%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 16 0 R 18 0 R 22 0 R ] /Count 4 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20150731034605+01'00') /ModDate (D:20150731034605+01'00') /Title (Writing Medieval Biography, 750?1250: Essays in Honour of Professor Frank Barlow) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R 14 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 3976 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Writing Medieval Biography, 750?1250: Essays in Honour of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 593.937 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Professor Frank Barlow)] TJ ET BT 34.016 209.171 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Is biography still a legitimate activity for professional historians in the twenty-first century? In contrast to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.915 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(many of the newer approaches towards the past, biography smacks of a very traditional top-down, mostly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.659 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(man-centred, approach. Medieval biographers face the particular problem of relatively restricted source )] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.403 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(material which led K. B. McFarlane to the view that their task was impossible \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 415.304 166.403 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 415.304 165.009 m 421.304 165.009 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 421.304 166.403 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\). Yet the lack of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 152.147 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(information directly relating to a subject?s interior life is not confined to the middle ages. All biographers )] TJ ET BT 34.016 137.891 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(face the challenge of portraying character and personality, so medievalists simply have to be more rigorous )] TJ ET BT 34.016 123.635 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in interrogating such source material as they do have.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 97.379 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Writing Medieval Biography)] TJ ET BT 172.004 97.379 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( is the volume arising from most of the papers delivered at a conference held at )] TJ ET BT 34.016 83.123 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Exeter University in 2004 to honour Frank Barlow, himself the author of three distinguished historical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 68.867 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(biographies \(of Edward the Confessor, William Rufus, and Thomas Becket\), and in memory of the late Tim )] TJ ET BT 34.016 54.611 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Reuter, one of the moving spirits behind the conference. The papers range in date between 750 and 1250, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 563.315 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 549.059 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(591)] TJ ET BT 34.016 534.803 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 520.547 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Tuesday, 1 May, 2007)] TJ ET BT 34.016 506.291 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Editor:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 492.035 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(David Bates)] TJ ET BT 34.016 477.779 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Julia Crick)] TJ ET BT 34.016 463.523 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Sarah Hamilton)] TJ ET BT 34.016 449.267 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 435.011 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9781843832621)] TJ ET BT 34.016 420.755 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.499 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2006)] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.243 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.987 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(60.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.731 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.475 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(280pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.219 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.963 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Boydell & Brewer)] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.707 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher url:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.451 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.boydell.co.uk/43832623.HTM)] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.195 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.939 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Woodbridge)] TJ ET BT 34.016 249.683 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 235.427 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Judith A. Green)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 15 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 415.3037 165.3235 421.3037 177.2035 ] >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 17 0 R >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Length 5941 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and the authors have concentrated on the topic posed at the conference; the limits of medieval biography. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The prefatory essay by David Bates, Julia Crick, and Sarah Hamilton outlines the history of biography, with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(most attention being devoted to the medieval centuries but briefly reviewing the nineteenth and twentieth )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(centuries, and outlining some of the key themes of the conference. The footnotes provide a particularly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(useful directory of up-to-date writing on biography.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The papers fall into four main groups. One is composed of reflections on the contributors? own biographical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(writing, a second relates to source material, a third to medieval authors, and a fourth to gaps in medieval )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(biographical writing. In the first group, Janet Nelson explicitly addresses a central problem for all )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(biographers getting to grips with the interior life of a subject who lived so long ago and about whom )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(surviving source material is at first sight unhelpful. She discusses how far it is possible to understand the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(interior life of the Emperor Charlemagne, arguing that it is possible to piece together information about his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(family life, sense of humour, his sex life, and the desire for reformation of self. Marjorie Chibnall looks back )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(on her biography of the Empress Matilda to reflect similarly that, once a biographer has got to grips with the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sources, informed speculation can help to flesh out the bare facts. Pauline Stafford casts a retrospective eye )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(on her biography of two eleventh-century English queens, Emma and Edith, in an essay which she describes )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as ?a theory of past practice? \(p. 99\). She admits to having been influenced in the past by the impact of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(social sciences on history, with a tendency to see individual lives determined by society, a tendency )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(strengthened in the later-twentieth century by postmodernism in which individuals became, ?little more than )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(epiphenomena of social and linguistic structures? \(p. 106\). Yet she has come to the view that seeking the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(individual choice within structures and norms is both a necessary and important task for historians.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Three contributors, Richard Abels, Simon Keynes, and David Bates discuss the challenge of writing about )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(well known medieval figures, where the biographer has to clear the ground of past historiography before )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(turning again to the sources. Abels writes of his efforts to offer a revisionist view of King Alfred, only to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(find himself coming under the spell of the Alfredian image created at that king?s court. Keynes faces a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(different problem when writing of King thelred, whose reputation as a pretty-hopeless king rests on a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(narrative in the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle which oversimplifies what was evidently a complicated period by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(creating an impression of an inexorable build up of Danish attacks against which English resistance )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(inevitably failed. Bates, too, is also concerned to explore the narrative sources relating to his subject, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(William the Conqueror. He points to the need to recognize the mixed views with which contemporaries )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(regarded William and the conquest of England, and suggests that more attention should be given to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Conqueror?s evident concern with penance and atonement.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(A second group of papers considers different types of biographical writing in the middle ages. Jane )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Martindale discusses two different autobiographies from early-twelfth-century France, the Latin life of Fulk )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(le Rchin, count of Anjou, and the vernacular life of William, count of Poitou and duke of Aquitaine. Whilst )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(drawing attention to the differences in language and content, she nevertheless points to a remarkable overlap )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of vocabulary which raises questions about the education available to laymen. Christopher Holdsworth )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(discusses the miracles attributed to Bernard of Clairvaux in the first ?Life?, arguing that they demonstrate )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the saint?s developing confidence in his own powers. Barbara Yorke reviews the sources available to those )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(who wrote the histories of female saints in Anglo-Saxon England, suggesting that in a few cases these )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(included nuggets of genuinely biographical information.)] TJ ET endstream endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 20 0 R ] /Contents 19 0 R >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Length 7335 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(A third group of papers looks at medieval authors. Edmund King offers a reconsideration of the identity of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the anonymous author of the )] TJ ET BT 174.332 770.213 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Gesta Stephani)] TJ ET BT 247.328 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. On the basis of the author?s perceived interest in the west )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(country, R. H. C. Davis argued in favour of Robert of Lewes, bishop of Bath, but King draws attention to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(references to the prominence of London, and suggests, reasonably enough, that the author may have been a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(monk or a canon of London. David Crouch puts himself in the shoes of John of Earley, the biographer of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(William Marshal, and considers the source material on which John could draw, speculating that there may )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(have been a Marshal family archive, chamber accounts, and even possibly a tournament roll. John )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Gillingham considers that the meagre information about Roger of Howden?s career may be fleshed out by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(looking at the subjects he chooses to report in detail as a means of judging whether he was at court or on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(crusade, and if he eventually retired to his Yorkshire parsonage.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 629.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Fourthly, two papers raise the very interesting question of gaps in the evidence: why was there no )] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(biographical writing about lay people in eleventh-century Flanders \(Van Houts\), and why were there no )] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(biographies of the Plantagenet kings \(Vincent\)? Van Houts draws attention to the seeming paradox that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(although there was a good deal of hagiographical writing by Flemish authors, they did not turn their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(attention to the lay nobility. She suggests a possible reason may have been that potential patrons were not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(seen as figures who could deliver peace. Vincent ponders the absence of biographies of the Plantagenet )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(kings. Despite historical writing at Henry II?s court, no-one seems to have been inspired to write a biography )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the king, his sons, or grandson, in contrast to the royalist historiography associated with the Capetian )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dynasty emanating from the monastery of Saint-Denis?a relationship which had no real parallel in England. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(There are various possible explanations, including different literary preoccupations for writers based within )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Angevin empire, and he points out that historians should not be beguiled by these into exaggerating the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contrast between the English and French monarchies.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Only one of these papers is actually a biographical study, and this neatly pays tribute to Barlow?s own )] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(earlier work in editing the letters of Arnulf of Lisieux \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 297.968 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 297.968 431.187 m 303.968 431.187 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 303.968 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\). This is Lindy Grant?s discussion of the cultural )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(milieu of Geoffrey of Lves, bishop of Chartres, whom she sees as a mentor for Arnulf. Geoffrey was every )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(bit as important a political figure as the better known Abbot Suger, and his architectural patronage deserves )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(closer attention for, as Grant points out, the famous portals of the west facade of the cathedral at Chartres )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(date from his time.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Finally, one contribution stands out as a startlingly different approach to medieval biography. Robin Fleming )] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(offers an analysis of the evidence of bones from medieval cemeteries to discover what can be known about )] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the nameless members of medieval communities. She begins with ?Eighteen?, a seventh-century woman )] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(who died before she was twenty years old, and was buried with her bed at Barrington in Cambridgeshire. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The nameless woman was a leper whose face must have been hideously disfigured, yet she was apparently )] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(treated with respect and was buried with objects of considerable wealth at the heart of the communal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cemetery. From this example, Fleming moves on to consider what the latest techniques of bone analysis )] TJ ET BT 34.016 249.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reveal about such communities, about the higher mortality rates for women, and malnourished orphan )] TJ ET BT 34.016 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(children, arguing that historians must think about the implications of these statistics for the early middle )] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ages. Life then was literally nasty, brutish, and short?at least it was until the close of the twelfth century )] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(when, it seems, things were beginning to improve. Of all the contributions to this fine volume, it is the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(discussion of ?Eighteen? whose brief life will linger.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This review began by posing the question whether biography should be regarded as a legitimate activity for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 151.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the professional historian. )] TJ ET BT 161.336 151.973 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Writing Medieval Biography)] TJ ET BT 299.324 151.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( demonstrates that it is still clearly alive and well. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 137.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Sources present challenges, not just for what they say but what they leave unsaid, for striking a balance )] TJ ET BT 34.016 123.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(between portrayal of stereotypes or of individuals, for telling stories which may or may not reveal more than )] TJ ET BT 34.016 109.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a talent to amuse. All the biographer can do, having reflected on text and context, is to have a sense of his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 94.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(subject and thus be able to interpret his actions. In that way he can at least gain some impression, however )] TJ ET BT 34.016 80.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(incomplete, of character and personality. As Barlow himself put it in the preface to his biography of William )] TJ ET BT 34.016 66.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Rufus,)] TJ ET endstream endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 21 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 297.9677 431.5015 303.9677 443.3815 ] >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 24 0 R 26 0 R 28 0 R 30 0 R 32 0 R ] /Contents 23 0 R >> endobj 23 0 obj << /Length 2573 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 64.016 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(...close attention to recorded actions and the views of their recorders puts at least the outward )] TJ ET BT 64.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(behaviour of the actors on display; and most of us think, with the canonists, that there is usually )] TJ ET BT 64.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(some relationship between the exteriora and interiora \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 326.288 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(3)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 326.288 754.563 m 332.288 754.563 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 332.288 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 709.059 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 678.442 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 678.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(K. B. McFarlane, )] TJ ET BT 150.668 678.437 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Nobility of Later Medieval England)] TJ ET BT 343.004 678.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Oxford, 1973\), p. ix. )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 451.988 678.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 451.988 677.043 m 505.976 677.043 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 664.186 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 664.181 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Letters of Arnulf of Lisieux)] TJ ET BT 214.364 664.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, ed. F. Barlow, Camden Society, 3rd series, 61 \(1939\). )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 482.000 664.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 482.000 662.787 m 535.988 662.787 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 649.930 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(3.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 649.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(F. Barlow, )] TJ ET BT 118.016 649.925 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(William Rufus)] TJ ET BT 186.356 649.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(London, 1983\), p. xi. )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 298.016 649.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 298.016 648.531 m 352.004 648.531 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 623.669 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 609.413 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 604.687 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 586.907 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 586.907 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/591)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 585.513 m 322.316 585.513 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 560.536 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 546.136 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/3998)] TJ ET BT 34.016 531.736 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET endstream endobj 24 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 25 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 326.2877 754.8775 332.2877 766.7575 ] >> endobj 25 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 26 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 27 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 451.9877 677.3575 505.9757 689.2375 ] >> endobj 27 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 28 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 29 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 481.9997 663.1015 535.9877 674.9815 ] >> endobj 29 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 30 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 31 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 298.0157 648.8455 352.0037 660.7255 ] >> endobj 31 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 32 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 33 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 585.8275 322.3157 597.7075 ] >> endobj 33 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/591) >> endobj xref 0 34 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000342 00000 n 0000000379 00000 n 0000000583 00000 n 0000000672 00000 n 0000004700 00000 n 0000004809 00000 n 0000004919 00000 n 0000005028 00000 n 0000008589 00000 n 0000008717 00000 n 0000008801 00000 n 0000008929 00000 n 0000008965 00000 n 0000009030 00000 n 0000015024 00000 n 0000015108 00000 n 0000022496 00000 n 0000022624 00000 n 0000022660 00000 n 0000022772 00000 n 0000025398 00000 n 0000025526 00000 n 0000025562 00000 n 0000025690 00000 n 0000025726 00000 n 0000025854 00000 n 0000025890 00000 n 0000026018 00000 n 0000026054 00000 n 0000026182 00000 n trailer << /Size 34 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 26277 %%EOF