which he agrees, he is actually at variance with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(so many of the conventional interpretations of the Vietnam historical record that space prevents us from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dealing with all but a few of the most significant here.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(As befits a general history, Moyar?s work is largely narrative, tracing the history of the Second Indochina )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(War from its beginnings immediately after the Geneva Agreement that concluded the First Indochina War to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the deployment of major United States ground forces to South Vietnam in 1965, but as the gestation of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Moyar?s work suggests, it is very thoroughly researched in primary sources, including extensive use of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(communist Vietnamese materials, much of which has only recently become available to the scholar. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(result is a work that is much more detailed than the average general history, particularly as regards its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(coverage of Vietnamese perspectives and the specifically military side of the conflict, supported by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(extensive endnotes. It reads well too, being written in a clear and vigorous style that is only occasionally )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(marred by a grating informality?Kennedy?s intellectual advisers are referred to as ?brainy? civilians \(p. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(416\); the H-21 helicopter, which was indeed known as the ?Flying Banana? on account of its shape, is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(continuously referred to as such in Moyar?s account of the Battle of Ap Bac in January 1963; but these are )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(minor irritations.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Shortly after its conclusion, a scholarly consensus on the Vietnam War began to accrete as the ?orthodox? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(view. Some of the key aspects of the consensus are as follows:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Orthodox historians discovered that far from being an agent of the Soviet monolith, the North-Vietnamese )] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Leader, Ho Chi Minh, was actually a nationalist first and a communist only insofar as this would serve his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(nationalist cause. Thus the United States found itself opposing the forces of nationalism in South Vietnam )] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and supporting a regime that drew extensively on the class that had administered France?s Indochinese )] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(colonies for her.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 237.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The South-Vietnamese leader, Ngo Dinh Diem, was not himself tainted by the colonial connection, but )] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(neither, according to the orthodox school, was he popular. He was the reactionary leader of a repressive and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 208.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(corrupt regime, representative only of the Catholic minority in South Vietnam. While the United States )] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(pressed political and economic reforms on the Diem regime, he could never fully acquiesce to them, as to do )] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(so could only be at the expense of the same minority class that the government represented. Nor would the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(removal of Diem resolve this problem, as historical events were to prove, because South-Vietnamese )] TJ ET BT 34.016 151.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(political institutions were intrinsically reactionary.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 125.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(American support for the Republic of Vietnam was fundamentally flawed, then, in moral terms, but it was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 111.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(also justified by the United States government in strategic terms. However, the orthodox historians also )] TJ ET BT 34.016 97.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(adjudged these strategic arguments bankrupt. South Vietnam was not strategically significant in itself, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 82.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ho could hardly be China?s agent because of the long-established enmity between Vietnam and its powerful )] TJ ET BT 34.016 68.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(neighbour to the north. If Ho were simply fighting for the unification of his country, and was not an agent of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 54.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Soviet Union or China, then South Vietnam could not be one of Eisenhower?s falling dominoes; indeed, )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 17 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 194.9957 612.3175 200.9957 624.1975 ] >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 20 0 R ] /Contents 19 0 R >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Length 7469 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the orthodox historians declared the domino theory itself invalid. Subsequent historical events appeared to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(prove this: in the wake of the American defeat in Vietnam the Asian dominoes did not fall beyond the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(immediate confines of Indochina. Logically, if Ho was a nationalist and not a communist, the United States )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(had no strategic interest in South Vietnam, and if the Diem regime was unpopular, then American )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(intervention must have been a mistake.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(What is more, the primarily-conventional military strategy adopted by the United States to achieve its aims )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in Vietnam was, the orthodox historians found, incapable of realizing them. Despite an eventual strength of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(more than half a million American soldiers in South Vietnam, the kind of military commitment actually )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(required to have any chance at all of securing victory was never acceptable to the United States government )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(or the American people. Yet despite the increasing obviousness that the war could not be won, the United )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(States was reluctant to withdraw. Consequently it remained bogged down in a long drawn-out stalemate, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(until political exhaustion forced a peace agreement on terms that had seemed unacceptable at the outset.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Moyar?s achievement is perhaps at its greatest in his appreciation of the political and cultural realities of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Vietnam itself. Thus, his work is also an unlikely heir to the limited tradition of cultural assessments of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(war represented by Frances Fitzgerald?s )] TJ ET BT 230.288 572.885 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Fire in the Lake)] TJ ET BT 307.280 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(1972\) and Loren Baritz?s )] TJ ET BT 439.580 572.885 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Backfire)] TJ ET BT 480.236 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(1985\) \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 522.224 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 522.224 571.491 m 528.224 571.491 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 528.224 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\). )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(However, where those works tend to find in favour of the orthodox view, Moyar?s perspective on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Vietnamese culture leads him in the opposite direction.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 518.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Fundamentally, Moyar finds that Ho Chi Minh was indeed a committed agent of international communism, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 503.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(intent on spreading the revolution throughout Southeast Asia. What is more, while it is true that there was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 489.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(not a close relationship between Ho and the Soviet Union at the outset of the Second Indochina War, Moyar )] TJ ET BT 34.016 475.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(does find such a relationship between Ho and the communist People?s Republic of China. In fact, says )] TJ ET BT 34.016 461.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Moyar, no relic of historical antipathy clouded a cordial relationship between fraternal communist brothers )] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ho and Mao Zedong. This is not unreasonable. Vietnam had once been part of the Chinese empire, and after )] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(it won its independence it had been a tribute state, subject to periodic Chinese invasion for 900 years before )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the French came, but beating off every assault. However, the resulting Vietnam-China relationship might )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(more accurately be described as one of mutual respect than lasting enmity. At times China had actually )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(guaranteed Vietnam?s security, and there had also been extensive cultural exchanges between Vietnam and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(China during the tribute period with the result that Vietnam had become heavily Sinicized. Moyar?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(revisionist picture of Ho?s relationship with China would suggest that the contemporary United States )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(analysis of Ho?s motives was correct, and, in the cold war context of the time, that the strong American )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(desire to prevent Ho?s success and the expansion of his ambitions beyond Vietnam and Indochina was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(understandable.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(As with his view of Ho, Moyar?s take on Diem departs from the orthodox view. Certainly Diem was an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(authoritarian, and he did drag his feet over American-requested reforms, but again Moyar?s appreciation of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(East-Asian culture and South-Vietnamese politics lead him to conclude that Diem?s policy was essentially )] TJ ET BT 34.016 249.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(wise. South Vietnam had no democratic tradition, and Diem averred that wartime was not the moment to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(begin to build one. The Vietnamese would have been puzzled by the idea that they should like their leader; )] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the important point was that they should respect his authority. The way to achieve this respect was to be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(shown to be strong and effective. Failure to do so would be to lose face and therefore authority. Under these )] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(circumstances political liberalization was actually counter-productive and Diem?s very authoritarianism was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the source of his ?popularity? in Vietnamese terms. Only among the chattering classes in Saigon were there )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(grumblings about his failure to provide the kind of liberal political environment to which the Americans )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(aspired for South Vietnam.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 123.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In this view, Diem?s suppression of Buddhist unrest in 1963 was essential for the preservation of his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 109.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(authority, and his reluctance to do so because of American pressure actually contributed to his generals? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 94.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(decision to topple him in a coup. Indeed, it had been the generals who had ordered the clearing of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 80.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(pagodas in August 1963 and not Diem?s brother, Ngo Dinh Nhu, as a number of American ?experts? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 66.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(insisted. In the process of explaining this, Moyar reveals that the Buddhist uprising was most likely )] TJ ET BT 34.016 52.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(communist inspired, and he questions the widely-held view that the majority of South Vietnamese were )] TJ ET endstream endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 21 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 522.2237 571.8055 528.2237 583.6855 ] >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 23 0 R >> endobj 23 0 obj << /Length 7191 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Buddhists. According to Moyar, at most the Buddhists represented just over a quarter of the population of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(South Vietnam and there were at least as many Confucians, but here he places rather too much faith in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(categories that barely existed in Vietnam in real terms. In fact the majority of South Vietnamese adhered to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(an amalgam of religious ideas that drew on Buddhist, Confucian, Taoist, and animist traditions. The upshot )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is the same, however?that the majority of Vietnamese rural dwellers had little knowledge of, and even less )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(interest in, the Buddhist crisis, which was primarily an urban phenomenon.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Following Diem?s overthrow, the very political liberalization that Diem had resisted was, according to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Moyar, a major contributor to the collapse of the South-Vietnamese war effort between 1963 and 1965, and, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(interestingly, when Premier Nguyen Cao Ky cracked down on the press in 1965, the United States was no )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(longer so enthusiastic about championing its freedom. The difficulty for Diem was that Americans believed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that part of the answer to South Vietnam?s problems was to make it like the United States. However, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(American political nostrums did not suit the Vietnamese cultural landscape, and Diem?s very resistance to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reform proved that he was not a puppet of the United States as many orthodox historians contend. The folly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of American efforts to force liberal democratic reforms on Diem is perhaps the most significant lesson of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Vietnam for current United States policy in Iraq where Americans \(and British\) also seek to import alien )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(political and social structures into an ancient and proud culture that they do not fully understand, perhaps )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with similarly disastrous results.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(As regards the significance of Vietnam in the United States national interest, Moyar agrees with the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(orthodox school that Vietnam was not intrinsically important in itself. However, given Ho?s communism )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and his relationship with China, plus considerable evidence that Vietnam?s East-Asian neighbours were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(concerned about the consequences of the spread of the Chinese communist bacillus to their borders such that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(they might be forced to make accommodations with the PRC, Moyar is convinced that the United States was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(justified in fearing that if the South Vietnamese domino should fall then the repercussions would be felt in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(areas that were more strategically significant, including Thailand, Indonesia, and even Japan.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Americans were puzzled by their defeat in Vietnam. How could the most powerful nation on earth have been )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(defeated by a ragged bunch of peasant guerrillas? This question and the development of the orthodox view )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that the war was unwinnable have made Vietnam a fascinating problem begging for a solution, a sort of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(military ?Rubik?s Cube? pondered over by scholars, generals, and armchair strategists, all searching for their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(own magic bullet which would have assured victory for the United States. Moyar clearly thinks that the war )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(could have been won. In fact, according to Moyar, in 1962 and 1963, at precisely the time that American )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(journalists David Halberstam and Neil Sheehan were saying that the South-Vietnamese war effort was in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(disarray and the United States began to cast about for a replacement for Diem, South Vietnam was winning )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the war. Unfortunately, largely as a consequence of the actions of the media and their misreading of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Buddhist crisis, the United States and influential South Vietnamese turned against Diem with the result that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(he was deposed by a military coup and murdered.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 249.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Diem?s death ushered in a period of political turmoil in South Vietnam, during which the quality of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(South-Vietnamese war effort really did deteriorate, and North Vietnam was emboldened to administer the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(coup de grace by launching an initiative to destroy the South-Vietnamese Army \(ARVN\). With the ARVN )] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reeling from North-Vietnamese Army and Viet Cong main force attacks, and with its strategic reserve )] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(haemorrhaging away, the Johnson administration was faced with the choice of engaging major American )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ground forces or withdrawing its support for South Vietnam. Johnson chose the former course, but ?what )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(would ultimately doom Johnson was neither the illness of the patient nor a faulty diagnosis, but a poor )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(choice of remedy? \(p. 416\). Moyar is critical, therefore, of the Johnson administration?s decision to commit )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(major United States ground forces inside South Vietnam, because he says that other more viable strategies )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were available such as deploying American forces along the seventeenth parallel and in Laos in order to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(choke off communist infiltration into South Vietnam via the Ho Chi Minh Trail. Johnson was wrong to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reject these measures, says Moyar, as a result of faulty intelligence and incorrect advice from civilian aides )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that such initiatives might result in a wider war with China.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 52.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Of course the implication here is that, if pursued, the strategies which Moyar favours for 1963 and 1965 )] TJ ET endstream endobj 24 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 26 0 R 28 0 R 30 0 R 32 0 R 34 0 R 36 0 R 38 0 R 40 0 R 42 0 R ] /Contents 25 0 R >> endobj 25 0 obj << /Length 8315 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were potential war winners. Maybe so, but there is a whiff of the counter-factual about this because the 1963 )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(strategy was not sustained after Diem?s death, the second strategy was never tried, and we cannot, of course, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(say with any certainty how the communists would have responded to either of them over time. Ultimately, it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is difficult to avoid the fact that the communists always reserved the right to set the pace and intensity of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(war, even if the United States deployed troops in Laos, scaling back conventional operations in favour of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(debilitating guerrilla warfare until the Americans tired of the conflict. The only situation in which this would )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(clearly not have been the case would have been if the United States had decided on a full-scale invasion and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(occupation of North Vietnam, but in such a situation Chinese intervention really could not have been )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(discounted and the Johnson administration was never prepared to countenance such a strategy.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(What bothers Moyar about the orthodox school is not so much the variance between their interpretations of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the war and those of revisionists like himself, but the outright refusal by some orthodox historians to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(consider alternative interpretations of the war which do not, in Frederik Logevall?s words, regard it as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?axiomatic ?that the United States should not have fought in Vietnam \(p. xii\). This is indeed to be deplored, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(but in embracing the revisionist cause Moyar takes more chances with his academic credibility than he is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(prepared to admit, for while the revisionists tend to see the Vietnam War as a noble cause, theirs is not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(necessarily a particularly noble tradition. Most of the early-revisionist publications were by United States )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(military personnel who had been directly concerned with the conflict. While General Westmoreland, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Admiral Sharpe, General Momyer, and Colonel Summers were officers and gentlemen to a man, and their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(works are not without interest, they made rather poor historians \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 345.632 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(3)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 345.632 526.467 m 351.632 526.467 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 351.632 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\). Worse still are the legions of internet )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(zealots who are convinced of the rightness of the American cause in Vietnam, regardless of any possible )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(evidence to the contrary, and certain that they could have run the war better than the civilians charged with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the task at the time. There have, however, been serious revisionist histories of the Vietnam War: Guenter )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Lewy?s )] TJ ET BT 74.336 470.837 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(America in Vietnam)] TJ ET BT 170.324 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(1978\) \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 212.312 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(4)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 212.312 469.443 m 218.312 469.443 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 218.312 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\) was an excellent early example, and like Lewy before him, the sheer )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(scholarship behind Moyar?s book demands that we take his views seriously.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 421.683 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 391.066 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 391.061 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(M. Moyar, )] TJ ET BT 118.676 391.061 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Phoenix and the Birds of Prey: The CIA?s Campaign to Destroy the Viet Cong)] TJ ET BT 496.988 391.061 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Annapolis, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 376.805 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1997\). )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 98.012 376.805 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 98.012 375.411 m 152.000 375.411 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 362.554 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 362.549 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(F. Fitzgerald, )] TJ ET BT 131.348 362.549 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Fire in the Lake: The Vietnamese and the Americans in Vietnam)] TJ ET BT 439.976 362.549 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(New York, 1972\); L. )] TJ ET BT 64.016 348.293 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Baritz, )] TJ ET BT 99.344 348.293 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Backfire: A History of How American Culture Led us into Vietnam an Made Us Fight the Way )] TJ ET BT 64.016 334.037 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(We Did)] TJ ET BT 100.340 334.037 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(New York, 1985\). )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.648 334.037 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.648 332.643 m 251.636 332.643 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 319.786 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(3.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 319.781 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(W. C. Westmoreland, )] TJ ET BT 171.332 319.781 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(A Soldier Reports)] TJ ET BT 256.664 319.781 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(New York, 1980\), U.S.G. Sharp, )] TJ ET BT 423.968 319.781 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Strategy for Defeat: )] TJ ET BT 64.016 305.525 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Vietnam in Retrospect)] TJ ET BT 170.672 305.525 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Novato, CA, 1998\), W. W. Momyer, )] TJ ET BT 357.644 305.525 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Airpower in Three Wars)] TJ ET BT 474.644 305.525 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Washington, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 291.269 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(D.C., 1978\); H. G. Summers, Jr., )] TJ ET BT 225.344 291.269 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(On Strategy: A Critical Analysis of the Vietnam War)] TJ ET BT 478.004 291.269 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(New York, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 277.013 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1984\). )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 98.012 277.013 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 98.012 275.619 m 152.000 275.619 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 262.762 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(4.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 262.757 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(G. Lewy, )] TJ ET BT 112.004 262.757 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(America and Vietnam)] TJ ET BT 216.656 262.757 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(New York, 1978\). )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 313.964 262.757 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 313.964 261.363 m 367.952 261.363 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 236.501 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 222.245 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Political Review Net)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 207.989 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.politicalreviewnet.com/polrev/reviews/DIPH/R_0145_2096_339_1007837.asp)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 206.595 m 470.324 206.595 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 473.324 207.989 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET BT 34.016 193.733 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Military History Online)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 179.477 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.militaryhistoryonline.com/review/triumphforsaken.aspx)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 178.083 m 360.332 178.083 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 363.332 179.477 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([3])] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 174.751 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 156.971 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 156.971 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/584)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 155.577 m 322.316 155.577 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 130.600 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 116.200 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/3978)] TJ ET BT 34.016 101.800 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://www.politicalreviewnet.com/polrev/reviews/DIPH/R_0145_2096_339_1007837.asp)] TJ ET BT 34.016 87.400 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([3] http://www.militaryhistoryonline.com/review/triumphforsaken.aspx)] TJ ET endstream endobj 26 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 27 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 345.6317 526.7815 351.6317 538.6615 ] >> endobj 27 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 28 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 29 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 212.3117 469.7575 218.3117 481.6375 ] >> endobj 29 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 30 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 31 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 98.0117 375.7255 151.9997 387.6055 ] >> endobj 31 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 32 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 33 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.6477 332.9575 251.6357 344.8375 ] >> endobj 33 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 34 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 35 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 98.0117 275.9335 151.9997 287.8135 ] >> endobj 35 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 36 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 37 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 313.9637 261.6775 367.9517 273.5575 ] >> endobj 37 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 38 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 39 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 206.9095 470.3237 218.7895 ] >> endobj 39 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.politicalreviewnet.com/polrev/reviews/DIPH/R_0145_2096_339_1007837.asp) >> endobj 40 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 41 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 178.3975 360.3317 190.2775 ] >> endobj 41 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.militaryhistoryonline.com/review/triumphforsaken.aspx) >> endobj 42 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 43 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 155.8915 322.3157 167.7715 ] >> endobj 43 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/584) >> endobj xref 0 44 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000349 00000 n 0000000386 00000 n 0000000554 00000 n 0000000636 00000 n 0000004681 00000 n 0000004790 00000 n 0000004900 00000 n 0000005009 00000 n 0000008570 00000 n 0000008698 00000 n 0000008782 00000 n 0000008866 00000 n 0000016128 00000 n 0000016256 00000 n 0000016292 00000 n 0000016376 00000 n 0000023898 00000 n 0000024026 00000 n 0000024062 00000 n 0000024127 00000 n 0000031371 00000 n 0000031511 00000 n 0000039879 00000 n 0000040007 00000 n 0000040043 00000 n 0000040171 00000 n 0000040207 00000 n 0000040334 00000 n 0000040370 00000 n 0000040498 00000 n 0000040534 00000 n 0000040661 00000 n 0000040697 00000 n 0000040825 00000 n 0000040861 00000 n 0000040988 00000 n 0000041121 00000 n 0000041248 00000 n 0000041364 00000 n 0000041492 00000 n trailer << /Size 44 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 41587 %%EOF