%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 16 0 R 18 0 R 22 0 R ] /Count 5 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140417183816+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140417183816+01'00') /Title (Food in Medieval England: Diet and Nutrition) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 3864 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Food in Medieval England: Diet and Nutrition)] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(As the editors Christopher Woolgar, Dale Serjeantson, and Tony Waldron underline on the first page of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(introduction to this book, ?food and diet are rightly popular areas of research, central to understanding daily )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(life in the middle ages?. The study of medieval food culture is certainly one that is actively pursued across )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(many European institutions, but, as the editors eloquently demonstrate, scholarly syntheses remain limited in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(both their number and scope. This book, the culmination of a series of annual meetings held by the Diet )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Group at Somerville College, Oxford, is a novel and bold ?reappraisal? of multiple aspects of food culture )] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.019 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(across the entire span of the middle ages. Framed by critical introductory and concluding chapters, seventeen )] TJ ET BT 34.016 130.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(papers draw on written, archaeological, and artistic sources to explore diverse aspects of medieval English )] TJ ET BT 34.016 116.507 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(food culture with reference to continental examples where appropriate.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.251 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The content is sub-divided into two sections: part one is a survey of foodstuffs and part two consists of case )] TJ ET BT 34.016 75.995 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(studies in diet and nutrition. The survey begins with a paper by David Stone exploring the most important )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.739 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(foodstuff in medieval England?grain?which represented the highest contributor to people?s general calorific )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.699 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(590)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.187 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.931 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Tuesday, 1 May, 2007)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.675 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Editor:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.419 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Christopher M. Woolgar)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.163 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Dale Serjeantson)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.907 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Tony Waldron)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.651 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.395 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9780199273492)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.139 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.883 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2006)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.627 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.371 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(58.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.115 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.859 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(368pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.603 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.347 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Oxford University Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.091 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher url:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 313.835 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://ukcatalogue.oup.com/product/9780199273492.do)] TJ ET BT 34.016 299.579 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 285.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Oxford)] TJ ET BT 34.016 271.067 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 256.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Aleks Pluskowski)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 7625 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(intake. Stone considers its complete lifecycle, from the management of the full range of field crops to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(production of pottage, bread, and ale. An impressive series of estimates of bread and ale production and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(consumption punctuate a concise analysis of dynamic patterns on either side of the Black Death, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(demonstrating how changing pressure on agricultural resources prompted shifts in consumption at every )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(level of society. From the overarching role of agriculture in medieval English dietary regimes, Christopher )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Dyer?s chapter moves the survey towards a consideration of the role of garden produce based on abundant )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and diverse late-medieval documentary sources, as well as by reference to earthworks and archaeological )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(excavations. He explores the dietary contribution of ?an integral part of the English economy in the later )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(middle ages? \(p. 33\), typically neglected by scholars, outlining the scale of gardening, the diversity and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(distribution of garden produce, and its relative significance. As with Stone?s examination of socially distinct )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(uses of grain, Dyer clearly demonstrates how garden produce varied between rich and poor, and how this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(pattern changed over time. Vegetables, grown more intensively in towns than in the countryside, appear to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(have provided a higher proportion of food for the lowest levels of medieval society. Lisa Moffett concludes )] TJ ET BT 34.016 611.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the survey of plant contributions to medieval English diets with a comprehensive look at plant remains in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 596.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(archaeological contexts, neatly complementing the predominantly documentary-based perspectives of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 582.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(earlier chapters. Her archaeobotanical synthesis draws attention to the value of integrating different types of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 568.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(data, highlighting various patterns of plant consumption, particularly in urban contexts.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Naomi Sykes introduces the role of animal products in medieval diets with an ambitious synthesis of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(management, distribution, and consumption of cattle and sheep in medieval England. Her survey spans the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(full length of the middle ages?from the fifth to the sixteenth centuries?and presents a coherent integration of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(zooarchaeological and documentary data. Sykes examines chronological trends, focusing on the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reconstructed demography of herds, and moves on to consider social variation between rural, urban, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(aristocratic sites, clearly linking livestock management and processing with contemporary socio-political )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(structures. She considers butchery in a separate section but highlights the economic and nutritional )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(significance of secondary products. Pigs, together with cattle and sheep, represent the most frequently )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(occurring animals on medieval archaeological sites in England, and, indeed, much of Europe. However, they )] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were bred exclusively for meat rather than secondary products; a role considered separately by Umberto )] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Albarella. Extending his survey from the early- to late-medieval periods, Albarella considers changing social )] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and geographic trends in pig husbandry, demonstrating how increasingly closer control of breeding resulted )] TJ ET BT 34.016 371.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in higher meat output, the creation of regional types, and, ultimately, distinct breeds. Pork appears to have )] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(been the second most often consumed meat in medieval England, but like Sykes, Albarella situates the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(management of this animal within the social context of medieval communities. In the following chapter, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Christopher Woolgar reviews the conclusions of Albarella and Sykes in the context of documentary sources )] TJ ET BT 34.016 314.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for meat and dairy products in late-medieval England. Tackling the familiar trends in socially-distinct )] TJ ET BT 34.016 299.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(patterns of consumption, as well as the role of different species, he demonstrates how dairy products, in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 285.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(particular, formed an important nutritional element in dietary regimes before the Black Death, and how )] TJ ET BT 34.016 271.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(socially-distinct patterns were re-aligned following the widespread increase in meat consumption in the late-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 256.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fourteenth and fifteenth centuries.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Numerous studies have emphasized the fundamental role of fish in medieval dietary regimes, underpinned )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(by religious prohibitions on meat consumption. This topic is examined, with an updated synthesis, by Dale )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Serjeantson and Christopher Woolgar. Fish consumption in medieval England can be reconstructed from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(both written and archaeological sources; the former best reflecting the experience of later-medieval )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(aristocratic and religious households, with the latter particularly invaluable for understanding fish )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(exploitation in the early-medieval period. Chronological trends in the changing exploitation of individual )] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(species are based on detailed analyses of fish remains from a range of sites spanning the middle ages, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 130.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(subsequently complemented by a focused examination of late-medieval aristocratic household and monastic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 116.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(records. The authors draw attention to major changes in fish consumption which became established in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 102.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(eleventh and twelfth centuries, reflecting a diversification of species and habitat exploitation. However, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 88.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(role of religious observance in driving fish consumption is not so clear; religion clearly played a role in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 73.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(development of the north-European cod and herring fisheries, and in the wake of the Reformation fish )] TJ ET BT 34.016 59.669 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(become comparatively less popular foodstuffs, but their increasing popularity in the high-medieval period )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 17 0 R >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Length 7158 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(can also be linked to the provisioning needs of growing towns.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The next two chapters consider the role of birds in medieval English diets. Firstly, Dale Serjeantson presents )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a survey of bird remains from a series of sites spanning the middle ages. She highlights the role of certain )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(species in socially-distinct dietary regimes; whilst chickens and geese were widely eaten at all levels of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(society, the consumption of wild birds was closely associated with their acquisition?the sport of falconry. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The uneven regional distribution of certain species accounts for varying patterns in exploitation, whereas the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(most diverse exploitation of birds can be consistently linked with high-status groups. This observation is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reinforced in David Stone?s investigation of late-medieval bird consumption based on documentary sources. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Focusing on the Black Death as a significant episode in changing patterns of bird exploitation, Stone clearly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(illustrates how the increase in the diversity and number of species consumed in the later-medieval period )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(took place at all levels of society, with evidence for increasing specialization particularly on demesne farms.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The final foodstuff to be considered in the book is game?the quintessential meat of the medieval aristocratic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(diet in England and continental Europe. Naomi Sykes, drawing on both zooarchaeological and written )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sources, assesses the impact of the Norman Conquest on hunting culture and the changing exploitation of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(game, particularly deer. Sykes demonstrates that the creation of a new hunting culture, as an expression of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Anglo-Norman identity, resulted in a clarified ranking of meat and the restriction of venison to the elite )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(class; a significant departure from the late-Anglo-Saxon period. Jean Birrell takes up the role of venison in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(later-medieval English society, tracking its acquisition from hunting reserves through to its preparation, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(preservation, and consumption. Drawing predominantly on household accounts, Birrell demonstrates that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(whilst venison remained the distinctive marker of the aristocratic diet, its consumption varied within the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(upper echelons of society?it was largely a monopoly of the Crown and the most powerful landowners. Both )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(chapters link the acquisition of venison, as well as its consumption, with the construction of elite identity.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The survey of foodstuffs in medieval England represented by these twelve papers reaffirms that social )] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(identities are central to the construction of dietary regimes. It is therefore appropriate for these various )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(identities to be explored in the first case study outlined by Christopher Woolgar. He considers two )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(expressions of group diets: religious restrictions and social competition. Woolgar examines the examples set )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(by religious figures in promoting abstinence from meat amongst specific groups within medieval society; )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(strict dietary regimes substituting fish for meat were the hallmark of monastic communities and to a lesser )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(extent secular households. However, in a society where meat and fish were comparative luxuries, people at )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the lower levels were effectively unable to participate in this ideological expression. At the same time, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(domestic regulations and practice used diet to communicate varying forms of status. Woolgar also briefly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(considers the role of food in contemporary paradigms of healthcare and dietetics, as well as the notion of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Jewish and military dietary practices. He emphasises the importance of diet as a reflection of the inner virtue )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the consumer; rather than a predominant interest in nutritional content, the features of group diets in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(medieval society reflected ideological concerns. These trends were set by monastic and aristocratic groups, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in turn providing models for lower status aspirations.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Christopher Dyer continues the focus on socially-distinct diets, but moves on to examine how seasonal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(patterns in food consumption by various groups were marked in the late-medieval period. In exploring how )] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(medieval diets varied throughout the year, Dyer traces the changing availability of different foods, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(variability in storage and distribution, religious and family calendars as well as personal preferences. These )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(influenced dietary regimes at all levels of society, although Dyer underlines that upper class diets also )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contained a significant element of choice as well as conditioning.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 137.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Barbara Harvey begins the fifteenth chapter with a shift in focus to the nature and diversity of monastic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 123.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(pittances; the provision of extra dishes at dinner and supper accommodated within the Rule. She )] TJ ET BT 34.016 109.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(demonstrates how the system of pittances reflected the monastic response to secular standards of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 94.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(living?narrowing the gap between the two?and how they came to be viewed as superior food enhancing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 80.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(monastic living into the late-medieval period, even being actively used in competitive recruitment.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 54.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Gundula Mldner and Michael Richards present a completely contrasting case study, considering the )] TJ ET endstream endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 20 0 R ] /Contents 19 0 R >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Length 6735 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(evidence of stable isotopes in exploring medieval diets. Isotope analysis is contrasted with historical and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(archaeological studies in that it provides evidence for comparatively broad patterns, rather than specific )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(insights. Its traditional application has been in the field of prehistoric archaeology, and the authors track its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(growing application in medieval archaeology before outlining how this technique can be applied to further )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(our understanding of medieval diet. By considering a variety of social groups?urban, rural, and monastic?as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(well as regional diversity, Mldner and Richards demonstrate the potential of future isotopic work on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(medieval dietary regimes, particularly regarding the relative role of different food classes from one social )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and regional context to the next.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Phillip Schofield then considers the link between medieval diet and demography; the relationship between )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the changing availability of food and standards of health?nutrition and mortality?in the medieval English )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(population. There is no straightforward correlation, and Schofield introduces his analysis with theoretical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(frameworks from demographic and economic studies, particularly the work of Malthus, Fogel, McKeown, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and Livi-Bacci. Focusing on the twelfth to fifteenth centuries, Schofield carefully considers the evidence for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(demography and food availability, resulting in a cautious conclusion which sees diet as potentially playing a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(role in population dynamics, but given the nature of the evidence, he suggests that the exact character of this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(role is very difficult to scrutinize.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Tony Waldron continues to explore the link between nutrition and health with a survey of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(osteoarchaeological evidence for dietary variation from a range of medieval sites. Deficiency or excess in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(food consumption can leave traces on the skeleton, and Waldron focuses more on illustrating the diversity of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(these traces with specific, detailed examples than attempting to synthesise this data into chronological and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(social trends. Like isotopic techniques, Waldron?s chapter suggests this is a potentially fruitful area for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(future research, one which will bring archaeologists and historians together in seeking answers to common )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(questions.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(By maintaining a focus on England, the numerous perspectives and types of evidence brought together in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(volume represent a consistent synthesis and analysis; the comprehensive survey of foodstuffs )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(complementing the series of case studies. The major themes are eloquently brought together in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(concluding chapter by the editors; availability and diversity of foodstuffs are summarized, followed by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(seasonal patterns and socially-distinct dietary regimes, the role of drink, regional differentiation, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(importation, and, perhaps most interestingly of all, a comparison of England to other parts of northern )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Europe where a range of similarities and contrasts are supported with specific examples. The editors )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conclude with an optimistic appraisal of the strengths, weaknesses, and future potential of the various )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(strands of evidence and perspectives brought together in the volume. What is most clearly demonstrated, as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the editors conclude, is that diet had a range of visible consequences for the individual, but its impact at the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(demographic level is more difficult to map. As our understanding of local, group, and regional dietary )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(nuances grows, it will become increasingly possible to attempt broader syntheses. The benefits of inter-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(disciplinary approaches, as well as the focus on local variation with the aim of understanding regional and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(inter-regional diversity, characterize the cutting edge of modern medieval studies.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The volume is set out accessibly. References in footnotes are presented in the Harvard citation style, whilst )] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(extended notes are kept to a minimum, enabling quick and consistent use of the bibliography at the end. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(papers are well illustrated with a total of nineteen images, thirty-nine figures, and twenty-five tables, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(their contents are readily accessible through a detailed index. The comprehensive breadth of topics within a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(single volume on medieval food is unprecedented; this book?a successful fusion of multiple perspectives and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(data?has set a new standard for current understanding and future research.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 123.461 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 109.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 104.479 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 86.699 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 86.699 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/590)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 85.305 m 322.316 85.305 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 60.328 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET endstream endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 21 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 85.6195 322.3157 97.4995 ] >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/590) >> endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 23 0 R >> endobj 23 0 obj << /Length 234 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.354 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/3993)] TJ ET BT 34.016 781.954 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET endstream endobj xref 0 24 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000349 00000 n 0000000386 00000 n 0000000554 00000 n 0000000636 00000 n 0000004552 00000 n 0000004661 00000 n 0000004771 00000 n 0000004880 00000 n 0000008441 00000 n 0000008569 00000 n 0000008653 00000 n 0000008718 00000 n 0000016396 00000 n 0000016461 00000 n 0000023672 00000 n 0000023756 00000 n 0000030544 00000 n 0000030670 00000 n 0000030765 00000 n 0000030830 00000 n trailer << /Size 24 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 31116 %%EOF