%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 16 0 R 18 0 R ] /Count 4 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20150801202151+01'00') /ModDate (D:20150801202151+01'00') /Title (Moving the Goalposts: a History of Sport and Society since 1945) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4954 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Moving the Goalposts: a History of Sport and Society since 1945)] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.603 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Popular interest in sport at present is immense. BSkyB television has three channels devoted exclusively to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.347 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sport and televised sport has been a crucial element of Rupert Murdoch's attempts to expand his satellite )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.091 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(television network in the United Kingdom. The broadsheet newspapers have at least one sport supplement )] TJ ET BT 34.016 301.835 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(each week. At the end of May Glenn Hoddle's decision to omit Paul Gascoigne from the England World Cup )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.579 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(squad was the leading news story on television and in the press and was given precedence over such news )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(items as the detonation of nuclear weapons by India and Pakistan. Changes in the social setting of sport )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mean that there is no way of establishing whether interest in sport is now greater than at other times, but ever )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(since the end of the Second World very many have been prepared to pay to watch or play sport or to read )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(about it. By 1990 sport and sport-related expenditure was estimated to be 9.75 billion whilst the sport )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sector employed more than 460,000. The preoccupation with sport among such a high proportion of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(British population means that assessments of cultural life in Britain since the Second World War cannot )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(hope to be comprehensive unless they pay sufficient regard to sport and its social significance. If one wishes )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to understand a society it is essential to understand what interested those who lived in that society.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Sports history as a form of academic enquiry as opposed to the accounts of momentous matches and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.019 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(descriptions of famous players which for so long was called sports history is of relatively recent growth. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(publication of Tony Mason's )] TJ ET BT 174.836 118.763 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Association Football and English Society 1863-1915 )] TJ ET BT 431.504 118.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in 1980 and of J.A. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.507 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Mangan's )] TJ ET BT 83.168 104.507 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Athleticism in the Victorian and Edwardian Public School )] TJ ET BT 365.840 104.507 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a year later can be seen as key points in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.251 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(persuading historians that more attention needed to focused upon what could be inferred from sport about )] TJ ET BT 34.016 75.995 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(wider society. A steady stream of books and articles upon the history of sport has followed. Two specialist )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.739 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(academic journals - )] TJ ET BT 130.988 61.739 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The International Journal of Sports History, )] TJ ET BT 346.664 61.739 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(originally called )] TJ ET BT 427.988 61.739 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The British Journal of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 47.483 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Sports History, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.699 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(59)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.187 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.931 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Tuesday, 1 September, 1998)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.675 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.419 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Martin Polley)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.163 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.907 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1998)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.651 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.395 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(236pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.139 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.883 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Routledge)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.627 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.371 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(London)] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.115 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.859 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Jack Williams)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 7716 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and )] TJ ET BT 54.344 796.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Sports Historian - )] TJ ET BT 165.020 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(are now published in Britain. This growth of concern with sports history has )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reflected, and been accompanied by, a burgeoning interest in sport among sociologists. The appearance in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1979 of )] TJ ET BT 74.012 767.957 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Barbarians, Gentlemen and Players: A Sociological Study of the Development of Rugby Football )] TJ ET BT 543.968 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(E. Dunning and K. Sheard registered this increasing concern with sport among sociologists. It seems )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(unlikely that any historian would now try to write a social history of post-war Britain without considering )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sport.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Moving the Goalposts: A History of Sport and Society since 1945 )] TJ ET BT 350.996 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(by Martin Polley is an expression of this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(growth of interest in the history of sport among historians and sociologists. Polley admits that this is a work )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of synthesis and that it reflects those issues which have so far interested historians of sport. He attempts to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(assesses the relationship between sport and society and to show that sport not only reflects and expresses )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(wider social, cultural and economic forces but by interacting with them, helps to fashion them. Perhaps the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(title ought to have mentioned that this is a study of Britain, though there are comments upon empirical and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(theoretical data from North America but surprisingly fewer references to work published in Australia and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(New Zealand which have been such power houses in the study of sport history.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The book is arranged thematically. The introduction provides a succinct and cogent justification for the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(study of sport history, reminding us that unless we have academically rigorous studies of sport, 'ahistorical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and mythologised invocations of the past will continue to inform our everyday awareness of sport' \(page 4\). )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This introduction also emphasises that the study of sport history has been uneven and that some crucial )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(issues, such as the history of the relationship between radio and sport, have been largely neglected. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(appendix at the end of the book is a short yet admirably clear survey of the rise of academic sports history in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Britain and of other forms of historical writing upon sport including autobiographical accounts of what sport )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(has meant to fans, a genre stimulated by Nick Hornby's )] TJ ET BT 302.468 473.093 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Fever Pitch, )] TJ ET BT 364.784 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(but it may have been more appropriate )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to have included this appendix with the rationale for sport history provided in the introduction. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(following six chapters all open with a review of theoretical approaches to particular aspect of sport and its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(social setting. These reviews are clearly expressed, sometimes more clearly expressed than the original work )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(they summarise, and they are related to the discussions of empirical data which make up the remainder of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(each chapter.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Chapter One concentrates upon sport, politics and the state. It shows that even though the erroneous nature )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of claims that sport can be kept separate from politics is easy to demonstrate, the view persists that sport )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(becomes sullied through contact with politics. Polley uses the models of state involvement with sport )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(formulated by Lincoln Allison and John Hargreaves as the structure for his assessment of historical writings )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(concerned with the attempts of British governments to exploit sport and with the forms of political )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conformity and political division provoked by sport. His analysis of the Sports Council and of the activities )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of Ministers for Sport emphasises that the strength of the voluntary tradition within British sport has meant )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that in sport the state has tended to act as a facilitator rather than a controller. The level of government )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(interference with the Sports Council, he suggests, has been similar to that with the BBC. Polley rightly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(stresses the role of local authorities in the provision of sports facilities, but the changes in the level of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(support at public sector schools for sport is an aspect of state involvement with sport which is rather pushed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to one side in this chapter. The political debates surrounding sporting relations with South Africa and the use )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of sport as an arm of diplomacy form a major section of this chapter.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The political dimensions of sport are recurring themes of the second chapter which concentrates upon ' )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Sport, the nation and the world. ' Polley shows how differing sports have acted in different ways as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(expressions of English, Irish, Scottish and Welsh identities and considers how far sports have interacted with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the rise of Scottish and Welsh nationalism as political forces in post-war Britain which involves discussion )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of whether national teams have discouraged a sense of British identity. Much of this chapter concentrates )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(upon the expansion of international sporting competition since the 1 950s and shows how this led to an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(abandonment of the lofty isolationism which had characterised much of British sport in the 1940s. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(desire for success in international competition has led to greater awareness of the shortcomings of sport )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(structures in Britain and to the growing numbers of coaches and players from overseas taking part in British )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sport. The international dimensions of sport are discussed in relation to the concept of globalisation and the )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 17 0 R >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Length 7467 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(differing meanings which this term can have when applied to sport. Polley appraises show far the extension )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of international sports competitions have brought about greater homogenisation of sports in different )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(countries and the greater movement of players and spectators across international boundaries but at the same )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(time have strengthened national identities and animosities. This is the clearest and most perceptive )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(examination of globalisation and British sport which this reviewer has encountered.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The economic significance of sport is discussed in chapter three which looks at the growth of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(commercialisation within sport. Polley traces the expansion of the commercial sponsorship of sport and its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(connections with advertising through the televising of sport. He explains how the decline in the numbers of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(paying spectators for many sports led to the search for alternative sources of income and that the acceptance )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of a more overtly commercialised and profitmaximising outlook on the part of sport administrators and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(players can be related to the avid pursuit of wealth associated with the rise of Thatcherite values in so much )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of society. Polley provides examples of how sports have changed their rules and consequently styles of play )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in the hope of attracting larger television audiences and higher levels of sponsorship. Little is included about )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the escalating earnings of leading professional sportsplayers, a trend which has alarmed many followers of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sport, though there are comments, but not much more than passing comments, upon this in other chapters. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Polley's analysis of the contribution of sport to the national product in the 1980s and 1990s emphasises the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(crying need for a survey of what sport has contributed to the economy in the twentieth century. Statistics in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(this chapter illustrate the main points and never become overbearing.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In the first section of his study of sport and gender Polley examines the main strands in the already vast )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(literature which have considered how the physicality of sport has meant that it has had a crucial role in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(debates about the use of the body and consequently in the construction of gender identities. Polley shows )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(how so much of sport is taken to be men's sport and that sport has prioritised some expressions of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(masculinity whilst marginalising others. Sports organised openly for gays, for instance, has been very much )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a development of recent years. He charts how the numbers of women playing and watching sports since )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1945 have grown, how women have taken up sports previously played exclusively by men and how in the 1 )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(980s and more particularly the 1990s single governing bodies have assumed responsibility for the female )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and male variants of their sports. Polley demonstrates that sport remains a site of gender politics.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Chapter Five considers sport, social class and professional status. Polley explains how the different social )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(settings of different sports have meant that different social groups have used them to emphasise their status )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and social exclusiveness whereas other sports replicate the social order by allocating differing roles to those )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with different backgrounds. The elitism of sport such as golf and polo have attracted those wishing to climb )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the social ladder. The weakening of some social barriers in sports, such as cricket scrapping the distinction )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(between amateurs and professionals, and the rise of trade unions or professional associations for paid )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sportsplayers are assessed as evidence for the spread of professional cultures. Polley casts doubts upon how )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(far the increased earnings of professional footballers have resulted in their embourgeiosement and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(consequently questions the validity of income as a signifier of class. This chapter says disappointing little )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(about how far and in what respects sports have been a focus for class conflicts, but it does mention the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(claims that football hooliganism is an expression of working-class alienation and the anarchist resentment )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(against fox hunters, though the anti-hunting lobby seems to be one which crosses class boundaries. There is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(only passing comment upon how sports can act as a register of class relations and whilst the opening )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sections of this chapter note the rise of other identities such as those based upon ethnicity or gender, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(issue of whether the social relations of sport indicate that class is dead in contemporary Britain is side-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(stepped.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The chapter concerned with ethnicity in sport shows how sports have perpetuated assumptions surrounding )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ethnicity and have been a vehicle for racism in society in general. Polley demonstrates that the high level of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(success among black sportsplayers in a small number of sports is not proof of the widely-held conviction )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that blacks have different physical and mental capabilities from whites but that it can be related to economic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(deprivation, a lack of opportunities in other sports and the beliefs among teachers and coaches that blacks )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(are naturally suited to some sports. Although successful black sportspeople receive much praise, they are )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(often the targets of much racial abuse. Polley shows that on the field of play and within sport administration, )] TJ ET endstream endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 20 0 R ] /Contents 19 0 R >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Length 4492 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(non-whites have been underrepresented in positions of authority, though the scale of this has diminished in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(recent years. Perhaps more could have been said about the level of black involvement with the running of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Professional Footballers' Association, a form of sports administration with a strong black presence. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Movements such as Stop the Seventy Tour and the Kick Racism Out campaigns are discussed to show how )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sport has been involved in attempts to combat racism. Polley very rightly points out that most of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(literature concerned with racism and sport in Britain has focused upon those of African-Caribbean descent. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Little has been published about South Asian involvement with sport and the comparative absence within )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sport of South Asian women. One feature of recreational cricket in the North of England during the 1 980S )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and more particularly the 1 990s has been the growth in the numbers of Asian cricket clubs.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(At several points in this book Polley considers the impact of television upon sport and to a lesser extent the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(representations of sport by the newspaper press. They have had a crucial part in stimulating interest in sport )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and in shaping the meanings attached to sport. It can be contended that sport stars and the qualities which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(they are taken to celebrate have been very largely a construction of the media. Newspapers are a major )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(source for most academic histories of sport. As the media are so vital for an understanding of sport in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(modern Britain, Polley ought to have included a chapter devoted to the relationship between them and sport. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(It has already been mentioned that radio sports journalism has been largely neglected by media historians, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and many areas of the press and sport are under-researched but sufficient has been written for an assessment )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the interactions between sport and television.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(With the exception of sport and the media, )] TJ ET BT 241.652 515.861 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Moving the Goalposts )] TJ ET BT 350.648 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(succeeds admirably in assessing the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(interrelationship between sport and society in Britain since 1945. The strengths and limitations of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(literature are evaluated judiciously and presented with clarity. The bibliography is comprehensive and runs )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to seventeen pages. Only one factual slip was noticed - Len Hutton became England's cricket captain in 1952 )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(not 1953. Those who teach undergraduate modules upon the social and cultural history of sport will )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(welcome this work and have no hesitation in recommending it as the starting point for studying the post-war )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(period but it will also become an essential text for the study of post-war popular culture in Britain)] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 385.087 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 367.307 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 367.307 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/59)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 365.913 m 316.316 365.913 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 340.936 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 326.536 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/443)] TJ ET BT 34.016 312.136 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET endstream endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 21 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 366.2275 316.3157 378.1075 ] >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/59) >> endobj xref 0 22 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000342 00000 n 0000000379 00000 n 0000000566 00000 n 0000000648 00000 n 0000005654 00000 n 0000005763 00000 n 0000005873 00000 n 0000005982 00000 n 0000009543 00000 n 0000009671 00000 n 0000009755 00000 n 0000009820 00000 n 0000017589 00000 n 0000017654 00000 n 0000025174 00000 n 0000025258 00000 n 0000029803 00000 n 0000029931 00000 n trailer << /Size 22 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 30025 %%EOF