%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 16 0 R 18 0 R 22 0 R 24 0 R ] /Count 5 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140826045721+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140826045721+01'00') /Title (The Detection of Heresy in Late Medieval England) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R 14 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4244 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(The Detection of Heresy in Late Medieval England)] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(A few years ago, I pestered friendly Lollard scholars with a question which tended to flummox them )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(slightly: how did English bishops know how to prosecute heretics? The broadest outlines of a reply had been )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sketched, in an article from 1936 by H. G. Richardson and another by Margaret Aston in 1993. In addition, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Anne Hudson and J. A. F. Thomson had provided commentary on one detailed aspect, the use of two )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(surviving interrogatories \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 159.332 202.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 159.332 200.649 m 165.332 200.649 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 165.332 202.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\). But none of this satisfactorily explained matters, at least from my perspective )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as a researcher on continental heresy and inquisition, curious as to how one might make comparisons across )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Channel. The situation has now changed. In this monograph, Ian Forrest provides an answer much fuller )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(than I had ever hoped was possible, from a perspective rooted in English archival material but also )] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.019 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conversant with wider, European issues. And in exploring the nuances of the topic, he further opens up a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 130.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(number of important areas of debate for scholars of Lollardy, of medieval canon law in England, and of late-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 116.507 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(medieval English social history in general. This is, in short, a very good and important book indeed.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.251 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The first section deals with the theory of anti-heresy activity. After a brief Introduction, which sets out the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 75.995 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(scope of the book and highlights some specific and technical issues regarding the evidence of episcopal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.739 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(records, Chapter One focuses primarily upon the canon law background to investigations of heresy. This )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.699 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(587)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.187 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.931 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Sunday, 1 April, 2007)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.675 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.419 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ian Forrest)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.163 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.907 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9780199286928)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.651 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.395 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2005)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.139 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.883 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(56.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.627 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.371 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(282pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.115 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.859 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Oxford University Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.603 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher url:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.347 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://ukcatalogue.oup.com/product/9780199286928.do)] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.091 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 313.835 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Oxford)] TJ ET BT 34.016 299.579 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 285.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(John Arnold)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 15 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 159.3317 200.9635 165.3317 212.8435 ] >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 17 0 R >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Length 7442 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(work is grounded in an impressive foray into English manuscript records \(primarily in Oxford and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(British Library\) of canon law commentary, most notably William Paul?s \(or William of Pagula?s\) )] TJ ET BT 507.632 782.213 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Summa )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(summarum)] TJ ET BT 87.344 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, and through this demonstrates the degree to which English lawyers were informed by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(continental texts and procedures. As Forrest makes clear, this does not mean that one can simply assume a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(direct correlation between earlier models and late-medieval English practice; rather, what his book in large )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(part attempts to examine is the complex means and processes by which English bishops adapted earlier )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(procedures to their present task, and brought earlier canon law methods into English usage. Moreover, whilst )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(clearly in command of the technical legal aspects, Forrest is also interested in the wider question of the shape )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of anti-heresy discourse, the particular issues of discernment and truth-production that underlay the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(continued commentary and refinement of legislation in this area.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Chapter two deals with the investigation of heresy, with a particular regard to its institutional basis. In the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(background lies an old \(though perhaps, within an Oxford context, still current\) controversy between Stubbs )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and Maitland, over the exceptionalism, or otherwise, of England with regard to canon law. The English )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(crown was enthusiastic in its pursuit of heresy \(as Forrest points out, this very enthusiasm making secular )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(power appear ironically Wycliffite in its determination to exercise ecclesiastical jurisdiction\), and throughout )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the period one sees a mixture of royal and ecclesiastical law and governance in the repression of Lollardy. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(But, Forrest argues, the former should not be seen as indicating an essential English independence from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?continental? canonical procedures; the nature of medieval canon law meant that local application was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(always subject to the particular politics of the moment. In turning to the episcopate?who, particularly after )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1413, were the mainstay of anti-heresy actions?Forrest demonstrates how the activities of English bishops )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(share many features with continental inquisitors; and, he suggests, there may even be a hint of papally-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(appointed inquisition in England \(beyond the obvious, but oft-forgotten, fact of Templar prosecutions in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(early-fourteenth century\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In chapter three, we are shown various techniques and methods by which heresy was detected. One major )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(theme, previously neglected in its detail and implication, is the licensing of preachers; and, consequently, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(tendency for authorities to focus upon preaching activities as potential sites of trouble. The importance of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(licensed preaching within Archbishop Arundel?s 1409 constitutions is, in this regard, placed into a much )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(longer tradition of monitoring?and, as Forrest argues, ?preaching? was by this point being stretched in its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(definition to include, potentially, the relatively informal teaching or discussion of doctrine in private houses. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The other major source of detection \(detection, which had more the sense of ?reported? than ?found out?\) )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was through people informing upon others. This, Forrest points out, implicated the general laity in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(pursuit of heresy at its base level, which itself raised various issues of authority and knowledge for the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(religious authorities.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The second section deals with the communication of the framework described above, to ecclesiastical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(officials, royal officers, and the general mass of the laity. Chapter four focuses upon statutes, and examines )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(how they were copied and circulated. ?The copying and modification of statutes produced recognizable )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(families of texts, comparable to the stemmata by which literary scholars illustrate the redaction and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(alteration of prose and verse works? \(p. 82\); through such careful comparisons one can track the flow of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(information, and the ways in which legislation was localized and adapted to circumstance. Looking in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(particular at the diocese of Lincoln under the episcopacy of Philip Repingdon, Forrest explores the web of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(influences laying behind a particular piece of diocesan legislation, arguing that a particular innovation )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(making proactive general inquisitions by questioning men of ?good fame? in every borough and deanery\) )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was produced in this diocese in 1413?and from this local context spread upwards to future national )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(legislation. The process was not simply ?top-down?, in other words; the experience of an individual bishop )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(could feed into future legislative models and procedures. This chapter, through exemplary prosopographical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(effort, further tracks the institutional and career trajectories of the kinds of officials who promulgated and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(exercised knowledge in this area, looking at a background of legal training, and also the potential use of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(legal formularies that contained anti-heresy elements.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Chapter five turns to ?channels of propaganda?, by which Forrest means the routes of communication for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(authoritative anti-heresy discourse. This, he stresses, was not a case of elite knowledge and popular )] TJ ET endstream endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 20 0 R ] /Contents 19 0 R >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Length 7797 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ignorance; ?the cultural divide between elite and ?popular? was not the chasm that it has sometimes been )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(described as? \(p. 114\). Licensed preaching was the most obvious medium, with various examples cited of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fifteenth-century episcopal mandates to preach framed in specifically anti-Lollard terms. Those licensed by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the episcopate were mostly graduates, with a background in arts or theology, but also some lawyers?raising )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the possibility that further legal knowledge could be propagated more broadly. Again, Forrest identifies )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Repingdon as a key figure in promoting this campaign of anti-heresy activity?a case, perhaps, of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reformed sinner being particularly zealous \(Repingdon had had to abjure Wycliffite views in 1382, after )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contact with the heresy at Oxford\). Another channel of anti-heresy dissemination was the proclamation of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(legal statutes, and the public citation of heretical offences; and third element was the public nature of \(and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(participation in\) rituals surrounding the prosecution of heresy, notably excommunications and penances.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Chapter six examines the content of this propaganda in great depth, which Forrest notes as interlinked across )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the different media?sermons citing law, for example, and legal citations referring to homiletic imagery. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Elements of Wycliffite doctrine were promulgated by these channels, in order to be condemned; and an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(image of the stereotypical Lollard?with a particular emphasis on the hypocrisy of heretics?was common to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(many cultural productions. The purpose of this propaganda, Forrest suggests, was to enable the laity to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(participate in the detection of heresy \(in the sense of noting and reporting those suspected to the authorities\). )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The propaganda was thus strongly informed by legal ideas, most particularly the importance of outward )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(signs as a means by which inner heresy could be identified?gathering in ?conventicles? for example, or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(suspiciously ?holy? people who were not to be trusted.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The final section of the book looks at the implementation of all this machinery of repression, and does so by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reading across various fifteenth-century trials and, in the final chapter, focussing upon the diocese of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Lincoln, through extensive use of unpublished episcopal material. In chapter seven, Forrest examines the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(means by which heresy came to be reported, noting occasions when the traces of prior legal procedure can )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(be seen in the records, and analysing the conception of heresy \(or rather, suspicion of heresy\) held by lay )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(witnesses. Chapter eight looks at ?the social contours of heresy detection?, in the context of a wider )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(episcopal visitation by Repingdon in 1413. What Forrest finds here is remarkable: that, across all kinds of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(spiritual offences )] TJ ET BT 119.996 401.813 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(including)] TJ ET BT 165.332 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( heresy, those most likely to be ?noted? by the local informants are not the lowly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(or socially marginal but people of office-holding social stature. ?If one was law-worthy in the sense of being )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reputable and trusted, it was more likely that one?s own offences would be deemed worthy of being dealt )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with at law than the offences of people outside this self-referential circle? \(p. 221\). In his Conclusion to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(book as a whole, Forrest consequently takes issue with two historians of continental inquisition, Jim Given )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and Grado Merlo. For Given and Merlo, inquisition was inimical to society and community, something that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(deliberately broke the skein of social relations. Not so, suggests Forrest: inquisition presented ?opportunities )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for the individual to become more involved in public action than he, or to a lesser extent she, had been )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(before?. The use of inquisition helped ?to make the parish fidedigni part of the state? \(p. 234\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This is excellent, thoughtful, insightful work, based upon a considerable mastery of diocesan sources and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(some legal manuscript records \(I am curious, regarding manuscripts of canon law, as to what else might be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(found beyond London and Oxford, but demanding more on this line from an already archivally-voracious )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(piece of research would be ungracious\). The approach that Forrest adopts demonstrates the complex )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(interplay between the orthodox construction of heresy, and the lived experience of Lollardy within its social )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(setting\(s\). It adds considerable nuance to ideas of ecclesiastical governance in late-medieval England, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(politely quarrels with some elements of literary scholarship in key areas \(particularly where that scholarship )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(overestimates the practical applicability of power\), and, in its final thoughts on inquisition and community, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(adds to the growing tide of work on late-medieval England that, following Mark Ormrod?s lead, explores the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(bottom-up elements in statehood and governmentality for the period \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 368.312 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 368.312 131.811 m 374.312 131.811 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 374.312 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\). Resisting the temptation simply to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(stand back and applaud, let me raise a few issues here of continental comparison, and then frame a few )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(questions arising from the book as a whole.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Forrest stresses early on in the book the importance of the historian being sympathetic toward the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(inquisitor?not in an exculpatory sense, but in seeking to understand properly how, and for what reasons, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(prosecution of heresy was pursued in a particular fashion. I agree completely with the sentiment; but I did )] TJ ET endstream endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 21 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 368.3117 132.1255 374.3117 144.0055 ] >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 23 0 R >> endobj 23 0 obj << /Length 7636 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(wonder if the practice, at times, ends up making the prosecutional machinery appear more coherent and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(logical than it in fact was. I do not mean that Forrest suggests that heretics were rightly prosecuted; rather )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that the systems and ideas that he analyses all end up seeming a bit )] TJ ET BT 357.980 767.957 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(tidy)] TJ ET BT 375.980 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, as clever chaps set about working )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(out how best to do things and then communicating that to equally talented lay people and so on and so forth. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This is perhaps in danger of minimizing the degree to which anti-heresy discourses were caught up in certain )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ideological tensions, and confused by the ghosts of earlier heretical phantoms. It is clear, as Forrest argues, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that English bishops produced methods for prosecuting heresy that depended upon lay interaction and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(agency; but it is surely also the case that English bishops \(and monarchs, and justices, and so on\) were also )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(beset by worries over the gullibility, the waywardness, and the stupidity of ordinary lay people, particularly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(en masse. Whilst there was certainly no absolute ?chasm?, in this sense, between elite and popular, it is the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(case that some elements of bridging the perceived gap were potentially fraught?this, after all, is why )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Reginald Pecock ended up in deep trouble in the later-fifteenth century for his attempts to bring greater )] TJ ET BT 34.016 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(vernacular orthodox education to a wider public.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Moreover, within the legislation and canonical glosses examined here, it could further be noted that models )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of heretical behaviour were not based solely on English experiences of heresy or ideas about how best to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(prepare the laity to spot dissent; they were also carrying a baggage of earlier and rather different heresies. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(For example, the English canonist William Lyndwood, in glossing ?vehement suspicion? of heresy )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(discussed by Forrest p. 74\), reproduces a list of qualities?and more importantly activities, such as supplying )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(heretics with food?drawn from a gloss first provided at the council of Tarragona in 1242, there concerned )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with the political situation in Languedoc and northern Spain, and with the social setting of Cathar and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Waldensian heretics. Elsewhere Forrest argues that polemical literature was not able ?to say that seeing was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(believing, because that position had been tainted by its association with Wycliffite thinking?, and hence )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(propagandists and bishops, desirous of allowing lay people to identify heretics, were forced to turn instead to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the trope of Lollard ?hypocrisy? \(pp. 158?9\). Again, however, earlier models haunt fifteenth-century )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(England: condemning \(and identifying\) heretics as ?hypocrites? was a model found in anti-heretical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(discourse throughout Europe in earlier centuries. It did have the effect that Forrest argues for it; but it was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(not, I would suggest, the outcome of logical, conscious choice on the part of orthodox legislators. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(potential confusions at all levels thus occasioned make the system appear less, well, systematic than )] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.301 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Detection of Heresy)] TJ ET BT 150.992 385.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( would suggest, and the discourse of anti-heresy less transparent and coherent than )] TJ ET BT 34.016 371.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Forrest at some points assumes.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(My final point of demurral would be to note that whilst the concluding comments on inquisition and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(community are suggestive and intriguing within their English context, they do not work as rebuttals to Jim )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Given or Grado Merlo. In neither France \(Given\) or Italy \(Merlo\) was inquisition tied into state?and more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(importantly, regular diocesan?structures as it was for England; in both countries, inquisition was usually )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(experienced much more as an external imposition of authority from without. Moreover, the detail of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(English trial material does not indicate anything like as much focus on the incrimination of others as in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(continental sources. Forrest is not quite comparing like with like; which perhaps suggests that the next stage )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for future discussion will be the real, rather than assumed, )] TJ ET BT 315.296 244.997 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(differences)] TJ ET BT 367.952 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( between English and continental )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(procedure.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Let me conclude then with a few other questions arising from the new area of conversation that Forrest has )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(admirably begun. The book is, he says, designed as, ?a riposte to the notion that the significance of heresy )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and anti-heresy can be measured by the \(allegedly small\) numbers of people concerned? \(p. 13\). I wonder )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(firstly how the much better understanding of the legal framework that he provides might throw new light on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the vexed question of how much of the iceberg \(if it is that\) we can see; that is, whether one now has )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(stronger grounds for suspecting that there were many more fifteenth-century trials than the surviving )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(evidence shows? Secondly, in a book which interestingly stresses the local informing the national, I am )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(curious as to at what point, if any, one assumes a uniform and well-tutored set of procedures were in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(place?or whether English bishops were, in each generation, having to learn how to do it all again afresh. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Finally, the question that will be on most Lollard scholars lips is: what does all this do to our perception of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Lollardy? Forrest sketches the outline of an answer?and rightly emphasizes throughout the variety of )] TJ ET endstream endobj 24 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 26 0 R 28 0 R 30 0 R ] /Contents 25 0 R >> endobj 25 0 obj << /Length 3953 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(unorthodox behaviour that could fall under the sign of heresy?but it would be good to know more. These )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(three queries are in no ways criticisms. They are, rather, an indication that, having answered my original )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(question?how did English bishops know how to prosecute heretics?)] TJ ET BT 358.652 767.957 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Detection of Heresy)] TJ ET BT 475.628 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( has now )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(provided a clutch of new issues to explore and debate. For that, and for much else, it is a very welcome )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(publication.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 704.547 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 673.930 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 673.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(H. G. Richardson, ?Heresy and the Lay Power under Richard II?, )] TJ ET BT 380.264 673.925 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(English Historical Review)] TJ ET BT 506.264 673.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 51 )] TJ ET BT 64.016 659.669 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1936\), 1?28; M. Aston, ?Bishops and Heresy?, in eadem, )] TJ ET BT 345.308 659.669 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Faith and Fire)] TJ ET BT 415.976 659.669 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(London, 1993\); A. Hudson, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 645.413 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?The Examination of Lollards?, in eadem, )] TJ ET BT 269.312 645.413 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Lollards and Their Books)] TJ ET BT 392.324 645.413 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(London, 1985\); J. A. F. )] TJ ET BT 64.016 631.157 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thomson, )] TJ ET BT 115.352 631.157 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Later Lollards, 1414?1520)] TJ ET BT 266.036 631.157 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Oxford, 1965\), pp. 226?31. There is apparently also an )] TJ ET BT 64.016 616.901 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(American Ph.D. thesis, partially published, by John Rea Bacher, )] TJ ET BT 375.980 616.901 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Prosecution of Heretics in )] TJ ET BT 64.016 602.645 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Medieval England)] TJ ET BT 152.336 602.645 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Philadelphia, 1942\) which, as far as I?m aware, is not held by any English library; )] TJ ET BT 64.016 588.389 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(I have not yet had the chance to consult it myself, and I suspect that this is similarly the case for the )] TJ ET BT 64.016 574.133 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(author under review here. )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 190.304 574.133 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 190.304 572.739 m 244.292 572.739 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 559.882 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 559.877 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(W. M. Ormrod, )] TJ ET BT 142.004 559.877 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Political Life in Medieval England)] TJ ET BT 308.672 559.877 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Basingstoke, 1995\); A. Musson and W. M. )] TJ ET BT 64.016 545.621 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ormrod, )] TJ ET BT 108.008 545.621 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Evolution of English Justice: Law, Politics and Society in the Fourteenth Century)] TJ ET BT 64.016 531.365 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Basingstoke, 1998\). )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 166.676 531.365 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 166.676 529.971 m 220.664 529.971 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 505.109 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 490.853 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 486.127 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 468.347 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 468.347 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/587)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 466.953 m 322.316 466.953 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 441.976 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.576 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/3985)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.176 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET endstream endobj 26 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 27 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 190.3037 573.0535 244.2917 584.9335 ] >> endobj 27 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 28 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 29 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 166.6757 530.2855 220.6637 542.1655 ] >> endobj 29 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 30 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 31 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 467.2675 322.3157 479.1475 ] >> endobj 31 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/587) >> endobj xref 0 32 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000349 00000 n 0000000386 00000 n 0000000558 00000 n 0000000647 00000 n 0000004943 00000 n 0000005052 00000 n 0000005162 00000 n 0000005271 00000 n 0000008832 00000 n 0000008960 00000 n 0000009044 00000 n 0000009172 00000 n 0000009208 00000 n 0000009273 00000 n 0000016768 00000 n 0000016852 00000 n 0000024702 00000 n 0000024830 00000 n 0000024866 00000 n 0000024931 00000 n 0000032620 00000 n 0000032718 00000 n 0000036724 00000 n 0000036852 00000 n 0000036888 00000 n 0000037016 00000 n 0000037052 00000 n 0000037180 00000 n trailer << /Size 32 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 37275 %%EOF