%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 16 0 R 18 0 R 20 0 R ] /Count 5 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140819080732+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140819080732+01'00') /Title (The Conservative Party and European Integration since 1945: At the Heart of Europe?) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 3953 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(The Conservative Party and European Integration since 1945: At )] TJ ET BT 34.016 593.937 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(the Heart of Europe?)] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.427 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In )] TJ ET BT 47.012 223.427 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Conservative Party and European Integration since 1945: At the heart of Europe?)] TJ ET BT 464.312 223.427 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, N. J. Crowson )] TJ ET BT 34.016 209.171 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sets out to analyse the thought of the Conservative Party faithful on Europe, and to investigate the role that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.915 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the party played in the formation of policy at the highest levels of the leadership. Crowson seeks to move )] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.659 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(beyond the more traditional explanation of foreign policy formation as an elite phenomenon, and to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.403 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(recognize that the broader party could play a role in forging European policy \(p. 6\). In order to do so he )] TJ ET BT 34.016 152.147 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(takes a bottom-up approach, using Conservative Party archives as a source for establishing the terms and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 137.891 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(boundaries of the debate on European integration at the constituency level, and asking ?how and why )] TJ ET BT 34.016 123.635 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Conservatives? attitudes to European integration have evolved? \(p. 13\). While the book presents a detailed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 109.379 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(investigation into shifting Conservative attitudes at the individual, group, and party level with lucidity and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 95.123 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(verve, the book is not as forthcoming on the question of what influence the activists and broader party may )] TJ ET BT 34.016 80.867 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(have had on the formation of European policy.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 54.611 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The first two chapters set out a chronological framework for the rest of the book, neatly divided at the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 563.315 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 549.059 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(588)] TJ ET BT 34.016 534.803 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 520.547 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Sunday, 1 April, 2007)] TJ ET BT 34.016 506.291 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 492.035 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Nicholas J. Crowson)] TJ ET BT 34.016 477.779 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 463.523 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9780415400220)] TJ ET BT 34.016 449.267 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 435.011 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2006)] TJ ET BT 34.016 420.755 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.499 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(95.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.243 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.987 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(320pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.731 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.475 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Routledge)] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.219 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher url:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.963 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.routledge.co.uk/books/The-Conservative-Party-and-European-Integration-since-1945-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.707 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(isbn9780415553926)] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.451 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.195 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(London)] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.939 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 249.683 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Melissa Pine)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 7644 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Labour government?s 1975 referendum on staying in the Common Market. Drawing on a wide and up to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(date range of secondary sources, as well as Conservative Party archives and contemporary newspaper )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(articles, the first chapter traces Conservative responses to early plans for European integration and to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(efforts of ?the Six? to create supranational organizations of their own. It explains the decisions of successive )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Conservative governments first to remain removed from this process of integration, then to build an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(alternative Europe in the European Free Trade Association \(EFTA\), and, finally, to pursue full membership )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(despite two French vetoes, clinching the decision to lie ?at the heart of Europe? through support for the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?yes? campaign in 1975. While describing the Conservatives as ?the party of Europe? throughout this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(chapter, Crowson illustrates the long-standing divisions within the party, setting the scene for its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(transformation into ?the party of scepticism? \(p. 44\). The evolution of these divisions into full-scale ?civil )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(war? is traced in the second chapter, which details the growing split in the parliamentary party and cabinet )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(over issues like direct elections to the European Parliament, the British budgetary contribution, the Single )] TJ ET BT 34.016 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Market, the Exchange Rate Mechanism, the Maastricht Treaty, the single currency, and the European )] TJ ET BT 34.016 611.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(constitution. In office and out, as the Conservative Party turned over leaders at an accelerating rate )] TJ ET BT 34.016 596.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Thatcher, Major, Hague, Duncan Smith, Howard, and Cameron\) Euroscepticism became increasingly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 582.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(prominent in the party, either on the merits of specific issues or as part of a more general opposition to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 568.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ceding of sovereignty to Europe. Despite the fact that Eurosceptic positions at times even took centre stage, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 554.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as with Hague?s 2001 campaign to save the pound, Crowson is careful to note that those with more positive )] TJ ET BT 34.016 539.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(opinions towards European integration continued to play an important role in Parliament and even cabinet: )] TJ ET BT 34.016 525.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Conservative MPs did not turn wholesale to an anti-European stance. Perplexingly, in neither of these two )] TJ ET BT 34.016 511.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(chapters, amounting to almost exactly a quarter of the book, do local activists or associations make much of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 497.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(an appearance. Indeed, at the start of chapter two, Crowson acknowledges that the debate on Europe, ?was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 482.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(confined to within the parliamentary party until the 1990s?, and that the issues that so exercised MPs and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 468.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(shadow\) ministers, ?were not issues that really registered with the party?s grass roots? \(p. 45\). This )] TJ ET BT 34.016 454.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(comment is rather revealing: perhaps the explanation for so few scholars investigating the role of activists )] TJ ET BT 34.016 440.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and constituency associations in shaping policy on Europe is simply that they played a marginal or non-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 425.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(existent role?)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Chapter three moves on to contemplate the issues arising from European integration that have particularly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(exercised Conservatives, from Atlanticism and the end of Empire to the single currency and the enlargement )] TJ ET BT 34.016 371.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(question. Crowson illustrates clearly that Conservative opinion has been divided on many of these issues, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with some MPs, for example, fighting to retain national sovereignty?which they see as a tangible entity?and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(others, like Geoffrey Howe, arguing that it is a more ephemeral beast that may be strengthened through )] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(participation in European institutions \(pp. 87?89\). Once again, however, Conservative activists and local )] TJ ET BT 34.016 314.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(associations are largely absent from what is, in the main, a discussion about Conservative debates on Europe )] TJ ET BT 34.016 299.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(at the elite level. The broader party does merit mentioning, particularly in the section on referendum )] TJ ET BT 34.016 285.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(demands, but again, Crowson explicitly recognizes the lack of clout or leverage that the broader party had: )] TJ ET BT 34.016 271.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(he argues that the attraction of the referendum route for many local associations was a reflection of their, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 256.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?failure to win the policy argument within the party structure?, and consequent effort to appeal over the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 242.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(heads of the party elite to the people?an effort that also failed \(p. 89\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The next three chapters fit together neatly, addressing the identities and chosen fora of ?the Conservative )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Europeanist? and his or her efforts to ?sell Europe?, and then turning attention to the Conservative sceptic. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Crowson marks the lack of cohesion among Conservative Europeanists, deriding the terms ?pro-European? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and ?Europhile? as implying too great a consensus among those who supported the process of integration for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(different reasons and to different extents?a disunity marked by the proliferation of organizations that they )] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(formed or utilized to express their position. This fragmentation perhaps helps us to understand Conservative )] TJ ET BT 34.016 130.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(leaders? difficulties in ?selling Europe? to the parliamentary party, to the activists, and to the broader party. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 116.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Crowson suggests that fear of the potential electoral consequences, as well as the divisions already )] TJ ET BT 34.016 102.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(discussed, restrained the party leadership from promulgating a strongly positive message on Europe. Until )] TJ ET BT 34.016 88.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the mid-1990s, the best the party could do was to present itself consistently, if weakly, as the party of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 73.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Europe. Crowson implies that Conservative leaders held back from taking a more pro-European position, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 59.669 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(perceiving the wider party to be hostile, and instead sought to explain existing policy in a reactive pattern. )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 17 0 R >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Length 6170 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(He does not argue that activists or the broader party influenced policy; nor does he suggest what, if free of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the fear of a potential electoral backlash, the party leadership?s message on Europe might have been. His )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reflection of the clear and growing divisions within the leadership, culminating in the sceptical stances of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Hague, Duncan Smith, and Cameron, suggests that a more powerfully pro-European message would have )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(been impossible regardless of views within the wider party. The relationship between sceptics in the broader )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(party and in the parliamentary party and leadership is not, however, clarified.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Chapter 6 addresses the other side: the Conservative sceptic. Crowson argues that, before the 1990s, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Conservatives sceptical of the advantages of European integration to Britain lacked leadership. Like the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?Europeanists?, the sceptics were not a tightly-knit group, and they opposed British membership or the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(deepening of integration for a range of reasons: a desire to protect the British constitution and sovereignty; a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(preference \(now obsolete\) for the Empire/Commonwealth; concerns about British agriculture; and more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(individual interests. Although initially sceptics came from both the left and right wings of the party, by the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1970s most were right-wingers, bolstered from the early 1990s by those who considered themselves to be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thatcher?s heirs, and by a larger group that supported European integration for reasons of party loyalty but )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(privately voiced doubts or hostility. Six and a half pages are dedicated to the role of activists in this sceptic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(movement. The central arguments are somewhat obscure here. Having previously asserted that the wider )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(party was more sceptical than the parliamentary party?or, at least, having stated that the leadership )] TJ ET BT 510.248 556.373 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(believed)] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the wider party to be more sceptical?Crowson now seems to provide evidence to the opposite. He )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(demonstrates both that sceptical MPs had to try to convince more pro-European activists and associations of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the merits of their cause, and that pro-European activists and associations sought to rein in sceptical MPs, at )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(least until 1997. However, tactics were largely managed at the parliamentary level, engendered by a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(proliferation of committees and pressure groups, and influenced by a message that changed several times )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(through the decades. One reason for the divisions among sceptics was the lack of an obvious and attractive )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(alternative: despite the existence of a largely hostile press in Britain, sceptics have been unable to rally )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(behind a single leader and a single cause.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The final chapter stands separately to address ?Conservatives in Europe??more literally, the participation of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Conservatives in European institutions. Beginning with personal and party links among Conservatives in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Britain and like-minded politicians and parties in Europe, the chapter goes on to investigate particular )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(organizations, starting with general comments on the Council of Europe and the European Parliament and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(moving on to the institutions of the European Community/Union. The structure of this chapter is slightly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(odd, with two separate sections, for example, on the European Parliament. It addresses both Conservative )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(participation in the various institutions, and also Conservative thinking about their nature and future.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In his conclusion, Crowson notes again the varying stances taken by Conservatives on the issue of European )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(integration, and draws parallels with earlier party debates on foreign and economic policy \(splits over the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Corn Laws, free trade versus protectionism and appeasement are recurring themes through the book\). He )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(suggests that the wider party was ignorant about, rather than hostile to, integration, and implies a failure on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the part of the leadership to recognize this difference. Nevertheless, the scepticism about Europe that has )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(been predominant in the party since once more entering opposition in 1997 has a long history, surviving )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(throughout both parties? efforts?and failures?to find a satisfactory role for Britain in Europe. Crowson ends )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(by suggesting that electoral success will compel the Conservative leadership to take a more pragmatic and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(positive view on participation in Europe once again \(p. 226\).)] TJ ET endstream endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 19 0 R >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Length 6080 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(There are a number of stylistic points to raise about what is otherwise a beautifully presented book. There )] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(are a surprising number of typographical errors, and the term ?European Union? is regularly used )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(anachronistically with no explanation. There is no helpful list of abbreviations. More significantly, while )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(each chapter provides an important scrutiny of a particular aspect of the Conservative Party and European )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(integration, from the narrative history to the positions of specific individuals and groups to the party?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(interaction in Europe, the chapters are not clearly tied together. The central themes of each section are not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(restated at the end of each chapter, and there is no linkage to the central themes of the next, so that the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cohesion of the whole suffers. The conclusion does not remedy this lack, so that one is not left with a sense )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of closure: the research questions set out in the introduction do not appear to have been fully answered.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 644.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(More specifically, Crowson appears in the introduction to have approached this research with two goals. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 629.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(One, tracing the evolution of Conservatives? positions on Europe, has been achieved: he describes and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(explains the shifting stances of individuals, groups, and the parliamentary party with great clarity. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(second goal is linked intrinsically to Crowson?s methodology and it is not achieved with the same success. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The aim to, ?explore the role of the Conservative activist, and to understand his or her relationship with the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(parliamentary party, the party organization, and the leadership? \(p. 8\) is not fulfilled: by far the greater part )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of Crowson?s analysis focuses on the party elite represented in Parliament, cabinet, and the various )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(European institutions. Where activists and local organizations are mentioned, the analysis is inconclusive: )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Crowson presents evidence that the wider party too had its ?Europeanists? and its ?sceptics?. He argues that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(more than anything, activists and party members sought information and direction from Central Office, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rather than seeking to shape the foreign policy process themselves. As has been seen, Crowson argues that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the wider Conservative Party was not necessarily as hostile towards Europe as the leadership seems to have )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(believed, at least until the 1990s. The strand of scepticism in the parliamentary party emerged and developed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(independently, it seems, or, at least, it is not clear in which direction the causality runs. Was the party elite )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(forced to take a more sceptical stance because the wider party \(and electorate\) became increasingly hostile? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Or has the predominance of scepticism among current leaders freed a previously timid but hostile portion )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(among the wider party to rear its head? Either way, the book is emphatically not about the influence of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(activists on party foreign policy.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Tied to this activist-leadership issue is a methodological problem. The book is based on a minute survey of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(national and regional Conservative Party archives, together with the private papers of a number of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Conservative politicians, interviews, and a wide range of secondary reading. The author makes a deliberate )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(choice to avoid the government documentation available in The National Archives, seeking to avoid both the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?tyranny of the archives? and the mere replication, in greater detail, of contemporary accounts \(p. 8\), and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(also reflecting his decision to produce a broad, rather than elite-focused, analysis. The flaw in the decision to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(avoid government archives is that it makes it difficult or impossible to assess the extent to which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Conservative Party thinking at the constituency level actually influenced policy making at the top level, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(particularly during the years since 1945 when the Conservative Party was in government: at the most basic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(level, omitting the elite )] TJ ET BT 148.352 247.253 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(omits the elite)] TJ ET BT 215.684 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. Assessing the party debate at the constituency level is a valid and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(legitimate academic enquiry \(and one not fully answered here\), but the author claims also to address how )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(party thinking ?impacted upon its leaders? \(p. 6\). How can that claim be fulfilled when a key part of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(archival puzzle is ignored?)] TJ ET endstream endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 22 0 R ] /Contents 21 0 R >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Length 2150 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(European integration has long been a divisive issue, cutting across the party lines of both the Conservative )] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Party and the Labour Party so that individual MPs have left both parties on the basis that they were too pro- )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(or anti-European. This mirroring suggests that a cross-party analysis of the issues raised by Crowson would )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(be a valuable addition to the literature. Despite these divisions, after 1961 both parties, when in government, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(found membership to be the only and best option for the UK. Equally, both parties \(particularly the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Conservatives since 1997 and Labour during the 1980s\) have clearly perceived an advantage in taking a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(more sceptical stance when out of office. This dichotomy raises challenging questions about the role of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(electoral politics and of the realities of office in shaping policy, and highlights further issues raised here, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(such as the extent to which European integration for the UK has been an elite project imposed on a largely )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(oblivious population.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 629.909 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 610.927 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 593.147 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 593.147 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/588)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 591.753 m 322.316 591.753 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 566.776 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 552.376 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/3988)] TJ ET BT 34.016 537.976 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET endstream endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 23 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 592.0675 322.3157 603.9475 ] >> endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/588) >> endobj xref 0 24 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000349 00000 n 0000000386 00000 n 0000000593 00000 n 0000000675 00000 n 0000004680 00000 n 0000004789 00000 n 0000004899 00000 n 0000005008 00000 n 0000008569 00000 n 0000008697 00000 n 0000008781 00000 n 0000008846 00000 n 0000016543 00000 n 0000016608 00000 n 0000022831 00000 n 0000022896 00000 n 0000029029 00000 n 0000029113 00000 n 0000031316 00000 n 0000031444 00000 n trailer << /Size 24 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 31539 %%EOF