%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 16 0 R 18 0 R 20 0 R ] /Count 5 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20150822104852+01'00') /ModDate (D:20150822104852+01'00') /Title (The Labour Governments, 1964?1970) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4214 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(The Labour Governments, 1964?1970)] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Peter Dorey?s edited volume, )] TJ ET BT 178.988 259.067 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Labour Governments 1964?70)] TJ ET BT 347.312 259.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(2006\), both in its methodological )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(approach and chronological focus, is a timely addition to the historiography of the Labour Party. In a style )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reminiscent of his other two major publications of 2006, namely )] TJ ET BT 345.656 230.555 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Public Policy in Britain: An Introduction)] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(London, 2006\) and his edited volume, )] TJ ET BT 224.000 216.299 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Developments in British Public Policy)] TJ ET BT 407.984 216.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(London, 2006\), a systematic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(analysis of the major policy areas influenced by the 1964?70 Labour governments is undertaken. Dorey has )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(solicited the work from some of Britain?s leading authorities on the Labour Party, in addition to both current )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and recently-graduated PhD students researching in this field. Significantly, many of the contributors are )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(political scientists, with only three of the fifteen contributors being historians ?by trade?. Although this has )] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.019 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(meant that their analyses are interspersed with a little more social science-based theory, especially pertaining )] TJ ET BT 34.016 130.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to policy developments, than would usually be seen in texts authored by historians, its approach is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 116.507 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(predominantly historical, charting effectively the fortunes of the Labour Party, and its impact on the policy )] TJ ET BT 34.016 102.251 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(agenda during this period.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 75.995 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Its intellectual approach is therefore notably different to previous works on the Labour Party, which, broadly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.739 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(speaking, have fallen into three major categories. First, many historians have focused on the party?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.699 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(586)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.187 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.931 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Sunday, 1 April, 2007)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.675 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Editor:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.419 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Peter Dorey)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.163 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.907 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9780714656199)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.651 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.395 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2006)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.139 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.883 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(75.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.627 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.371 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(336pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.115 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.859 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Routledge)] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.603 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher url:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.347 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.routledge.com/books/The-Labour-Governments-1964-1970-isbn9780714656199)] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.091 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 313.835 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(London)] TJ ET BT 34.016 299.579 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 285.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Mark Crowley)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 7869 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(development in the period up to the end of the Second World War, of which Stephen Brooke?s, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Labour?s War: Party, Coalition and Reconstruction, 1939?45)] TJ ET BT 333.356 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Oxford, 1988\), and Steven Fielding, Peter )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thompson, and Nick Tiratsoo?s )] TJ ET BT 191.000 767.957 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(England Arise! The Labour Party and Popular Politics in 1940s Britain)] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Manchester, 1995\) are but two. Considerable attention is frequently accorded to the acrimonious split of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1931?for which Ramsay MacDonald?s formation of the National Government will probably forever be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(regarded within Labour-Party circles as a betrayal of the party?after which the party did not regain electoral )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(prominence until 1945. Secondly, there are studies of the party?s history in its entirety, as found in the works )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(to name but a few\) of Duncan Tanner, Andrew Thorpe, and Henry Pelling. These have provided an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(overview of the party?s history, examining the major events and contextualising the party?s fortunes within )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the wider British \(and oftentimes European and worldwide\) political climate. However, even though Tanner, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thorpe, and Pelling?s works touch upon the 1964?70 Labour governments, their larger chronological scope )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(precludes a more detailed analysis of this period. Thirdly, other studies have examined the development of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the party in its era of turmoil, especially in the aftermath of the 1979 general election, highlighting the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 611.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(difficulties of the party?s struggle to regain public confidence, of which Eric Shaw?s )] TJ ET BT 443.936 611.141 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Labour Party since )] TJ ET BT 34.016 596.885 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(1979: Crisis and Transformation)] TJ ET BT 193.040 596.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(1994\) is an example. Only two studies of the 1964-70 Labour )] TJ ET BT 34.016 582.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(governments, one by Clive Ponting \(1990\) and the other by Richard Coopley, Steven Fielding, and Nick )] TJ ET BT 34.016 568.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Tiratsoo \(1993\) were hitherto in print. The lack of studies on the 1964?70 Labour governments, compared to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 554.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that for its earlier and later history, consequently makes Dorey?s volume the leading study on this period of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 539.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the party?s history.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Dorey?s contribution is extensive; he authors half of this 200,000-word book. He examines the party?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(attitude towards devolution in Wales, education reform, Labour?s relationship with the trades unions, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(development of incomes policy, its policies on Northern Ireland, and the reform of laws concerning )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(homosexuals. In his introduction, he outlines three justifications for a further study of the 1964?70 Labour )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(governments. First, he argues that the major economic, political, and social developments of the 1960s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(provoked disagreements within the party over the future direction of its public policy, which in turn )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contributed to a stalemate between the left and right wings of the Labour Party, thus making the formulation )] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and agreement on policy incredibly difficult. This is an aspect frequently referred to by all authors, revealing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(an interesting dichotomy between issues and politics, frequently culminating in policy impasses within )] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(governments. Secondly, the two previous studies of the Labour governments gave only a somewhat cursory )] TJ ET BT 34.016 371.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(examination of policy areas such as Northern Ireland and the reform of the House of Lords, and neglected )] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(others, such as the reform of the House of Commons and education reform. It is difficult to understand why )] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the preceding texts have treated these areas so superficially?if at all. Thirdly, Dorey notes that his is the first )] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(study to make comprehensive use of hitherto unexplored archival material. It is this which is the biggest )] TJ ET BT 34.016 314.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(strength of this study, and it has enabled all the contributors both to highlight and to explain the ideological )] TJ ET BT 34.016 299.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and political tensions within the party. Furthermore, this is used as a platform to explain how these internal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 285.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(tensions emasculated the party machinery?s ability to present a united and cohesive image, thus contributing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 271.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to apathy and a lack of confidence amongst the electorate. Contextualizing these aspects within the wider )] TJ ET BT 34.016 256.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(British political climate, this study demonstrates that the party?s apparent marginality, both in terms of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 242.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(number of its supporters and of its ideology, was attributable to more than the simple fact that it was a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 228.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(minority government.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The book?s structure effectively highlights both the historical context and the contemporary political, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(economic, and social constraints impacting on the Labour Party?s ability to influence and develop policy. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Kevin Jefferys?s chapter analyses the position of the Labour Party in opposition. He explains concisely the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fall of Labour as a party of government, the reasons for its years in the wilderness, and traces how it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(managed, after thirteen years, to regain the confidence of the public and to become once again an electable )] TJ ET BT 34.016 130.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(force. His reference to contemporary texts such as )] TJ ET BT 277.604 130.949 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Must Labour Lose?)] TJ ET BT 371.612 130.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(p. 4\), published in the aftermath of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 116.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the 1959 election defeat, effectively sums up the mood of Labour-Party loyalists, despairing after eight years )] TJ ET BT 34.016 102.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in the political wilderness. The ideological divisions at the heart of the Labour Party, including the formation )] TJ ET BT 34.016 88.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of Aneurin Bevan?s left-wing splinter group typified in the infamous ?Morecambe Conference?, leadership )] TJ ET BT 34.016 73.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(challenges against Attlee, and the rise of Hugh Gaitskell?s revisionism provide a basis for understanding the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 59.669 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(developments analysed by the authors later in the volume. For example, among the reasons Dorey cites for )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 17 0 R >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Length 7556 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the rise of diverging opinions within the party by 1964 are the influx of younger members and the election of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(more MPs with a university-educated background. Their views were different to those of the older members )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the Labour Party, many of whom had not embarked on a university education. He argues that this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(represented the embourgeoisement of the Labour Party \(p. 31\). This argument is convincing on two grounds. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(First, if one examines the political context, the growth in the areas of government competence, in addition to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the growing complexity of governance, meant that a better-educated political elite would be viewed more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(favourably by the electorate. Secondly, the elitist label formerly attached to university education was slowly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(diminishing by the very nature of its growing popularity. This provides the basis for the analysis of these )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(tensions in greater detail in later chapters.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The shift towards a university-educated party culminated in tensions on several fronts. Whilst Eric Shaw )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(argues that diverging opinions led to growing disagreements over the areas of responsibility held by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(government and party \(p. 40\), Noel Thompson argues that it was Harold Wilson?s preoccupation with the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(creation of ?a brave new world? \(p. 56\) for his Fabian Political Economy?comprising the ?professional )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(expert??which alienated many of the party?s older members. The core of its success would depend on the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(party?s ability to undertake coherent economic planning, yet its failure to do so was attributable to its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(inability to acquire the powers necessary to facilitate its development, and, indeed, to the lack of inclination )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to acquire those powers \(p. 70\). Although Thompson argues that the influence of the fundamental economic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(changes during this period affected the party?s ability to pursue the Fabian-Wilsonian Economy, his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(suggestion that there was a lack of any inclination to develop the mechanism is not convincing. The Labour )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Party, following its period in the political wilderness, had managed to return to power, capitalizing on the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(relative weakness of the Conservative Party. Its increased numbers of university-educated members now )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(enabled it justifiably to argue that it could no longer be a party considered as wholly dominated by trade )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(union leaders. The importance of developing this new image to emphasize not only its own development but )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(also the difference between it and the Conservative Party was, therefore, paramount to solidifying its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(electoral position. In this context therefore, Thompson?s assertion is somewhat debatable.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The Labour governments? relationship with the trades unions is something that receives close attention from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Dorey in two chapters: one examining the developments of incomes policy; the other examining the impasse )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reached by the party in industrial relations. When discussing incomes policy, Dorey cites the opposition of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(both trades unions, especially those representing workers in the craft trades, who benefited the most from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(collective bargaining, and of some within the party itself. Opposition was expressed by prominent, but )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(divisive, figures such as Tony Benn, who argued that the government needed to look at mechanisms of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(controlling prices rather than wages, as controlling wages was both impractical and ineffective \(p. 83\). This )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(demonstrates that although the influx of a university-educated membership in the party was initially )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(considered as a move towards embourgeoisement, it did not preclude the expression of left-wing views by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(those such as Benn, himself an Oxbridge university-educated MP. This is an aspect examined in more detail )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in Dorey?s chapter on industrial relations, where he argues that the opposition of many left-wingers in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(party to Barbara Castle and Harold Wilson?s white paper, )] TJ ET BT 314.624 259.253 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(In Place of Strife)] TJ ET BT 396.284 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, published in January 1969, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(stemmed from two areas of the party. First, there were the left-wingers, who regarded any curb on the power )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of trades unions as an infringement of the rights of working people. Secondly, those who were sponsored by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the trades unions considered their loyalty to rest primarily with those unions, and only then with the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(government. They consequently expressed opposition at the reduction in trade union power \(p. 107\). This )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(discussion is balanced by the attention accorded to the supporters of the White Paper, especially those such )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as Tony Crosland, who were sympathetic to both Wilson and Callaghan?s views. Dorey demonstrates that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(acceptance of the White Paper depended on the ability of its supporters to convince the ever-prominent left-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(wing contingent of the party that it did not represent a departure from the founding ideology of the PLP, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 130.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(whilst still ensuring that they could negotiate a stronger position for a Labour government vis--vis the trade )] TJ ET BT 34.016 116.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(unions so as to be able to implement their reformist ideas.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Britain?s relationship with Europe and the wider world proved an important consideration for the Labour )] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(governments. Labour?s relationship with the European Economic Community is examined by Helen Parr )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and Melissa Pine, and the development of British foreign policy beyond Europe is analysed by Rhiannon )] TJ ET endstream endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 19 0 R >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Length 7486 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Vickers. All conclude that the Labour governments took Britain?s relationship with Europe and the wider )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(world very seriously, seeking to expand its influence despite the nation?s position being considerably )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(weaker than it had been during the Empire?s zenith. Both chapters conclude that although many aspects of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(both its European and foreign policies in this period resulted in failure, it was an area on which the Labour )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Party was relatively united. Although this is true, it is worth noting that different strands of the party had )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(divergent views on how policy aims could be achieved.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Constitutional changes were also a preoccupation for the 1964?70 Labour governments. Kevin Theakston?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(analysis of reform in Whitehall concludes that the recollections expressed in politicians? memoirs, especially )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(those of Tony Benn and Richard Crossman, overstate the acrimonious relationship between the Labour Party )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and the Civil Service. Indeed, Theakston argues that the party enjoyed a positive relationship with the Civil )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Service, and managed to implement some reforms during its six years in power. It was tension over the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Fulton Report which prompted acrimony, with Benn criticizing the Civil Service publicly for its attitude, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(pushing Benn further towards the left \(p. 166\). Wider parliamentary reforms are examined in Donald Shell?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(chapter, in which he describes the compulsion within the party to reform both the House of Commons and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(House of Lords, culminating in the expansion of select committees as a method of improving scrutiny of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(government?s activities. One of the biggest advocates of the reforms, Richard Crossman, believed that these )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(committees were necessary on the ground that it would improve the efficiency of departments if more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(pressure on, and scrutiny of, them were applied by the upper and lower chambers \(p. 173\). The most radical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(potential constitutional changes are examined by James Mitchell?s analysis of the Labour governments? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(stance towards Scottish devolution, whilst Peter Dorey examines the case for Wales. Both conclude that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(although the party?s stance towards devolution did, in effect, put the issue of devolution back on the political )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(agenda, it was Wilson?s preoccupation with ensuring a high level of control by central government which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(meant that major policies for devolution stopped short of the creation of the Scottish Grand Committee \(p. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(204\) and after the development of the Welsh Office \(p. 222\). Its biggest success was seen as the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(development of regional policy, which, as Janet Mather argues, was taken up by later governments and also )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(extended the viability of devolution as a policy idea; something which was embraced by the Labour )] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(government of 1979, and later by the Blair government of 1997 \(p. 246\). The most problematic policy for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the government nevertheless proved to be Northern Ireland, outlined by Dorey in Chapter 14. Although the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(government sought to intervene in the province, it faced many difficulties, mainly due to the complicated )] TJ ET BT 34.016 371.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(history associated with the Catholic-Protestant relationship.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The remaining chapters examine issues as divergent as education, homosexual law reform, immigration, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(abolition of the death penalty, and pensions policy. In his chapter on pensions policy, Stephen Thornton )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(concludes that ?idealism was beaten by pragmatism? \(p. 308\), suggesting that the radical initiatives of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(party?s superannuation policy were watered down considerably by the need for caution in this area. This is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contrasted with its ?illiberal? stance on immigration controls yet liberal stance on race relations \(p. 326\), )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(examined by James Hampshire. The perseverance with reform of laws on homosexuality from the social-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(liberal side of the party, despite the perceived ?low saliency? of the issue to the electorate, demonstrates the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(seriousness attached by the party to this policy, despite the somewhat more pressing issue of far-reaching )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(economic and social changes occurring concurrently in this period. Strangely enough, the sole policy uniting )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Labour Party was the abolition of the death penalty, examined here by Neville Twitchell. This section )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(clearly demonstrates that although all these policy areas, with the exception of education policy, could be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(considered as areas of lesser importance to the electorate, the Labour governments of 1964?70 attached )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(equal attention to their development. Although these areas did not prove as divisive as the aforementioned )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(policies, the issues raised ensured that both ideological and political tensions would again come to the fore.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The range of source material and secondary material drawn upon by this study has produced a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(comprehensive analysis of the 1964?70 Labour governments. It cites evidence from the Party?s most )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(prominent left-wingers, namely Tony Benn and Tony Crosland, and counterbalances these with the more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?moderate? views of Barbara Castle, Shirley Williams, and Harold Wilson. This ensures that the divergent )] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(range of policy views are presented and debated effectively by all authors. These juxtaposing views )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(emphasize the difficulties to which the party was exposed in terms of achieving a political middle-ground for )] TJ ET endstream endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 22 0 R ] /Contents 21 0 R >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Length 1609 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the development of policy. This, in addition to the inclusion of hitherto unexplored archival material, has )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(enabled the authors to shed light on aspects of the 1964?70 Labour governments that are not explored in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(other published works. By its very nature, therefore, this study makes a valuable contribution towards )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(understanding why the Labour Party proved, even in government, oftentimes a marginal party ravaged by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(internal tensions. It will undoubtedly prove an invaluable resource for any student, researcher, or general )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reader interested both in the party?s development, and its period in government throughout the 1960s.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 679.951 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 662.171 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 662.171 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/586)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 660.777 m 322.316 660.777 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 635.800 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 621.400 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/3983)] TJ ET BT 34.016 607.000 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET endstream endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 23 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 661.0915 322.3157 672.9715 ] >> endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/586) >> endobj xref 0 24 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000349 00000 n 0000000386 00000 n 0000000543 00000 n 0000000625 00000 n 0000004891 00000 n 0000005000 00000 n 0000005110 00000 n 0000005219 00000 n 0000008780 00000 n 0000008908 00000 n 0000008992 00000 n 0000009057 00000 n 0000016979 00000 n 0000017044 00000 n 0000024653 00000 n 0000024718 00000 n 0000032257 00000 n 0000032341 00000 n 0000034003 00000 n 0000034131 00000 n trailer << /Size 24 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 34226 %%EOF