%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 16 0 R 18 0 R ] /Count 4 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140417202037+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140417202037+01'00') /Title (Magic and Impotence in the Middle Ages) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 3867 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Magic and Impotence in the Middle Ages)] TJ ET BT 64.016 247.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?It happened once in Paris that a certain sorceress impeded a man who had left her so that he )] TJ ET BT 64.016 232.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(could not have intercourse with another woman whom he had married. So she made an )] TJ ET BT 64.016 218.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(incantation over a closed lock and threw the lock into a well, and the key into another well, and )] TJ ET BT 64.016 204.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the man was made impotent. But afterwards, when the sorceress was forced to acknowledge the )] TJ ET BT 64.016 190.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(truth, the lock was retrieved from the one well and the key from the other, and as soon as the )] TJ ET BT 64.016 175.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(lock was opened, the man became able to have intercourse with his wife.?)] TJ ET BT 34.016 137.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This story comes from Thomas of Chobham?s )] TJ ET BT 259.664 137.531 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Summa confessorum)] TJ ET BT 358.652 137.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, probably completed before 1217, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 123.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(opens Catherine Rider?s book. The magic worked by the sorceress using locks and keys has parallels in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 109.019 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(other medieval stories that employ the same motif, as well as an obvious symbolism. In the early-modern )] TJ ET BT 34.016 94.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(period, one cure for magically-caused impotence was for the man to urinate through the keyhole of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 80.507 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(church where he was married. The idea that the magic was performed by the man?s former lover also seems )] TJ ET BT 34.016 66.251 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to reflect a widespread belief that surfaces in the trials of sorceresses in the fourteenth century \(p. 98\). Rider )] TJ ET BT 34.016 51.995 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(argues that though Thomas may not have been recording an actual event, he was probably referring to real )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.699 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(585)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.187 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.931 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Sunday, 1 April, 2007)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.675 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.419 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Catherine Rider)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.163 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.907 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9780199282227)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.651 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.395 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2006)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.139 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.883 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(53.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.627 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.371 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(268pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.115 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.859 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Oxford University Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.603 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher url:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.347 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://ukcatalogue.oup.com/product/9780199282227.do)] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.091 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 313.835 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Oxford)] TJ ET BT 34.016 299.579 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 285.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Peter Jones)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 7781 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(beliefs and practices. While acknowledging the difficulties involved in finding evidence for the practice of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(impotence magic as seen through the prism of learned writings, she asserts that we can still learn much about )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(this branch of ?popular magic?.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The book is constructed around the contribution of three university-based disciplines to discussion on the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dangers of impotence magic and its cures?canon law, theology, and medicine. These disciplines shared )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(terminology, and, in particular, the use of the term maleficium to denote impotence that was caused by non-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(physical means like putting substances under the couple?s bed, in their house, or by a road where they would )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(walk, not to mention Thomas?s case of locking a lock and throwing it down a well. They acknowledged the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(existence of physical causes of impotence, and the importance of distinguishing physical from non-physical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(causes. In other respects discussion of magically-caused impotence in these disciplines evolved more or less )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(independently, and reflected the particular institutional imperatives of each. Nevertheless in her )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?Introduction? Rider signposts two wider developments in intellectual and religious history that helped )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(academic discussion of impotence magic to reach new levels of sophistication. The first was the translation )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of magical texts from Arabic into Latin, the second was the pastoral movement of the thirteenth century that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(gave rise to Thomas of Chobham?s )] TJ ET BT 206.660 584.885 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Summa confessorum)] TJ ET BT 305.648 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, and affected both canon law and theology.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Before the scholastics began to grapple with new texts and new religious imperatives there was already a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(flourishing practice of impotence magic. Rider picks up its traces in the literature and curse tablets of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ancient world. Unfortunately for our knowledge of magical practice later, there was no medieval equivalent )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to the curse tablets recording actual spells that were cast. One ancient learned discipline was already )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(concerned with impotence magic, for Latin medical writers were already prescribing remedies for both )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(natural impotence and maleficium, even if they did not use that specific term for magical practices. Christian )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(writers associated magic very strongly with demons and idolatry, following Augustine. The first surviving )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(medieval discussions of impotence magic occur in the writings of Hincmar, archbishop of Rheims from 845 )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to 882. Hincmar was very interested in marriage law and advised bishops and rulers in several high-profile )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cases, including two in 860 that led him to say that magic could cause impotence. The first case concerned )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the attempts of King Lothar II of Lotharingia to divorce his wife, Theutberga, and marry his concubine, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Waldrada. Hincmar suggested that Waldrada has bewitched Lothar and caused him to hate his wife. As well )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as quoting earlier Christian writers who had discussed magic, Hincmar seems to have drawn on actual cases )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of love magic that had occurred in his archdiocese. In this particular case he does not distinguish impotence )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(magic from other forms of love or hate magic. He also describes a range of magical practices in detail, using )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the bones of the dead, ashes, pubic hair, parts of serpents, and much else.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In the second case Hincmar singled out impotence magic for special attention. It concerned an Aquitanian )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(count called Stephen, who was betrothed to the daughter of another count, Raymond. In justifying an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(annulment on grounds of impotence, Hincmar discussed magically-caused impotence as a subset of such )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cases. Hincmar?s discussion in a short paragraph beginning with the words Si per sortiarias \(?if by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sorceresses??\) was to become the source of all subsequent canon law on magically-caused impotence. What )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(he actually meant to say on the subject of the remarriage of partners affected by such impotence has been )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(disputed by modern historians of marriage law, though it is clear that medieval canonists assumed such )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(remarriage was permissible in these cases. Similarly foundational for later discussions by medical writers )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was the chapter on maleficium in the )] TJ ET BT 214.316 204.485 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Pantegni)] TJ ET BT 257.648 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( of Constantine the African \(d. before 1099\), absent in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Constantine?s Arabic source, Haly Abbas. In it he mentions cures using animal parts in forms of counter-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(magic as well as an ?ecclesiastical cure? through a cleansing communion ritual, with an amuletic parchment )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to take home.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(These earlier materials were assimilated and commented on in the twelfth century by Gratian in his )] TJ ET BT 513.260 135.461 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Decretum)] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, and the ?decretists? who followed him, by Peter Lombard in the )] TJ ET BT 350.636 121.205 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Sentences)] TJ ET BT 397.952 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, and the extraordinarily )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(influential \(but now little known\) medical )] TJ ET BT 238.004 106.949 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Practica)] TJ ET BT 279.332 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( of Roger de Barone. By these conduits magical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(impotence entered the mainstream of scholasticism in canon law, theology, and medicine. At the same time )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the translation of magical texts in the twelfth and thirteenth centuries vastly increased the amount of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(information that writers about magically-caused impotence could draw on in theory?whether in fact they did )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(do so is much more doubtful, with the exception of Albertus Magnus. Certainly the newly-available texts )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 17 0 R >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Length 7305 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(had little or no impact on magical practice, where the exotic names and characters found in the magical texts )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(are not reflected in the recorded case histories that resemble much more closely Thomas of Chobham?s story )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the lock thrown down the well.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The four chapters in which Rider examines the literature of confessors? manuals, canon law, theology, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(medicine in the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries are the climax of the book. They are necessarily based on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a sampling of this literature, for by this time the volume of commentary and discussion cannot be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(summarized by the author exhaustively. Nevertheless there is not space enough in this review to do justice to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the extraordinary richness and variety of the material that is brought to light just by concentrating on the one )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(topic of impotence magic. Each of the three major disciplines threw up authors who emphasized distinctive )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(aspects of the topic?in canon law it was the doubtful legality of the incantations and medicines offered by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(practitioners attempting to counter impotence magic; in theology it was the presence and agency of demons )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in the practice of impotence magic; in medicine it was the attempt to offer physical explanations for methods )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of causing impotence which other writers called maleficium. Rider argues that despite the originality of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(authors in all three disciplines in the thirteenth century, and to a lesser degree in the fourteenth, we should )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(assume that popular magic went on pretty well unchanged. There is nothing to suggest that practices of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(impotence magic changed significantly over the medieval period as a whole.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?By 1400, magically-caused impotence was a clearly defined phenomenon and the rules that governed cases )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were well established? \(p. 186\). Writers had by this time, it seemed, little new to say, and were saying less. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Nevertheless, Rider argues that appearances are deceptive. She argues that in the early-fifteenth century )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(there emerged a new stereotype of a magic-worker, the witch. Amongst all the other things they did \(fly to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sabbaths, orgies, murder babies\) they planned how to do magical harm to their neighbours, one form of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which was causing impotence. Concern about this was most clearly reflected, Rider claims, in medical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(compendia. She cites the descriptions of cases of impotence caused by witchcraft in writings by Niccolo )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Falcucci, Antonio Guarnieri, and Jacques Despars. At the same time the relative independence of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(discourses of canon law, theology, and medicine was collapsing in the face of a shared concerns about the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(role of the demonic in impotence and other forms of magic. And for the first time, Rider suggests, these )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(changing attitudes to impotence magic may simply reflect anxieties limited to the learned rather than )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(expressions of a change in popular beliefs.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In this short last chapter the reader of her book may begin to feel that the argument is not as securely )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(anchored in close reading of representative texts as earlier chapters. It may be that the author is working )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(outside her comfort zone, and certainly her choice of medical writers to discuss here is arguably biased )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(towards an unrepresentative minority rather than the majority. Admittedly not as much work has been done )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(on fifteenth-century writers on practica and medical encyclopedias as would enable us to come to a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conclusive judgement, but such works as the )] TJ ET BT 251.324 290.021 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Breviarium Bartholomei)] TJ ET BT 368.984 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( of John of Mirfield and its successors )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in England, which do deal with maleficium, do not suggest new concerns with witchcraft. They continue to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(recommend magical counter-cures that would mostly have been familiar to Gilbertus Anglicus and other )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(thirteenth-century authorities. Perhaps those concerned with witchcraft were localized and exceptional rather )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(than representative of the majority.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(There is still a considerable terrain to be explored, we might conclude. Surviving from the fourteenth and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fifteenth centuries, there is a body of Latin and vernacular literature in remedy and commonplace books )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which might illustrate popular beliefs and practice in respect of impotence magic. One suspects there may be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(many more cases of magical practice to be disinterred from the records of bishops? visitations and church )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(courts. It is an exciting thought that we might be able to see as a result of this kind of investigation if the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(practice of impotence magic in these last centuries showed any evidence of the influence of learned writings )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(on magic. But this thought should not be held against the author of this book, who has delivered an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(exceptional clearly argued study of learned discussions of impotence magic. The book ends with a very )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(useful edition of the Latin text \(with translation\) known as ?Remedies against magic?, compiled around )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1300 by an author or authors who clearly used Constantine?s )] TJ ET BT 329.972 78.437 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Pantegni)] TJ ET BT 373.304 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( on magically-caused impotence as a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(starting point.)] TJ ET endstream endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 20 0 R ] /Contents 19 0 R >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Length 1317 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(If this study suggests that the practice of impotence magic by real people in the middle ages changed little )] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(over the centuries, by contrast with the increase in sophistication and variety of learned discourse, that is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(only what we might have expected. Some of the practices described in this book have clear counterparts in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(love magic even today. They do not appear, however, to generate the same level of learned interest.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 715.445 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 701.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 696.463 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 678.683 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 678.683 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/585)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 677.289 m 322.316 677.289 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 652.312 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 637.912 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/3980)] TJ ET BT 34.016 623.512 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET endstream endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 21 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 677.6035 322.3157 689.4835 ] >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/585) >> endobj xref 0 22 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000342 00000 n 0000000379 00000 n 0000000541 00000 n 0000000623 00000 n 0000004542 00000 n 0000004651 00000 n 0000004761 00000 n 0000004870 00000 n 0000008431 00000 n 0000008559 00000 n 0000008643 00000 n 0000008708 00000 n 0000016542 00000 n 0000016607 00000 n 0000023965 00000 n 0000024049 00000 n 0000025419 00000 n 0000025547 00000 n trailer << /Size 22 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 25642 %%EOF